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    黔湘渝毗邻区南华纪武陵裂谷盆地结构及其对锰矿的控制作用

    周琦 杜远生 袁良军 张遂 余文超 杨胜堂 刘雨

    周琦, 杜远生, 袁良军, 张遂, 余文超, 杨胜堂, 刘雨, 2016. 黔湘渝毗邻区南华纪武陵裂谷盆地结构及其对锰矿的控制作用. 地球科学, 41(2): 177-188. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.014
    引用本文: 周琦, 杜远生, 袁良军, 张遂, 余文超, 杨胜堂, 刘雨, 2016. 黔湘渝毗邻区南华纪武陵裂谷盆地结构及其对锰矿的控制作用. 地球科学, 41(2): 177-188. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.014
    Zhou Qi, Du Yuansheng, Yuan Liangjun, Zhang Sui, Yu Wenchao, Yang Shengtang, Liu Yu, 2016. The Structure of the Wuling Rift Basin and Its Control on the Manganese Deposit during the Nanhua Period in Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing Border Area, South China. Earth Science, 41(2): 177-188. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.014
    Citation: Zhou Qi, Du Yuansheng, Yuan Liangjun, Zhang Sui, Yu Wenchao, Yang Shengtang, Liu Yu, 2016. The Structure of the Wuling Rift Basin and Its Control on the Manganese Deposit during the Nanhua Period in Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing Border Area, South China. Earth Science, 41(2): 177-188. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.014

    黔湘渝毗邻区南华纪武陵裂谷盆地结构及其对锰矿的控制作用

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.014
    基金项目: 

    国土资源部公益性行业科研专项项目 No.201411051

    中国地质调查局项目 No.12120114016701

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      周琦 (1964-), 男, 研究员, 博士, 从事矿产地质研究及评价工作

    • 中图分类号: P618.32

    The Structure of the Wuling Rift Basin and Its Control on the Manganese Deposit during the Nanhua Period in Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing Border Area, South China

    • 摘要: 黔湘渝毗邻区南华纪“大塘坡式”锰矿是我国最重要的锰资源基地,现已发现沉积型菱锰矿上亿吨,占全国已探明锰矿资源量的50%左右.通过对南华纪地层系统和地层分区的研究,提出在Rodinia超大陆裂解背景下,南华裂谷盆地 (I级) 西段分别由武陵、雪峰次级裂谷盆地和其间的天柱-怀化隆起 (地垒)3个Ⅱ级构造单元构成.武陵次级裂谷盆地控制形成了黔渝湘毗邻区锰矿成矿带,内部由3个Ⅲ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地、2个Ⅲ级隆起 (地垒) 和至少16个Ⅳ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地组成.3个Ⅲ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地分别控制形成了松桃-古丈、玉屏-芷江以及溪口-小茶园锰矿成矿亚带.其中,松桃-古丈锰矿成矿亚带是武陵次级裂谷盆地的裂陷中心,锰矿成矿作用强烈,形成的锰矿资源量巨大,已成为世界级锰矿资源富集区之一.Ⅳ断陷 (地堑) 盆地则控制形成研究区各锰矿床;提出南华纪早期同沉积断层是锰矿床形成的前提,并识别恢复出研究区15条同沉积断层及所控制形成的断陷 (地堑) 盆地和主要锰矿床.同沉积断层不但是深部锰质和古天然气上升的通道,更是连接古天然气渗漏沉积型锰矿成矿系统中地内系统与表层系统的纽带.

       

    • 图  1  华南新元古代黔湘渝毗邻区南华纪裂谷盆地结构示意图 (a) 及研究区南华系划分方案 (b)

      图中剖面分别为:1.重庆秀山小茶园;2.重庆秀山盐井沟;3.重庆秀山笔架山;4.贵州松桃杨家湾ZK402;5.贵州松桃牛峰包;6.贵州松桃道坨ZK301;7.贵州松桃茶叶坳ZK108;8.贵州松桃大屋ZK1703;9.贵州松桃两界河;10.贵州松桃西溪堡ZK1010;11.贵州江口桃映;12.贵州江口雷家;13.贵州铜仁半溪;14.贵州万山盆架山ZK2208

      Fig.  1.  The geological sketch of the Early Cryogenian Nanhua rift basin in the Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing border area, South China (a) and stratigraphic classification scheme of Nanhua System stratum in research area (b)

      图  2  黔渝湘毗邻区南华系分区示意

      1.玉屏-石竹溪地层小区;Ⅲ2.铜仁-凤凰地层小区;Ⅲ3.松桃-古丈地层小区;Ⅲ4.甘龙-秀山地层小区;Ⅲ5.小茶园-溪口地层小区;II.天柱-怀化地层区

      Fig.  2.  The geological sketch of the Early Nanhua period stratigraphic regionalization in the Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing border area, South China

      图  3  黔渝湘毗邻区南华纪两界河-大塘坡期南华裂谷盆地复原

      1.重庆秀山小茶园;2.重庆秀山盐井沟;3.重庆秀山笔架山;4.贵州松桃道坨;5.贵州松桃两界河;6.贵州松桃西溪堡;7.贵州万山盆架山;8.贵州从江八当;9.两界河期 (富禄)-铁丝坳期砂砾岩沉积;10.大塘坡早期黑色碳质页岩 (夹菱锰矿);11.大塘坡中晚期粉砂质页岩;12.同沉积断层

      Fig.  3.  Reconstruction of the Nanhua rift basin in the Nanhua period Liangjiehe-Datangpo stages in the Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing border area, South China

      图  4  黔渝湘毗邻区南华纪早期武陵次级裂谷盆地结构与构造古地理

      1.控制Ⅲ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地和隆起 (地垒) 的同沉积断层;2.控制Ⅳ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地和隆起 (地垒) 的同沉积断层;3.Ⅳ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地及所控制的锰矿床名称;4.Ⅲ级断陷 (地堑) 盆地范围;5.Ⅲ级隆起 (地垒) 范围;6.研究区大地构造位置;7.同沉积断层编号

      Fig.  4.  Structural and tectonic paleogeographic sketch of the Early Nanhua period Wuling secondary rift basin in the Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing border area, South China

      图  5  黔渝湘毗邻区南华裂谷盆地武陵次级裂谷盆地盆地复原与演化

      1.大塘坡组第2、3段;2.大塘坡组第1段;3.铁丝坳组;4.两界河组;5.冰碛砾岩;6.砂岩;7.粉砂质页岩;8.碳质页岩;9.白云岩透镜体;10.白云岩;11.含砾白云岩;12.同沉积断层;13.地层对比线;14.菱锰矿体;剖面位置见图 1

      Fig.  5.  Reconstruction of the Nanhua rift basin in the Guizhou-Hunan-Chongqing border area, South China

      表  1  武陵次级裂谷盆地结构划分

      Table  1.   The structure of the Wuling 2nd rift basin

      Ⅰ级 Ⅱ级 Ⅲ级 Ⅳ级 备注
      南华裂谷盆地武陵次级裂谷盆地 溪口-小茶园断陷(地堑)盆地秀山小茶园断陷 (地堑) 盆地武陵次级裂谷盆地的Ⅳ级结构单元划分仅限于两界河至大塘坡早期
       甘龙-秀山隆起 (地垒)/
       松桃-古丈断陷 (地堑) 盆地松桃道坨-李家湾、西溪堡、大塘坡、大屋、杨家湾、凉风坳、举贤、普觉,花垣民乐、古丈烂泥田、秀山笔架山、石阡石板溪、镇远都坪断陷 (地堑) 和秀山椅子山、松桃牛峰包以及和尚坪隆起 (地垒)
       镇远-铜仁-凤凰隆起 (地垒)
       玉屏-芷江断陷 (地堑) 盆地/
      万山盆架山以及玉屏新寨断陷 (地堑) 盆地
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  武陵次级裂谷盆地南华纪早期主要同沉积断层及特征

      Table  2.   Major syn-sedimentary faults and their characteristics of Wuling secondary rift basin in early Nanhua Period

      编号 主要特征 控制Ⅳ级断陷盆地等
      SF1 沿该断层延长方向两界河组 (394 m)、含锰岩系 (50~70 m)、大塘坡组第2、3段 (583 m) 厚度异常增大等,两侧迅速减薄 松桃大塘坡
      SF3 断层北西含锰岩系厚度为零,南东则迅速增厚;出现两界河组沉积等 松桃大屋
      SF5 断层南东侧含锰岩系厚度迅速减薄为零,大塘坡第2段也大幅减薄;北西侧含锰岩系迅速增厚,出现两界河组沉积.被沥青充填的气泡状菱锰矿石、底劈构造及软沉积变形纹理沿NE 60°方向展布 松桃锅厂-李家湾-道坨、花垣民乐、古丈烂泥田等
      SF7 断层南东侧含锰岩系厚度为零,大塘坡组第2、3段也迅速减薄直至为零;北西侧含锰岩系厚度则迅速增厚 (最厚大于80 m),大塘坡组第2、3段也迅速增厚等 松桃杨家湾
      SF9 断层南东侧含锰岩系厚度为零,大塘坡组第2、3段也迅速减薄;北西侧出现含锰岩系,厚度迅速增厚.含锰岩系中出现来自隆起区的小型盆地扇沉积物 松桃凉风坳以及秀山革里坳
      SF15 沿断层含锰岩系较大厚度沉积,出现被沥青充填的气泡状菱锰矿石 秀山小茶园
      SF2 沿断层延长方向出现两界河组 (大于140 m)、含锰岩系 (96 m)、大塘坡组第2、3段 (652 m) 大厚度沉积等,沿两侧迅速减薄 松桃西溪堡、松桃举贤等
      SF4 沿断层延长方向出现两界河组和含锰岩系 (40 m)、大塘坡组第2、3段 (300 m) 较大厚度沉积等 松桃普觉
      SF6SF8 沿断层均出现两界河组较大厚度沉积和含锰岩系,沿两侧迅速减薄等 石阡石板溪以及镇远袁家山
      SF14 沿断层方向含锰岩系相对较厚,沿两侧迅速减薄,直至为零 万山盆架山
      SF10SF12 两同沉积断层之间均缺失含锰岩系,大塘坡组很薄或缺失;之外则迅速出现含锰岩系、大塘坡组沉积 系控制Ⅲ级单元的边界
      SF11SF13 两同沉积断层之间均缺失含锰岩系,大塘坡组很薄或缺失;之外则迅速出现含锰岩系以及大塘坡组沉积 系控制Ⅲ级单元的边界
      下载: 导出CSV
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