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    秦岭造山带是印支碰撞造山带吗?

    任纪舜 朱俊宾 李崇 刘仁燕

    任纪舜, 朱俊宾, 李崇, 刘仁燕, 2019. 秦岭造山带是印支碰撞造山带吗?. 地球科学, 44(5): 1476-1486. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.047
    引用本文: 任纪舜, 朱俊宾, 李崇, 刘仁燕, 2019. 秦岭造山带是印支碰撞造山带吗?. 地球科学, 44(5): 1476-1486. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.047
    Ren Jishun, Zhu Junbin, Li Chong, Liu Renyan, 2019. Is the Qinling Orogen an Indosinian Collisional Orogenic Belt?. Earth Science, 44(5): 1476-1486. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.047
    Citation: Ren Jishun, Zhu Junbin, Li Chong, Liu Renyan, 2019. Is the Qinling Orogen an Indosinian Collisional Orogenic Belt?. Earth Science, 44(5): 1476-1486. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.047

    秦岭造山带是印支碰撞造山带吗?

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.047
    基金项目: 

    中国地质调查局项目 DD20190358

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      任纪舜(1935-), 男, 研究员, 中国科学院院士, 长期从事区域地质和大地构造研究

    • 中图分类号: P54

    Is the Qinling Orogen an Indosinian Collisional Orogenic Belt?

    • 摘要: 国内外一些学者认为秦岭是一个印支碰撞造山带.但迄今为止,秦岭尚未发现三叠纪或古生代延续到三叠纪的洋盆存在的任何痕迹.秦岭泥盆系-三叠系为滨、浅海相沉积,没有远洋沉积,更没有镁铁质和超镁铁质岩石及与之密切相关的放射虫硅质岩组成的蛇绿岩套.泥盆系与下伏地质体之间有一个清楚的区域性角度不整合.商丹断裂并不是印支期,而是加里东期的板块缝合带;其两侧,中朝板块南缘和扬子板块北缘均有十分清楚的加里东造山作用的记录.沉积于扬子板块北缘的中上泥盆统刘岭群的放射性铅同位素组成与北秦岭相近,碎屑锆石年龄谱系亦证明其物质主要来自中朝板块南缘的北秦岭造山带.所谓勉略印支缝合带中的勉略和三里岗蛇绿混杂岩中的镁铁质岩,同位素测年均为元古代之产物,后者又被南华系-震旦系沉积覆盖.所谓勉略缝合带,实为一区域性大断裂带.早古生代,其北侧属扬子板块北部被动边缘;南侧为扬子板块核心部分的扬子准地台(小克拉通).所以,秦岭的印支造山作用,并不是洋盆消失后的陆陆碰撞造山作用,而是海盆消失后的中朝与扬子2个小陆块间逆冲-叠覆造山作用.作为秦岭东延的大别山超高压变质带被认为是秦岭印支碰撞造山的重要证据之一,但大别山超高压变质岩是在造山作用过程中动态超高压条件下形成的,仅用简单的静岩压力来计算其形成深度,显然是不符合实际情况的.野外地质观察、构造地质学、变质岩石学、同位素地质学、地球化学、地球物理学以及物理实验等方面的实际资料和研究结果均说明超高压变质作用并不是在上地幔而是在地壳内进行的.南秦岭-大别山的地壳构造层次,上地壳自上而下依次为:未变质的沉积岩层、绿帘-蓝片岩层、高压变质岩层、超高压变质岩层;下地壳为未卷入超高压变质作用的麻粒岩相-高角闪岩相变质杂岩.含柯石英的超高压单位只是位于上地壳下部的厚约10~12 km的席状构造岩片.初步认为上地壳这一从低压到高压再到超高压的构造系统,是印支造山期间,南秦岭-大别山的上地壳以下地壳顶部为主剪切滑动面,多层次剪切作用造成的.上地壳下部的超高压变质岩,则可能是强烈剪切引起的频繁地震的震源区瞬时超高压作用的结果.

       

    • 图  1  旬阳县潘家西北下泥盆统(D1)砾岩、砂岩不整合于下志留统(S1)泥质粉砂岩之上

      江小均等(2019)修改

      Fig.  1.  The Lower Devonian (D1) conglomerate and sandstone unconformably overlie the Lower Silurian (S1) muddy siltstone in northwest Panjia area of Xunyang County

      图  2  秦岭造山带206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb和206Pb/204Pb-208Pb/204Pb图

      路凤香等(2006)修改

      Fig.  2.  Plots of 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb versus 208Pb/204Pb of Qinling orogen showing that the provenance of Liuling Group is from North Qinling

      图  3  大别-苏鲁地区榴辉岩的氦同位素分布图

      Li et al., (2000)李善芳等(2005)修改

      Fig.  3.  Helium isotope compositions of eclogites from Dabie-Sulu region

      图  4  大别山构造层次简图

      《大别山超高压变质作用与碰撞造山动力学》编写组(2005)修改.GMF.龟梅断裂;MXF.磨子潭-晓天断裂;XGF.襄樊-广济断裂;TLF.郯庐断裂;QOB.秦岭造山带;SL.苏鲁带;SKP.中朝板块;NHY.北淮阳构造带;CMC.核部变质杂岩;UHP.超高压变质岩层;HP.高压变质岩层;EB.绿帘-蓝片岩层;US.未变质的沉积岩层

      Fig.  4.  Simplified tectonic level map of Dabieshan

      图  5  南秦岭-大别地区印支造山阶段地壳结构及上地壳剪切滑动变形示意

      Fig.  5.  Sketch map showing the crustal structure and shear sliding deformation of the upper crust in the South Qinling-Dabie area during the Indosinian orogeny

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