今天是2019年09月19日

中国大型水库蓄水对近海相对海平面空间变化的影响

DOI:10.3799/dqkx.2014.154

作者:王林松,陈 超,杜劲松,王秋革,孙石达

联系地址:1.中国地质大学地球物理与空间信息学院,湖北武汉430074 2.中国科学院测量与地球物理研究所大地测量与地球动力学国家重点实验室,湖北武汉430077 3.中国地质大学教育部长江三峡库区地质灾害研究中心,湖北武汉430074

摘要:通过对我国大型水库蓄水的时空特征进行深入分析,统计得到近60年来大型水库蓄水累积的库容量已达到697km3, 占全国所有水库库容量的83.3%及全球库容量的6.5%;而2000年以来的大型水库数量及蓄水量的变化有明显的加速,库容 量的变化率为16.7km3/a,远高于1950年到2000年的4.9km3/a的增长率;同时借助卫星重力(Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment,GRACE)观测手段,对2000年以后主要分布在长江流域以南地区的水库进行水储量估算,结果显示GRACE仅 能估算得到63%的水库变化量,两者之间的差异可能反映了该地区地下水的长期变化.结合大型水库的分布位置与库容量, 基于海平面变化方程计算得到了中国近海相对海平面的空间变化.水库蓄水导致的渤海与东南沿海海域的相对海平面上升 明显,最大上升高度约为8mm;而2000年以后的水库对海平面的影响主要集中在东南沿海,其中南海海域较为突出,上升高 度约为2~3mm,在此期间蓄水造成的近海不同验潮站位置的海平面增长速度在0.02~0.11mm/a之间变化.

关键字:大型水库蓄水;库容量时空分布;近海相对海平面;验潮仪;地球物理

Impact of Water Impoundment of Large Reservoirs on Spatial Variation of Coastal Relative Sea Level in China

Author:Wang Linsong, Chen Chao, Du Jinsong, Wang Qiuge, Sun Shida

Author Address:1.中国地质大学地球物理与空间信息学院,湖北武汉430074 2.中国科学院测量与地球物理研究所大地测量与地球动力学国家重点实验室,湖北武汉430077 3.中国地质大学教育部长江三峡库区地质灾害研究中心,湖北武汉430074

Abstract:The spatia1-tempora1 characteristics of water impoundment of large reservoirs in China are analyzed in this study. The results show that697 km3 of water has been impounded in thelarge reservoirs since1950, which amounts to83.3% and6.5% of the tota1 reservoir storage capacity in China and the whole world, respectively. The numbers of large reservoirs and water storage capacity have been accelerating since2000, and rate of the capacity change is16.7km3/a, much higher than the increase from1950 to2000 at4.9 km3/a. Meanwhile, terrestria1 water storage in the south of the Yangtze River basin is estimated by using sate11ite gravity data by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment(GRACE) after2000, showing that the estimate by GRACE is only63% of tota1 reservoir volume changes, and the difference between GRACE and rea1 reservoir storage varia- tions suggests a1ong-term trend of groundwater in this area. Based on1ocation and capacity of thelarge reservoirs and sealeve1 cquation, thc dam-induccd spatia1 distributions o」1 coasta1 rclativc scalcvc1 (RSL) arc calculatcd. Thc rcsults dcpict that thc RSL caused the water impounded behind dams rise most quickly in the Bohai Sea and southeast coasta1 areas, and the maximum of the RSL is approximately about8 mm. Besides, impact of the water impoundment on the RSL mainly concentrates in the southeast coast, where the rise of the RSI is approximately about2 to3 mm since2000. And the rising rate of the RSI in the China coasta1 tide gauge1ocations is 0.02-0.11 mm/a.

Keyword:water impoundment of large reservoir; capacity spatial and temporal distribution; coastal relative sealevel; tide gauge; geophysics.

 

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作者简介:王林松(1983-),男,讲师,博士,主要从事绝对重力、时变重力及大地测量方面的研究

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