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    北喜马拉雅扎西康铅锌锑银矿床成因的多元同位素制约

    张建芳 郑有业 张刚阳 高顺宝 叶先仁 张众 刘敏院 李及秋

    张建芳, 郑有业, 张刚阳, 高顺宝, 叶先仁, 张众, 刘敏院, 李及秋, 2010. 北喜马拉雅扎西康铅锌锑银矿床成因的多元同位素制约. 地球科学, 35(6): 1000-1010. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2010.113
    引用本文: 张建芳, 郑有业, 张刚阳, 高顺宝, 叶先仁, 张众, 刘敏院, 李及秋, 2010. 北喜马拉雅扎西康铅锌锑银矿床成因的多元同位素制约. 地球科学, 35(6): 1000-1010. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2010.113
    ZHANG Jian-fang, ZHENG You-ye, ZHANG Gang-yang, GAO Shun-bao, YE Xian-ren, ZHANG Zhong, LIU Min-yuan, LI Ji-qiu, 2010. Genesis of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag Deposit in Northern Himalaya: Constraints from Multi-Isotope Geochemistry. Earth Science, 35(6): 1000-1010. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2010.113
    Citation: ZHANG Jian-fang, ZHENG You-ye, ZHANG Gang-yang, GAO Shun-bao, YE Xian-ren, ZHANG Zhong, LIU Min-yuan, LI Ji-qiu, 2010. Genesis of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag Deposit in Northern Himalaya: Constraints from Multi-Isotope Geochemistry. Earth Science, 35(6): 1000-1010. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2010.113

    北喜马拉雅扎西康铅锌锑银矿床成因的多元同位素制约

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2010.113
    基金项目: 

    教育部重大项目 308018

    国家科技支撑计划项目 2006BAB01A04

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      张建芳(1985-), 男, 在读硕士, 矿物岩石矿床学专业.E-mail: zhjianfang@126.com

      通讯作者:

      郑有业(1962-), E-mail: zhyouye@163.com

    • 中图分类号: P618.4

    Genesis of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag Deposit in Northern Himalaya: Constraints from Multi-Isotope Geochemistry

    • 摘要: 扎西康矿床是北喜马拉雅金锑多金属成矿带中发现的唯一一个大型Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag共生矿床.矿体赋存于SN向的高角度张扭性断裂带中, 该矿床的黄铁矿、闪锌矿、方铅矿、硫锑铅矿和辉锑矿等硫化物的δ34S值为4.5‰~12.0‰, 多数集中在8‰~11‰, 富集重硫且变化较小, 表明其硫源是一致的, 主要来源于围岩中的海相地层还原硫.206Pb/204Pb、207Pb/204Pb、208Pb/204Pb比值分别在18.474~19.637, 15.649~15.774和39.660~40.010范围内, 并成一条直线, 具有放射性异常铅的特征, 投图落在上地壳铅演化线附近.流体包裹体的δDV-SMOW为-127‰~-135‰, δ18OH2O为-13.7‰~12.4‰, 偏向于西藏地热水的分布范围; He-Ar同位素组成表明成矿流体主要为地壳流体和饱和大气水的混合, 没有明显的地幔流体成分混入.其多元同位素组成与北喜马拉雅成矿带的金或金锑等其他矿床具有明显的差异, 表明其成矿作用具有特殊性, 在中新世随着印度与欧亚板块后碰撞挤压向伸展走滑阶段转换, 在北喜马拉雅构造带内形成一系列的SN向高角度断裂, 并促使地壳发生部分熔融形成熔融层, 引起局部热流值剧增, 地温异常梯度增大, 驱动地下水对流循环, 萃取晚三叠世-早侏罗世的一套浊流或喷流灰黑色碳硅泥岩系地层中的成矿物质, 沿着SN向断裂带充填交代成矿, 属于沉积-构造-热泉水改造的多阶段充填交代热液脉状矿床.

       

    • 图  1  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床地质图(据西藏华钰矿业有限公司修编)

      1.黄褐色粗粒石英砂岩;2.灰黑色炭质板岩;3.灰绿色石英砂岩;4.灰黑色含碳钙质板岩夹褐黄色变钙质砂岩;5.灰绿色石英砂岩与灰黑色板岩互层;6.上侏罗统维美组;7.辉绿岩;8.流纹斑岩;9.地质界限;10.矿体;11.断裂

      Fig.  1.  Geological map of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit

      图  2  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床Ⅴ号矿体横截面图(XD8号硐)

      1.炭质板岩;2.火山凝灰岩;3.热泉硅质岩;4.粗粒方铅矿脉体;5.中细粒方铅矿(多金属);6.闪锌矿;7.菱铁矿;8.黄铁矿;9.黄铜矿;10.辉锑矿

      Fig.  2.  Cross section map of Ⅴ orebody of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit (XD8 adit)

      图  3  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床铅构造模式图解(底图据Zartman and Doe, 1981)

      ▲.扎西康铅锌锑银矿;◇.马扎拉锑金矿(郑有业, 2001, 内部报告);△.沙拉岗锑矿(李金高,2000);○.浪卡子金矿(郑明华, 1999, 内部报告);□.藏北美多锑矿(余金杰,2001);A.上地幔;B.造山带;C.上地壳;D.下地壳

      Fig.  3.  Pb Isotopic composition of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit

      图  4  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床铅同位素Δγβ图解(底图据朱炳泉,1998)

      ▲.扎西康铅锌锑银矿;◇.马扎拉锑金矿(郑有业, 2001, 内部报告);△.沙拉岗锑矿(李金高,2000);○.浪卡子金矿(郑明华, 1999, 内部报告);□.藏北美多锑矿(余金杰,2001);1.上地幔源铅;2.上地壳源铅;3.地壳与地幔混合的俯冲带铅(3a.岩浆作用,3b.沉积作用);4.化学沉积型铅;5.海底热水作用铅;6.中深变质作用铅;7.深变质下地壳铅;8.造山带铅;9.古老页岩山地壳铅;10.退变质铅

      Fig.  4.  Δγβ map of Pb isotope of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit

      图  5  扎西康矿床(a)和北喜马拉雅成矿带矿床(b)硫同位素组成频率直方图

      (a)A.黄铁矿;B.闪锌矿;C.方铅矿;D.硫锑铅矿;E.辉锑矿;(b)A.马扎拉(戚学祥等,2008杨竹森等,2006);B.哲古(郑有业等,待发;杨竹森等,2006);C.扎西康铅锌锑银矿(本文;杨竹森等,2006; Yang et al., 2009);D.沙拉岗锑矿(戚学祥等,2008杨竹森等,2006余金杰,2001李金高,2000);E.查拉普金矿(郑有业等,待刊);F.车穷卓布锑矿;G.雪拉;H.下巴;I.拉琼(戚学祥等,2008);J.藏北美多锑矿(余金杰,2001)

      Fig.  5.  S isotope frequency histogram of Zhaxikang deposit (a) and other deposits in North Himalayan (b)

      图  6  扎西康矿床及北喜马拉雅成矿带矿床δDV-SMOW-δ18OH2O同位素组成

      ▲.扎西康铅锌锑银矿;△.查拉普金矿(郑有业等,另文待发);○.浪卡子金矿(郑明华, 1999, 内部报告);●.车穷卓布锑矿(孟祥金等,2008);◇.西藏地热水(郑淑蕙等,1982);■.马扎拉锑金矿;□.哲古金锑矿;◆.沙拉岗锑矿(马扎拉锑金矿、哲古金锑矿、沙拉岗锑矿(据杨竹森等,2006Yang et al., 2009)

      Fig.  6.  δDV-SMOW-δ18OH2O isotope composition of Zhaxikang deposit and other deposits in North Himalayan

      图  7  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床流体包裹体40Ar/36Ar-R/Ra图解(参照王旭东等,2009)

      Fig.  7.  40Ar/36Ar-R/Ra isotope of fluid inclusion of Zhaxikang deposit

      表  1  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床铅同位素组成

      Table  1.   Pb isotope composition of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit

      样号 矿物 206Pb/204Pb 207Pb/204Pb 208Pb/204Pb ϕ μ ω 232Th/238U β γ
      ZXKPD7-6 闪锌矿 19.637±0.005 15.774±0.003 40.010±0.007 0.530 9.70 37.78 3.77 28.72 67.77
      ZXKPD7-8 闪锌矿 19.528±0.007 15.730±0.003 39.957±0.015 0.532 9.63 37.72 3.79 25.85 66.35
      ZXKPD7-7 方铅矿 19.586±0.003 15.739±0.004 39.883±0.012 0.530 9.64 37.25 3.74 26.43 64.38
      ZXKPD6-5 方铅矿 19.578±0.005 15.730±0.004 39.859±0.014 0.529 9.62 37.12 3.73 25.85 63.74
      ZXKPD6-19 闪锌矿 19.568±0.009 15.729±0.006 39.858±0.015 0.530 9.62 37.16 3.74 25.78 63.71
      ZXKPD6-11 硫锑铅矿 19.474±0.007 15.649±0.008 39.660±0.016 0.527 9.48 36.17 3.69 20.56 58.43
      ZXKPD5-1 辉锑矿 19.617±0.003 15.728±0.002 39.919±0.003 0.527 9.62 37.13 3.74 25.72 65.34
      ZXKPD5-6 辉锑矿 19.542±0.005 15.683±0.005 39.783±0.012 0.527 9.54 36.59 3.71 22.78 61.71
      注:ϕ=(235U/204Pb);ω=(232Th/204Pb);μ=(238U/204Pb);Δβ=(207Pb/204Pb)d(t)/(207Pb/204Pb)m(t)-1×1 000;Δγ=(208Pb/204Pb)d(t)/(208Pb/204Pb)m(t)-1×1 000;d(t)为样品测试值;m(t)为地幔值.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  扎西康铅锌锑银矿床硫、氢、氧同位素组成

      Table  2.   S-H-O isotope composition of ore minerals of Zhaxikang Pb-Zn-Sb-Ag deposit

      编号 阶段 矿石类型 矿物
      δ34SCDT
      (‰)
      来源 样号 矿石类型 矿物 δDV-SMOW
      (‰)
      δ18OV-SMOW
      (‰)
      均一温
      度(℃)
      δ18OH2O
      (‰)
      来源
      ZXKPD7-8d 角砾状菱铁矿-闪锌矿矿石 黄铁矿 11.78 本文 ZXK-PD7-8a 角砾状菱铁矿闪锌矿矿石 菱铁矿 -127 本文
      ZXKPD7-8 角砾状菱铁矿-闪锌矿矿石 闪锌矿 10.83 本文 ZXK-PD7-17a 角砾状菱铁矿闪锌矿矿石 菱铁矿 -135 本文
      ZXKPD6-12b 块状黄铁矿-闪锌矿矿石 黄铁矿 11.97 本文 ZXK-PD6-1a 含矿石英脉 石英 -155 21.4 265 12.4 本文
      ZXKPD6-12a 块状黄铁矿-闪锌矿矿石 闪锌矿 11.23 本文 ZXK-PD6-2a 含矿石英脉 石英 -165 20.1 258 10.8 本文
      ZXKPD6-11 纤维状硫锑铅矿矿石 硫锑铅矿 8.79 本文 ZXK-PD7-2a 石英脉 石英 -160 15.0 253 5.5 本文
      ZXKPD7-7 块状中细粒方铅矿矿石 方铅矿 7.96 本文 ZXK-PD5-6a 放射状石英-辉锑矿石 石英 -152 1.9 244 -8.0 本文
      ZXKPD6-5 块状方铅矿矿石 方铅矿 7.71 本文 ZXK-PD5-8a 放射状石英-辉锑矿石 石英 -162 2.8 250 -6.8 本文
      ZXKPD5-1 放射状辉锑矿矿石 辉锑矿 5.24 本文 LZ-13 块状硅质岩(顶部) 石英 -156 12.3 200 -0.1 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXKPD5-6 块状放射状辉锑矿矿石 辉锑矿 5.34 本文 ZXK1-13 块状硅质岩 石英 -155 3.0 200 -9.4 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK-25 粗粒闪锌矿脉(早) 闪锌矿 12.0 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK1-10 细条带状硅质岩 石英 -149 4.0 200 -8.4 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK-26 粗粒闪锌矿脉(早) 闪锌矿 11.4 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK1-8 含空(晶)洞层状硅质岩 石英 -156 5.0 200 -7.4 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK-26 粗粒闪锌矿脉(早) 黄铁矿 11.2 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK1-7 块状纹层状硅质岩 石英 -138 2.9 200 -9.5 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK2-3 粗粒闪锌矿脉(早) 闪锌矿 11.2 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK2-2 细纹层条带状硅质岩 石英 -149 3.6 200 -8.8 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK2-3 粗粒闪锌矿脉(早) 方铅矿 9.9 杨竹森等,2006 LZ-04 紊乱层状块状硅质岩(底部) 石英 -154 9.8 200 -2.6 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK-6 石英-毒砂脉含闪锌矿角砾 闪锌矿 11.1 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK06-2 大脉状辉锑矿化硅质岩 石英 -142 -1.3 200 -13.7 孟祥金等,2008
      ZXK-15 石英-黄铁矿脉 黄铁矿 8.9 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK-2 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 石英 -140 1.3 184 -11.5 杨竹森等,2006
      ZXK-23 石英-黄铁矿脉 黄铁矿 8.7 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK-3 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 石英 -152 12.2 201 -0.2 杨竹森等,2006
      ZXK-21 黄铁矿脉 黄铁矿 10.6 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK-5 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 石英 12.6 200 0.2 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK1-1 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 闪锌矿 10.2 杨竹森等,2006 ZXK-7 石英-辉锑矿脉 石英 -160 9.8 200 -2.6 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK1-3 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 闪锌矿 10.6 Yang et al., 2009 ZXK-1 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 石英 5.8 200 -6.6 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK1-4 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 闪锌矿 10.4 Yang et al., 2009 ZXK-04-1 石英-辉锑矿脉 石英 -152 2.1 200 -10.3 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK1-5 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 闪锌矿 10.4 Yang et al., 2009 ZXK-04-2 石英-辉锑矿脉 石英 -144 2.6 200 -9.8 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK1-9 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 闪锌矿 9.7 Yang et al., 2009 ZXK-04-3 石英脉 石英 -154 4 200 -8.4 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK-5 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 闪锌矿 9.1 Yang et al., 2009 ZXK-06-23 石英-黄铁矿脉 石英 11.9 200 -0.5 Yang et al., 2009
      ZXK-3 石英-辉锑矿-闪锌矿脉 辉锑矿 7.1 Yang et al., 2009 07Q1-96 方铅矿 -140 戚学祥等,2008
      ZXK04-2 石英-辉锑矿脉 辉锑矿 4.5 Yang et al., 2009 07Q1-97 闪锌矿 -131 戚学祥等,2008
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  扎西康矿床流体包裹体He-Ar同位素分析

      Table  3.   He-Ar isotope composition of fluid inclusion of Zhaxikang deposit

      编号 矿物 质量(g) 4He(10-7) (cm3STP/g) 40Ar(10-7) (cm3STP/g) 3He/4He (Ra) 38Ar/36Ar 40Ar/36Ar
      ZXKPD7-8e 闪锌矿 0.292 39.0±2.60 2.46±0.17 0.045±0.007 0.156±0.069 10 047±549.6
      ZXKPD7-8f 菱铁矿 0.293 55.8±3.70 15.0±1.0 0.079±0.010 0.221±0.019 463.5±12.1
      ZXKPD6-1c 石英 0.393 1.49±0.10 29.7±2.0 0.172±0.006 0.174±0.053 1 463.6±37.6
      ZXKPD6-2c 石英 0.392 1.89±0.13 27.7±1.9 0.169±0.013 0.248±0.029 1 483.4±38.1
      ZXKPD5-6d 辉锑矿 0.293 15.2±1.0 3.49±0.24 0.041±0.003 - -
      ZXKPD5-6e 石英 0.389 0.20±0.02 32.6±2.2 0.048±0.007 0.194±0.019 831.5±51.1
      ZXKPD5-8c 石英 0.390 0.09±0.01 18.0±1.2 1.305±0.023 0.183±0.004 959.2±21.1
      下载: 导出CSV
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