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    白云鄂博洋板块地质与成矿作用初探

    肖庆辉 刘勇 许立权 丁孝忠 张玉清 程杨 李岩 范玉须 贺国奇

    肖庆辉, 刘勇, 许立权, 丁孝忠, 张玉清, 程杨, 李岩, 范玉须, 贺国奇, 2020. 白云鄂博洋板块地质与成矿作用初探. 地球科学, 45(7): 2258-2278. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.191
    引用本文: 肖庆辉, 刘勇, 许立权, 丁孝忠, 张玉清, 程杨, 李岩, 范玉须, 贺国奇, 2020. 白云鄂博洋板块地质与成矿作用初探. 地球科学, 45(7): 2258-2278. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.191
    Xiao Qinghui, Liu Yong, Xu Liquan, Ding Xiaozhong, Zhang Yuqing, Cheng Yang, Li Yan, Fan Yuxu, He Guoqi, 2020. Preliminary Study on Geology and Mineralization of the Bayan Obo Ocean Plate. Earth Science, 45(7): 2258-2278. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.191
    Citation: Xiao Qinghui, Liu Yong, Xu Liquan, Ding Xiaozhong, Zhang Yuqing, Cheng Yang, Li Yan, Fan Yuxu, He Guoqi, 2020. Preliminary Study on Geology and Mineralization of the Bayan Obo Ocean Plate. Earth Science, 45(7): 2258-2278. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.191

    白云鄂博洋板块地质与成矿作用初探

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.191
    基金项目: 

    地调“全国陆域及海区地质图件更新与共享”项目 DD20190370

    内蒙古自治区地质矿产勘查基金 2017-YS01

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      肖庆辉(1939-), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 从事区域地质和大地构造以及花岗岩研究.ORCID:0000-0002-8539-7574.E-mail:qinghuixiao@126.com

      通讯作者:

      刘勇, E-mail:365639962@qq.com

    • 中图分类号: P548

    Preliminary Study on Geology and Mineralization of the Bayan Obo Ocean Plate

    • 摘要: 提出全球规模最大的白云鄂博稀土矿受亚洲洋向华北克拉通北缘俯冲的洋板块地质演化控制.探讨了白云鄂博地区亚洲洋洋板块地质构造发育过程、亚洲洋向华北克拉通北缘俯冲过程中相继发育的新元古代,早、晚古生代俯冲增生杂岩带的地质构造特征.探讨了白云鄂博稀土矿成因,认为稀土矿成矿碳酸岩岩浆产在华北克拉通北缘的所谓特殊的远端弧后构造环境(far backarc settings),也有人称为远离弧后背景或者变形的大陆边缘环境(deformed continental margins),不在大洋俯冲过程中发育的岩浆弧环境中.相对于大陆边缘弧,远端弧后构造环境位于向克拉通或向弧后更远的位置,它是控制白云鄂博深部成矿物质向浅部地表运移聚集成大型矿床、矿集区的关键储运空间.远端弧后构造环境远离大洋汇聚带或俯冲带向大陆或向弧后位置的克拉通边缘上,即在华北克拉通北缘岩石圈与亚洲洋造山带的岩石圈分界上的伸展构造中,受大规模岩石圈不连续系统或深切岩石圈的断裂带系统控制.成矿碳酸岩岩浆可能来自携带大量铁与REE的亚洲洋洋壳沉积物,于晚元古-早古生代向华北克拉通俯冲消减到华北克拉通陆下岩石圈地幔SCLM深循环过程中,在深切华北克拉通边缘的岩石圈的不连续构造系统中出溶形成岩浆碳酸岩及其携带的REE矿床.

       

    • 图  1  白云鄂博地区区域构造地质简图

      Ⅰ.华北克拉通北缘; Ⅱ.白云鄂博陆缘裂谷及俯冲增生杂岩带(Ⅱ⁃1.白云鄂博陆缘裂谷带; Ⅱ⁃2.白云鄂博陆缘俯冲增生杂岩带); Ⅲ.早古生代俯冲增生杂岩带; Ⅳ.晚古生代亚洲洋対接封闭俯冲增生杂岩带.断裂:①佘太-固阳断裂; ②达茂旗-商都断裂; ③白银角拉克-宽沟断裂; ④乌兰布拉格断裂; ⑤包尔汗图断裂带; ⑥索伦山-西拉木伦河断裂; 据周建波等(2002)

      Fig.  1.  Regional tectonic geology of Bayan Obo area

      图  2  华北克拉通北缘残留的俯冲增生杂岩带

      Ⅰ.乌德岛弧岩漿系统俯冲增生杂岩;Ⅱ.比鲁特蛇绿俯冲增生杂岩;Ⅲ.呼和恩格尔陆缘弧俯冲增生杂岩;IV.1:5万白云鄂博幅范围

      Fig.  2.  Remaining subduction accretionary complex zone in the northern margin of North China Carton

      图  3  白云鄂博地区乌德岛弧岩浆系统混杂岩带略图

      1.二连组; 2.李三沟组; 3.阿木山组; 4.查干哈布组; 5.西别河组; 6.呼和艾力更组; 7.哈拉组; 8.布龙山组; 9.阿牙登组; 10.三叠纪石英闪长岩; 11.奥陶纪石英闪长岩; 12.乌德构造混杂带; 13.混杂带构造岩块; 14.正断层; 15.逆断层; 16.乌兰布拉格-呼吉尔图大断裂; 贾和义等(2003)尚恒胜等(2003)

      Fig.  3.  Sketch map of mixed magmatic zone of arc magmatic system in Ude Island, Bayan Obo area

      图  4  由大规模的逆掩作用的外部构造推挤而形成的岩浆构造混杂岩带(据贾和义等,2003

      Fig.  4.  Magmatic tectonic mixed zone formed by large-scale overthrusting external tectonic pushing(modified from Jia et al., 2003)

      图  5  乌德岩浆构造混杂带中(局部)不同时代、不同岩性构造岩块混杂分布

      1.第四系;2.下白垩统李三沟组;3.下泥盆统查干哈布组;4.中下奥陶统布龙山组;5.中下奥陶统哈拉组;6.古元古界宝音图岩群;7.奥陶纪闪长岩;8.超基性岩;9.片理产状; 据贾和义等(2003);据比例尺1:250 000(白云鄂博)幅区域地质调查报告

      Fig.  5.  Miscellaneous distribution map of different ages and different lithologic tectonic blocks in the Ude magmatic tectonic hybrid zone

      图  6  呼和恩格尔岛弧杂岩体地质简图(据尚恒胜等, 2003

      1.晚古生代黑云母花岗岩;2.晚古生代钾质花岗岩;3.晚古生代片麻状花岗岩;4.晚古生代花岗闪长岩;5.白云鄂博群尖山组;6.白云鄂博群比鲁特组;7.白云鄂博群哈拉霍格特组;8.白云鄂博群都拉哈拉组;9.呼和恩格尔杂岩体;10.逆断层;11.不整合;12.第四系; 13.杂岩体

      Fig.  6.  Geological map of Hoh Engel Island arc complex(modified from Shang et al., 2003)

      图  7  呼和恩格尔杂岩体露头照片

      混杂在变质石英砂岩地层中的辉长岩、角闪岩岩块,构造接触; 据尚恒胜等(2003)

      Fig.  7.  Hoh Engel complex outcrop photos

      图  8  呼和恩格尔杂岩中的角闪辉长岩块和闪长岩透镜体

      尚恒胜等(2003)

      Fig.  8.  Angle diorite blocks and diorite lens bodies in the Hoh Engel complex

      图  9  横穿白云鄂博地区发育有韧性剪切带-同斜褶皱-叠瓦状冲断层相伴的逆冲构造堆叠垛简要构造剖面示意图

      a.构造坡面;b.乌兰保力格断裂带内韧性剪切带构造实测剖面(阿贵南); c.白云鄂博群同斜褶皱-叠瓦状冲断层逆冲构造堆叠垛素描图(赛乌苏金矿南);1.片理化火山凝灰岩; 2.白云鄂博群火山岩; 3.云母片岩; 4.中基性脉岩; 5.白云鄂博群砂岩与灰岩互层; 6.海西期花岗岩; 7.逆冲断层; 8.韧性变形带强变形域;据贾和义等(2003)

      Fig.  9.  Schematic cross-section diagram of the thrust structural stack associated with the development of the ductile shear zone-isoclinic fold-shingled thrust across the Bayan Obo area

      图  10  陆下含金岩石圈地幔熔融形成不同岩浆熔体

      它们进一步形成致矿基性岩脉控制矿床-矿集区的形成,据Richards(2003)

      Fig.  10.  The subterranean gold-bearing lithosphere mantle melts to form different magma melts

      图  11  洋板块俯冲作用引发陆下岩石圈地幔发生的一系列深部地质作用(Richards, 2003

      Fig.  11.  Subduction of oceanic plate induces a series of deep geological processes in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle(modified from Richards, 2003)

      图  12  俯冲于华北克拉通北缘之下携带的稀土和金属组分洋板块熔融脱水作用如何在陆下岩石圈地幔和地壳不同层位发生交代富集而形成大型稀土矿示意图

      Fig.  12.  Sublimation of the rare earth and metallic component ocean plates carried under the northern margin of the North China Carton. How the dehydration of the oceanic plate in the substratum lithosphere mantle and crust is enriched to form a large rare earth deposit

      图  13  新生岩浆底侵与壳幔混合作用使下部地壳的岩石发生部分熔融和混合同化作用MASH过程,并形成以花岗闪长质斑岩型岩石为容矿为主的地质成矿系统

      Richards(2003)

      Fig.  13.  Neogenetic magma bottom invasion and crust-mantle mixing caused partial melting and mixing assimilation of the lower crust rocks to form a MASH process, and formed a geological mineralization system dominated by granodiorite porphyry rocks

      图  14  岩浆底侵形成的混合岩浆发生内侵向上进入中、上地壳,在上地壳汇集形成岩浆房,并发生分异与出溶作用和成矿作用,形成上地壳岩浆房分异与出溶作用和成矿作用的地质系统

      Fig.  14.  The mixed magma formed by the magma bottom invasion invades upward and enters the middle and upper crust, and gathers in the upper crust to form a magma room. Differentiation and dissolution and mineralization, forming a geological system of upper crust magma room differentiation and dissolution and mineralization

      图  15  陆下岩石圈地幔流体上侵在上地壳形成含矿碳酸岩岩浆房后,并发生岩浆分异与出溶形成成矿热液系统,成矿热液继续向上运移时受不同性质构造控制而形成多样性不同矿床类型示意图

      Fig.  15.  After the subcontinent lithosphere mantle fluid invaded the upper crust to form a ore-containing carbonate rock magma chamber, magmatic differentiation and dissolution occurred to form a ore-forming hydrothermal system. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids continue to move upward and are controlled by different properties to form diverse deposit types

      图  16  中元古代华北克拉通北缘发生裂离与初始亚洲洋的形成

      Fig.  16.  The rifting in the northern margin of the North China Carton and the formation of the initial Asian Ocean during the Middle Proterozoic

      图  17  晚元古代亚洲洋的扩张与被动陆缘的形成

      Fig.  17.  The Expansion of the Asian Ocean and the Formation of Passive Continental Margins during the Late Proterozoic

      图  18  初始板块俯冲增生杂岩形成的洋板块构造格局示意图

      Fig.  18.  Schematic diagram of tectonic pattern of oceanic plates formed by initial plate subduction and accretionary complexes

      图  19  晚古生代(二叠-三叠纪)亚洲洋洋盆逐渐封闭拼贴阶段

      Fig.  19.  Late Paleozoic (Permian-Triassic) Asian Ocean basin gradually closed and collage stage

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    • 收稿日期:  2020-03-07
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