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    早三叠世下扬子古海洋地球化学环境的修复过程

    左景勋 童金南 赵来时 常德峰 赵荣军

    左景勋, 童金南, 赵来时, 常德峰, 赵荣军, 2013. 早三叠世下扬子古海洋地球化学环境的修复过程. 地球科学, 38(3): 441-453. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2013.044
    引用本文: 左景勋, 童金南, 赵来时, 常德峰, 赵荣军, 2013. 早三叠世下扬子古海洋地球化学环境的修复过程. 地球科学, 38(3): 441-453. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2013.044
    ZUO Jing-xun, TONG Jin-nan, ZHAO Lai-shi, CHANG De-feng, ZHAO Rong-jun, 2013. Geochemical Environment Restoration of the Lower Yangtze Paleocean in the Early Triassic, Southeastern China. Earth Science, 38(3): 441-453. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2013.044
    Citation: ZUO Jing-xun, TONG Jin-nan, ZHAO Lai-shi, CHANG De-feng, ZHAO Rong-jun, 2013. Geochemical Environment Restoration of the Lower Yangtze Paleocean in the Early Triassic, Southeastern China. Earth Science, 38(3): 441-453. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2013.044

    早三叠世下扬子古海洋地球化学环境的修复过程

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2013.044
    基金项目: 

    地质过程与矿产资源国家重点实验室开放课题 GPMR200903

    地质过程与矿产资源国家重点实验室开放课题 MSFGGPMR201310

    科技部基础性工作专项 2006FY120300-11

    国家自然科学基金项目 40672023

    国家自然科学基金项目 41272025

    国家自然科学基金项目 40972003

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      左景勋(1963-), 男, 博士, 教授级高工, 主要从事沉积学及矿产勘查工作.E-mail: jxzuo@nigpas.ac.cn

      通讯作者:

      赵来时, E-mail: lszhao@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P67

    Geochemical Environment Restoration of the Lower Yangtze Paleocean in the Early Triassic, Southeastern China

    • 摘要: 巢湖平顶山北坡剖面下三叠统岩石化学成分分析表明, SiO2、Al2O3、Fe2O3、FeO、MgO、Na2O、K2O、TiO2、P2O5及微量元素Ba、V、Be、Nb、Zn、Cu、Ni、Co、Pb主要富集在下三叠统格里斯巴赫(Griesbachian)、迪纳(Dienerian)及斯密斯(Smithian)亚阶中, 形成了8次显著的正异常, 异常的强度、规模由下向上呈下降趋势; 微量元素Sr和常量元素CaO主要富集在下三叠统上部斯帕斯(Spathian)亚阶中, 其含量由下向上呈逐渐增加趋势.前者含量与碳酸盐岩的碳同位素组成(δ13C)呈负相关关系, 后者含量与碳酸盐岩的碳同位素组成(δ13C)呈正相关关系.海相碳酸盐岩碳同位素组成(δ13C)指示初始生产力大小, 同时亦是海洋生态环境改善的指示标志; 负相关表明环境恶化、生物萧条, 正相关表明环境适宜、生物繁盛.据常量元素和微量元素分布异常特点在下三叠统地层中识别出8次地质事件, 其规模及影响强度由早到晚逐渐变小及减弱; 晚二叠世末期及早三叠世初期的火山喷发将各种有害元素大量输向海洋, 导致海水中粘土矿物、微量元素含量异常增高, 海洋生态环境恶化.随着时间推移, 火山活动逐渐平息, 海洋中各种有害组分逐渐排除, 海水得到净化, 生态环境渐渐恢复.

       

    • 图  1  下扬子地区早三叠世岩相古地理(据冯增昭等, 1997修编)

      Fig.  1.  Palaeogeography of the Lower Yangtze area in the Early Triassic

      图  2  巢湖平顶山北坡剖面下三叠统常量元素之间的相关性

      Fig.  2.  Relationship between Al2O3, K2O, MgO and TiO2 in the north Pingdingshan Section, Chaohu

      图  3  巢湖平顶山北坡剖面Mg/Ca和Sr/Ca分布

      a.下三叠统沉积岩;b.下三叠统粘土岩、泥岩;c.下三叠统灰岩、泥灰岩

      Fig.  3.  Ratios of Mg/Ca vs Sr/Ca of the Lower Triassic in the north Pingdingshan Section, Chaohu

      图  4  平顶山北坡剖面下三叠统常量元素、微量元素分布特征和早三叠世地质事件分布

      Fig.  4.  Distribution of main and trace elements in the Lower Triassic and geo-events identified in the north Pingdingshan Section, Chaohu, Anhui Province

      表  1  巢湖平顶山北坡剖面下三叠统常量元素分析结果(%)

      Table  1.   Data of main elements of the Lower Triassic in the north Pingdingshan Section, Chaohu, Anhui Province (%)

      层位 样号 岩性 SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 FeO MgO CaO Na2O K2O MnO TiO2 P2O5 Lost
      斯帕斯亚阶 ACP-69 灰岩 2.49 0.59 0.05 0.17 0.05 53.80 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 42.53
      ACP-68 灰岩 2.62 0.74 0.01 0.27 0.13 53.59 0.12 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.01 42.35
      ACP-67 灰岩 2.08 0.60 0.01 0.23 0.03 54.07 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.01 42.80
      ACP-66 灰岩 1.56 0.55 0.01 0.07 0.01 54.70 0.07 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 42.85
      ACP-65 灰岩 4.15 0.94 0.10 0.15 0.11 52.31 0.12 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.02 41.83
      ACP-64 灰岩 7.15 2.14 0.48 0.25 0.25 49.50 0.08 0.28 0.05 0.10 0.02 39.55
      ACP-62-2 灰岩 4.64 1.26 0.24 0.20 0.22 51.77 0.15 0.12 0.02 0.05 0.02 41.18
      ACP-61 灰岩 7.56 2.17 0.30 0.40 0.32 48.86 0.17 0.28 0.02 0.09 0.03 39.65
      斯密斯亚阶 ACP-60 灰岩 12.24 3.29 1.14 0.32 0.41 44.89 0.17 0.49 0.05 0.15 0.05 36.68
      ACP-59 泥灰岩 18.77 6.07 2.66 0.45 0.89 37.40 0.19 1.14 0.07 0.43 0.07 31.73
      ACP-58 灰岩 11.27 3.21 0.50 0.57 0.35 45.85 0.23 0.41 0.08 0.16 0.04 37.20
      ACP-57 灰岩 14.76 3.82 0.92 0.50 0.53 42.79 0.34 0.57 0.10 0.18 0.06 35.28
      ACP-56-1 灰岩 15.29 3.83 1.25 0.45 0.48 42.36 0.46 0.58 0.13 0.17 0.07 34.78
      ACP-55-1 灰岩 14.46 3.05 1.20 0.38 0.34 43.57 0.40 0.37 0.26 0.14 0.09 35.60
      ACP-54-2 灰岩 12.61 2.75 0.69 0.67 0.42 45.00 0.34 0.39 0.13 0.12 0.04 36.70
      ACP-53-2 灰岩 10.31 2.46 1.19 0.45 0.40 46.32 0.31 0.28 0.09 0.11 0.05 37.88
      ACP-52-2 灰岩 48.84 14.43 4.21 0.98 1.83 11.58 0.67 2.98 0.04 0.67 0.12 13.50
      ACP-51-2 灰岩 12.55 3.07 0.50 0.43 0.41 45.26 0.42 0.39 0.07 0.17 0.06 36.53
      ACP-50-4 灰岩 9.86 2.39 0.34 0.42 0.33 47.22 0.39 0.26 0.06 0.11 0.06 38.43
      ACP-49-5 灰岩 21.30 5.51 3.19 0.45 0.84 35.77 0.41 0.92 0.15 0.26 0.08 30.98
      ACP-48-3 灰岩 12.58 3.53 0.42 0.45 0.53 44.89 0.44 0.57 0.08 0.14 0.06 36.18
      ACP-47-4 瘤灰岩 15.19 4.10 0.60 0.57 0.59 42.77 0.51 0.67 0.08 0.19 0.07 34.53
      ACP-46-3 瘤灰岩 17.36 3.64 1.01 0.37 0.61 41.65 0.74 0.52 0.10 0.16 0.06 33.65
      迪纳亚阶 ACP-45-2 瘤灰岩 20.44 4.78 0.83 0.50 0.71 38.98 0.63 0.79 0.10 0.20 0.05 31.85
      ACP-44-4 瘤灰岩 20.00 5.08 0.97 0.48 0.73 38.76 0.71 0.83 0.10 0.20 0.06 31.95
      ACP-43-5 瘤灰岩 20.58 4.59 1.48 0.40 0.63 38.84 0.70 0.69 0.08 0.22 0.08 31.60
      ACP-42-4 灰岩 16.96 4.35 0.67 0.42 0.61 41.60 0.67 0.64 0.08 0.17 0.06 33.65
      ACP-41-2 瘤灰岩 17.17 4.45 1.63 0.33 0.65 40.78 0.68 0.69 0.12 0.19 0.08 33.10
      ACP-40-2 瘤灰岩 17.46 4.34 1.66 0.55 2.21 38.58 0.53 0.72 0.15 0.20 0.07 33.38
      ACP-39-2 瘤灰岩 30.63 8.19 3.66 0.35 1.09 28.27 0.63 1.54 0.11 0.40 0.08 24.88
      ACP-38-2 瘤灰岩 16.06 4.04 1.51 0.32 0.52 41.96 0.52 0.60 0.10 0.17 0.07 33.98
      ACP-37-2 瘤灰岩 16.38 4.09 1.41 0.42 0.61 42.78 0.59 0.60 0.12 0.19 0.08 32.60
      ACP-36-2 瘤灰岩 22.00 4.64 1.01 0.40 0.65 38.26 0.67 0.69 0.10 0.19 0.07 31.20
      ACP-35-2 瘤灰岩 16.96 4.26 1.61 0.38 0.53 41.10 0.51 0.65 0.10 0.22 0.07 33.50
      ACP-34 瘤灰岩 20.35 5.30 1.59 0.58 0.68 37.94 0.59 0.92 0.09 0.24 0.08 31.50
      ACP-32 泥岩 62.11 18.38 4.30 0.87 2.11 1.13 0.82 3.76 0.03 0.87 0.16 5.28
      ACP-31 泥岩 60.70 17.61 6.65 0.67 1.90 0.87 0.80 3.44 0.05 0.85 0.16 6.10
      ACP-30 泥岩 44.97 13.01 4.14 0.95 1.36 15.36 0.71 2.58 0.09 0.62 0.13 15.93
      ACP-29 灰岩 15.08 3.73 0.72 0.40 0.46 43.17 0.53 0.54 0.09 0.17 0.06 34.90
      ACP-28 灰岩 15.37 3.76 0.60 0.55 0.47 42.89 0.49 0.56 0.09 0.18 0.07 34.85
      ACP-27 瘤灰岩 16.62 4.45 0.81 0.75 0.53 41.31 0.49 0.63 0.09 0.22 0.07 33.90
      格里斯巴赫亚阶 ACP-26 灰岩 15.18 3.72 0.95 0.48 0.51 42.76 0.51 0.55 0.10 0.17 0.06 34.88
      ACP-25 泥岩 61.98 18.06 4.66 0.67 1.89 0.92 0.60 3.46 0.03 0.88 0.13 6.55
      ACP-24 泥岩 61.20 18.25 4.67 0.95 1.91 0.80 0.61 3.68 0.02 0.86 0.13 6.75
      ACP-23 灰岩 18.48 4.28 1.24 0.67 0.65 39.92 0.44 0.68 0.09 0.20 0.06 33.15
      ACP-22 灰岩 22.99 5.64 1.47 0.70 0.78 36.03 0.53 0.96 0.10 0.26 0.06 30.35
      ACP-21 泥岩 61.50 18.32 4.49 1.57 2.00 0.85 0.78 3.72 0.06 0.84 0.12 5.58
      ACP-19 泥岩 61.80 18.12 4.35 1.50 1.94 0.78 0.83 3.77 0.04 0.88 0.14 5.68
      ACP-18 泥岩 50.97 14.98 3.98 1.05 1.59 10.34 0.83 3.06 0.08 0.71 0.11 12.13
      ACP-17 瘤灰岩 33.76 9.55 3.31 1.48 1.21 24.92 0.62 1.87 0.11 0.45 0.08 22.50
      ACP-16 泥岩 60.12 18.56 5.94 0.92 1.80 0.91 0.41 3.72 0.08 0.85 0.11 6.40
      ACP-15 泥岩 61.10 18.55 5.47 0.67 1.81 0.83 0.46 3.62 0.07 0.86 0.10 6.28
      ACP-14 泥灰岩 41.63 11.86 3.46 1.12 1.49 18.22 0.54 2.41 0.08 0.55 0.10 18.38
      ACP-13 泥岩 34.09 8.64 3.09 1.20 0.92 25.94 0.57 1.72 0.10 0.40 0.08 23.08
      ACP-12-2 泥灰岩 31.43 7.45 4.59 0.23 0.79 28.10 0.43 1.46 0.12 0.36 0.09 24.83
      ACP-11 泥灰岩 32.58 5.91 4.21 0.10 0.79 28.86 0.36 1.10 0.16 0.28 0.07 25.43
      ACP-10 泥灰岩 39.22 9.51 3.42 0.38 1.17 22.43 0.50 1.93 0.11 0.45 0.10 20.63
      ACP-09 泥灰岩 40.56 9.60 4.60 0.32 1.08 20.92 0.56 1.90 0.14 0.44 0.08 19.65
      ACP-08 泥灰岩 47.23 12.20 4.95 0.32 1.29 14.68 0.65 2.46 0.17 0.56 0.10 15.25
      ACP-07 泥灰岩 39.96 9.13 4.43 0.63 1.08 21.61 0.44 1.85 0.19 0.42 0.08 20.05
      ACP-06 泥灰岩 44.79 11.25 4.49 0.50 1.21 17.13 0.58 2.37 0.10 0.50 0.09 16.85
      ACP-05 泥灰岩 35.22 6.93 4.16 0.23 2.37 24.81 0.33 1.46 0.23 0.31 0.06 23.70
      ACP-03 泥岩 63.38 18.25 3.55 0.83 1.92 0.83 0.63 3.89 0.02 0.71 0.09 5.70
      ACP-02 白色粘土 63.62 18.75 2.66 0.60 1.70 0.97 0.36 3.69 0.03 0.74 0.06 6.65
      ACP-01 硅质岩 63.07 18.14 3.60 0.83 1.80 0.66 0.41 3.87 0.02 0.53 0.13 6.75
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  巢湖平顶山北坡剖面下三叠统各种元素含量(10-6)

      Table  2.   Data of trace elements of the Lower Triassic in the north Pingdingshan Section, Chaohu, Anhui Province (10-6)

      层位 样号 岩性 Sr Ba Ni Co Cr V Cu Pb Be Nb Zn
      斯帕斯亚阶 ACP-69 灰岩 522.00 37.00 15.00 7.20 <5.00 10.90 6.70 21.30 0.30 5.20 6.00
      ACP-68 灰岩 333.00 37.00 14.00 6.70 <5.00 10.10 5.80 17.70 0.30 4.90 7.00
      ACP-67 灰岩 462.00 37.00 14.00 6.50 <5.00 9.40 4.70 23.80 0.30 4.50 6.00
      ACP-66 灰岩 529.00 26.00 15.00 7.80 <5.00 9.40 5.30 23.80 0.30 5.40 5.00
      ACP-65 灰岩 420.00 103.00 15.00 7.50 <5.00 12.30 8.10 24.40 0.40 5.90 9.00
      ACP-64 灰岩 247.00 196.00 17.00 8.10 < 5.00 18.20 8.80 19.30 0.50 6.70 17.00
      ACP-62-2 灰岩 267.00 49.00 16.00 7.60 <5.00 14.10 7.10 20.80 0.40 6.80 10.00
      ACP-61 灰岩 395.00 88.00 17.00 7.30 <5.00 19.00 9.20 16.90 0.50 6.40 17.00
      斯密斯亚阶 ACP-60 灰岩 243.00 97.00 20.00 9.50 5.00 26.30 9.70 22.50 0.70 7.90 23.00
      ACP-59 泥灰岩 186.00 146.00 27.00 12.10 20.60 54.20 20.00 23.70 1.20 12.40 45.00
      ACP-58 灰岩 244.00 140.00 18.00 7.60 <5.00 25.40 8.80 19.00 0.60 7.30 22.00
      ACP-57 灰岩 260.00 138.00 19.00 8.20 <5.00 32.10 10.90 28.10 0.90 7.50 33.00
      ACP-56-1 灰岩 237.00 129.00 19.00 7.70 7.00 30.20 16.00 25.50 0.80 8.50 23.00
      ACP-55-1 灰岩 330.00 109.00 24.00 11.60 7.00 30.40 17.40 21.90 0.70 7.60 33.00
      ACP-54-2 灰岩 266.00 88.00 18.00 7.00 <5.00 25.10 11.50 25.60 0.70 7.30 20.00
      ACP-53-2 灰岩 319.00 89.00 22.00 9.30 <5.00 35.90 12.70 24.50 0.70 6.30 34.00
      ACP-52-2 灰岩 103.00 344.00 35.00 11.00 58.10 99.90 27.80 22.00 2.30 17.80 88.00
      ACP-51-2 灰岩 244.00 83.00 18.00 7.80 6.40 25.70 9.50 21.60 0.60 8.40 20.00
      ACP-49-5 灰岩 199.00 152.00 31.00 11.80 18.90 43.90 18.50 26.90 1.20 10.10 38.00
      ACP-48-3 灰岩 161.00 75.00 17.00 8.20 6.20 24.90 9.80 20.50 0.70 7.10 19.00
      ACP-47-4 瘤灰岩 200.00 92.00 18.00 8.00 9.20 31.40 15.90 18.00 0.80 9.00 23.00
      ACP-46-3 瘤灰岩 152.00 82.00 19.00 9.20 7.30 27.20 11.70 20.00 0.70 7.80 26.00
      迪纳亚阶 ACP-45-2 瘤灰岩 164.00 95.00 18.00 7.60 10.60 33.80 11.80 14.90 0.90 8.00 27.00
      ACP-44-4 瘤灰岩 151.00 105.00 20.00 8.30 14.50 34.90 14.50 21.10 1.00 9.10 38.00
      ACP-43-5 瘤灰岩 127.00 99.00 20.00 9.50 5.60 32.10 16.50 18.80 0.80 7.50 28.00
      ACP-42-4 灰岩 154.00 88.00 17.00 7.30 11.10 29.00 15.40 19.80 0.80 9.10 18.00
      ACP-41-2 瘤灰岩 153.00 101.00 20.00 9.50 15.00 34.90 21.30 25.30 0.90 7.20 29.00
      ACP-40-2 瘤灰岩 137.00 321.00 18.00 8.20 8.60 32.10 10.90 19.50 0.90 9.10 27.00
      ACP-39-2 瘤灰岩 106.00 235.00 28.00 11.40 23.90 57.20 27.50 45.70 1.50 13.10 71.00
      ACP-38-2 瘤灰岩 142.00 95.00 19.00 9.30 10.30 29.70 10.70 19.10 0.80 9.20 28.00
      ACP-37-2 瘤灰岩 149.00 115.00 19.00 8.80 7.90 30.80 17.30 22.00 0.80 8.70 27.00
      ACP-36-2 瘤灰岩 142.00 96.00 18.00 7.70 14.20 31.80 15.60 22.40 0.80 9.50 26.00
      ACP-34 瘤灰岩 130.00 142.00 19.00 8.50 18.40 38.70 15.40 22.00 1.00 9.50 31.00
      ACP-33 泥岩 88.00 381.00 34.00 9.70 80.70 135.80 61.40 15.10 3.00 19.80 81.00
      ACP-32 泥岩 92.00 415.00 43.00 16.60 91.00 160.60 47.80 18.30 3.40 21.00 89.00
      ACP-31 泥岩 83.00 387.00 55.00 23.90 85.50 146.10 60.40 33.60 2.80 21.20 119.00
      ACP-30 泥岩 89.00 314.00 43.00 22.20 48.20 110.70 49.50 28.00 2.00 17.90 89.00
      ACP-29 灰岩 183.00 89.00 16.00 7.10 10.10 27.60 10.80 18.90 0.70 8.60 23.00
      ACP-28 灰岩 183.00 102.00 16.00 7.50 7.80 28.00 11.70 17.60 0.70 7.40 23.00
      格里斯巴赫亚阶 ACP-26 灰岩 158.00 85.00 18.00 8.20 9.20 28.80 12.60 19.90 0.70 9.00 27.00
      ACP-25 泥岩 90.00 423.00 35.00 10.70 85.30 122.60 31.60 17.30 3.20 20.90 78.00
      ACP-24 泥岩 97.00 382.00 38.00 11.00 86.50 125.20 61.40 13.10 3.20 20.50 79.00
      ACP-23 灰岩 160.00 96.00 18.00 8.40 17.10 31.20 20.60 28.10 0.80 8.90 34.00
      ACP-22 灰岩 163.00 153.00 22.00 11.40 16.10 41.10 9.60 30.20 1.10 11.10 37.00
      ACP-21 泥岩 102.00 389.00 45.00 18.70 82.70 117.00 14.60 17.40 3.20 21.50 96.00
      ACP-20 泥岩 105.00 351.00 47.00 32.80 87.20 133.80 122.00 56.50 3.30 20.70 96.00
      ACP-19 泥岩 101.00 335.00 41.00 16.70 80.10 120.50 18.70 21.40 3.10 21.70 95.00
      ACP-18 泥岩 108.00 295.00 41.00 20.40 59.00 94.50 15.70 25.50 2.50 18.80 81.00
      ACP-17 瘤灰岩 131.00 202.00 28.00 14.40 34.90 62.70 20.90 37.70 1.60 13.70 67.00
      ACP-16 泥岩 95.00 378.00 45.00 16.30 84.40 114.50 24.10 23.30 3.20 21.50 102.00
      ACP-15 泥岩 105.00 377.00 46.00 15.20 79.30 124.60 105.50 31.40 3.30 21.00 101.00
      ACP-14 泥灰岩 85.00 242.00 28.00 11.60 45.50 74.80 16.60 26.10 2.00 16.10 74.00
      ACP-13 泥岩 71.00 433.00 25.00 11.20 25.00 52.30 19.60 24.60 1.50 12.60 48.00
      ACP-12-2 泥灰岩 55.00 203.00 22.00 10.60 25.20 52.10 23.40 26.60 1.50 12.70 45.00
      ACP-11 泥灰岩 63.00 228.00 20.00 9.20 12.30 41.70 17.10 26.60 1.40 10.60 47.00
      ACP-10 泥灰岩 80.00 328.00 28.00 10.90 32.40 60.20 19.90 27.10 2.00 12.30 66.00
      ACP-09 泥灰岩 72.00 191.00 28.00 12.90 31.70 57.00 19.30 26.60 1.80 14.00 54.00
      ACP-08 泥灰岩 83.00 254.00 32.00 14.30 47.10 73.00 23.90 25.80 2.20 16.50 62.00
      ACP-07 泥灰岩 75.00 234.00 30.00 13.50 33.90 57.80 33.30 23.10 1.80 13.40 52.00
      ACP-06 泥灰岩 77.00 232.00 31.00 16.90 38.20 67.90 38.10 29.00 2.10 15.10 83.00
      ACP-05 泥灰岩 106.00 350.00 31.00 8.60 22.40 104.70 34.20 21.40 3.70 11.20 137.00
      ACP-03 泥岩 73.00 293.00 78.00 14.60 80.80 148.30 70.10 30.00 3.50 25.00 150.00
      ACP-02 粘土层 100.00 347.00 23.00 9.10 70.40 106.10 24.30 34.80 3.20 23.50 70.00
      ACP-01 硅质岩 73.00 289.00 78.00 14.40 109.40 149.40 70.10 48.60 3.50 22.90 151.00
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