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    西准噶尔古生代地层区划及古地理演化

    龚一鸣 纵瑞文

    龚一鸣, 纵瑞文, 2015. 西准噶尔古生代地层区划及古地理演化. 地球科学, 40(3): 461-484. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2015.038
    引用本文: 龚一鸣, 纵瑞文, 2015. 西准噶尔古生代地层区划及古地理演化. 地球科学, 40(3): 461-484. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2015.038
    Gong Yiming, Zong Ruiwen, 2015. Paleozoic Stratigraphic Regionalization and Paleogeographic Evolution in Western Junggar, Northwestern China. Earth Science, 40(3): 461-484. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2015.038
    Citation: Gong Yiming, Zong Ruiwen, 2015. Paleozoic Stratigraphic Regionalization and Paleogeographic Evolution in Western Junggar, Northwestern China. Earth Science, 40(3): 461-484. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2015.038

    西准噶尔古生代地层区划及古地理演化

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2015.038
    基金项目: 

    中国地质调查局项目 1212011220245

    中国地质调查局项目 1212011120502

    中国地质调查局项目 1212011120142

    国家自然科学基金项目 41290260

    国家自然科学基金项目 41472001

    高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金 20120145110012

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      龚一鸣(1958-), 男, 教授, 长期从事地层古生物和沉积地质研究和教学.E-mail: ymgong@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P535

    Paleozoic Stratigraphic Regionalization and Paleogeographic Evolution in Western Junggar, Northwestern China

    • 摘要: 根据大地构造环境与沉积组合(建造)类型,地层序列与地层接触关系,古地理格局与古环境条件,古生物类型与生物古地理区系,地层类型与地层的变形、变质和变位特征,地层区划的边界类型与识别标志,地层区划可以区分为综合和断代地层区划2类,都可以分为4级:地层大区(stratomegaregion)、地层区(stratoregion)、地层分区(stratosubregion)和地层小区(stratomicroregion).基于近年来取得的大量新资料、新认识和上述地层区划6方面的判据,西准噶尔地区古生代地层区划自北向南划分为萨吾尔山地层小区、沙尔布尔提山地层小区、玛依力山地层小区和克拉玛依地层小区.在构造古地理上,西准噶尔地区古生代表现为多岛洋和软碰撞的特点,志留纪后期至早石炭世是多岛洋和软碰撞的鼎盛时期,也是西准噶尔地区古生代地层区划的重要形成时期;晚石炭世至二叠纪,西准噶尔地区主体脱离海洋环境,进入陆内造山阶段,西准噶尔地区古生代地层的分区性逐渐消失.在生物古地理上,早古生代西准噶尔地区属于介于太平洋生物大区与大西洋生物大区之间的混生生物大区,不同于东北部西伯利亚板块南部由Tuvaella(图瓦贝)动物群所代表的生物区系;从志留纪至泥盆纪,西准噶尔地区的生物组合面貌明显属于热带-亚热带的古特提斯生物大区;晚石炭世-二叠纪西准噶尔地区陆相地层中的植物群面貌显示出明显的北温带安加拉植物群的特点.在沉积古地理上,西准噶尔地区古生代的作用相包括正常沉积与事件沉积,特别是反映活动构造环境的内力事件沉积特别发育,如火山爆发相、火山溢流相和震积岩相;环境相包括古陆、河流相、滨-浅海相和半深海-深海相.

       

    • 图  1  西准噶尔地层区划与地质简图

      a.据张二鹏(1998)蔡土赐(1999)高振家等(2000)改编.Ⅰ.北疆-兴安岭地层大区;Ⅱ.张广才岭-完达山地层大区;Ⅲ.兴凯地层大区;Ⅳ.塔里木-南疆地层大区;Ⅴ.华北地层大区;Ⅵ.华南地层大区;Ⅶ.藏滇地层大区;Ⅷ.印度地层大区;Ⅸ.南海地层大区;Ⅹ.台湾东部地层大区.b.据蔡土赐,1999改编,地层图例如图c.Ⅰ11.阿尔泰地层分区;Ⅰ12.北准噶尔地层分区;Ⅰ13.南准噶尔-北天山地层分区.Ⅰ12-1.喀尔齐斯地层小区;Ⅰ12-2.萨吾尔山地层小区;Ⅰ12-3.沙尔布尔提山地层小区;Ⅰ12-4.玛依力山地层小区;Ⅰ13-1.克拉玛依地层小区;Ⅰ13-2.莫索湾地层小区;Ⅰ13-5.玛纳斯地层小区.c.据纵瑞文等(2015b)和1∶25万《克拉玛依市幅》、《铁厂沟镇幅》野外资料编制;d.1∶25万《克拉玛依市幅》、《铁厂沟镇幅》图幅范围.1.第四系;2.中生界;3.二叠系;4.石炭系;5.泥盆系;6.志留系;7.奥陶系;8.蛇绿混杂岩;9.花岗岩;10.断裂;11.地层大区界线;12.地层分区界线;13.地层小区界线

      Fig.  1.  Sketch showing the stratigraphic regionalization and simplified geology in western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  2  西准噶尔古生代地层区划及其年代地层与岩石地层序列

      Lla(Llandovery).兰多维列统;Wen(Wenlock).文洛克统;Lud(Ludlow).罗德洛统;Pri(Pridoli).普里道利统;Eif(Eifelian).艾菲尔阶;Giv(Givetian).吉维特阶;Fra(Frasnian).弗拉阶;Fam(Famennian).法门阶;Tou(Tournaisian).杜内阶;Vis(Visean).维宪阶;Ser(Serpukhovian).谢尔普霍夫阶.a.蛇绿混杂岩;b.整合接触;c.平行不整合接触;d.角度不整合接触;e.未见直接接触关系;f.半深海-深海相放射虫化石;g.滨、浅海相无脊椎动物化石;h.陆生植物化石;i.复理石相遗迹化石;j.Cruziana相遗迹化石;k.Skolithos相遗迹化石.*表示本研究中重新修订过的岩石地层单位;**表示本研究中新建的岩石地层单位

      Fig.  2.  Palaeozoic stratigraphic regionalizations and their chronostratigraphic and lithostratigaphic sequences in western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  3  西准噶尔古生代地层中新发现的实体化石代表(新产地、新层位和/或新类别)

      a.放射虫及海绵骨针化石,达尔布特断裂北侧太勒古拉组;b.介壳灰岩,额敏哈拉也门东南部沙尔布尔组;c.放射虫化石,宝贝金矿附近太勒古拉组;d.Phacops (Omegops) cornelius,布龙果尔洪古勒楞组;e.Pseudowaribole (Pseudowaribole) quaesita,头盖,额敏哈拉也门塔克台组;f.短剑类Lepidocoleus sp.,额敏阿克布拉克沙尔布尔组;g.Phacopidae科三叶虫化石,孟布拉克地区马拉苏组;h.保存完美的海百合化石,乌兰柯顺地区洪古勒楞组;i.枝状苔藓虫,显示为原地埋藏,孟布拉克地区铁列克提组;j~k.层孔虫(j)和链珊瑚Halysites(k)化石,额敏阿克布拉克沙尔布尔组;l.同沉积灰岩岩块内的Phillipsiidae科三叶虫化石,希贝库拉斯南部希贝库拉斯组;m.谢米斯台山南侧呼吉尔斯特组植物化石;n.乌兰柯顺地区洪古勒楞组下部与浅海相腕足动物化石共同保存的植物化石(白色箭头处);o.达尔布特断裂中部克科呼拉附近哈拉阿拉特组上部与深水相遗迹化石(白色箭头处)共同保存的植物化石;p.卡因地包古图组浊积岩中的植物碎片化石.地质锤长30 cm

      Fig.  3.  New body fossils (in locality or stratohorizon or taxon) found in the Palaeozoic strata from western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  4  西准噶尔泥盆纪-石炭纪地层中新发现的遗迹化石代表(新产地、新层位和/或新类别)

      a.Zoophycos(动藻迹),照片面平行层面,库则温塔尔巴哈台组上部;b.Nereites(类砂蚕迹)(A)和Phycosiphon(藻管迹)(B)共生,照片面平行层面,达尔布特断裂北侧太勒古拉组;c.Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面,产地与层位同b;d.Teichichnus(墙形迹),照片面垂直层面,乌兰柯顺地区洪古勒楞组;e.Zoophycos(动藻迹),照片面垂直层面,产地与层位同d;f.Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面,乌兰柯顺地区黑山头组;g.Zoophycos(动藻迹),照片面垂直层面,孟布拉克地区马拉苏组;h.Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面,产地及层位同b;i.Phycosiphon(藻管迹),照片面平行层面,额敏县乌什水塔尔巴哈台组;j.Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面,达尔布特断裂中部克科呼拉附近哈拉阿拉特组上部;k.Nereites(类砂蚕迹)(A)和Planolites(漫游迹)(B)共生,照片面平行层面,产地与层位同g;l.Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面,哈拉阿拉特山哈拉阿拉特组上部;m.Thalassinoides(海生迹),照片面平行层面,产地与层位同d;n.Chondrites(丛藻迹),照片面平行层面,布龙果尔洪古勒楞组;o.Chondrites(丛藻迹),照片面平行层面,产地与层位同g

      Fig.  4.  New trace fossils(in locality or stratohorizon or taxon)found in the Devonian and Carboniferous strata from western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  5  西准噶尔古生代代表性沉积相标志集锦

      a.乌兰柯顺地区朱鲁木特组辫状河相二元结构景观;b.白杨镇西南部吉木乃组河流相二元结构;c.哈拉阿拉特山佳木河组河流相二元结构;d.孟布拉克地区马拉苏组震积岩中的软沉积变形;e.白杨镇西南部吉木乃组砂岩层面上的不对称波痕;f.孟布拉克地区马拉苏组中的包卷层理;g.哈图附近太勒古拉组由粉砂和泥质成分组成的毫米级鲍马序列,照片右边为上层面方向;h.孟布拉克地区马拉苏组风暴沉积序列中的砂球构造(A)及生物扰动构造(B);i.额敏东部阿克布拉克沙尔布尔组包卷层理;j.额敏乌什水塔尔巴哈台组中的浊积岩韵律层;k.达尔布特断裂附近哈拉阿拉特组上部的浊积岩韵律层.地质锤长30 cm,记号笔长度13.5 cm

      Fig.  5.  Sedimentary facies indicators from the Palaeozoic strata in western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  6  西准噶尔塔尔巴哈台组(D3C1t)野外地质特征及所含化石

      a, b.库则温塔尔巴哈台组上部浊积岩韵律层,b为a的局部放大;c.塔尔巴哈台组上部软沉积变形;d, e.塔尔巴哈台组中部钙质砂岩中的群体珊瑚(d)和腕足类(e)化石;f, g.塔尔巴哈台组上部植物化石Archaeocalamites scrobiculatus(浅沟古芦木);h.遗迹化石Cosmorhaphe isp.(A.丽线迹)和Phycosiphon isp.(B.藻管迹).地质锤长30 cm

      Fig.  6.  Stratigraphic succession and fossils preserved in the Ta'erbahatai Formation (D3C1t) from western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  7  西准噶尔塔克台组(D3tk)野外地质特征及所含化石

      a, f.额敏县哈拉也门塔克台组上部含可采煤层地层景观;b.塔克台组上部野外露头景观;c.塔克台组下部凝灰质砾岩;d.塔克台组下部火山角砾岩;e.塔克台组上部钙质砂岩中的浅海相动物化石,以腕足类和双壳类为主;g.塔克台组上部双壳类化石Euchondria sp.;h~i.塔克台组上部腕足类化石Syringothyris sp.,h为腹视,i为腹基面(示管孔).地质锤长30 cm

      Fig.  7.  Stratigraphic characteristics and fossils preserved in the Taketai Formation (D3tk) from western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  8  西准噶尔石炭纪希贝库拉斯组、包古图组和太勒古拉组野外地质特征及所含遗迹化石

      a.希贝库拉斯南希贝库拉斯组野外露头景观,人站立处为巨厚层圆砾岩,砾石直径最大可达20 cm;b.宝贝金矿附近包古图组野外露头景观,其中含复理石相遗迹化石NereitesCosmorhaphe等;c.哈图金矿附近太勒古拉组中部细粒火山碎屑岩野外露头景观;d.希贝库拉斯组中的圆砾岩;e.希贝库拉斯组中的圆砾岩中所夹的同沉积灰岩岩块;f.包古图组浊积岩韵律层;g.太勒古拉组中部软沉积变形;h.太勒古拉组上部灰绿、灰紫等杂色火山碎屑岩;i, j.包古图河东侧希贝库拉斯组与包古图组界线附近的粒序层理与冲刷构造,指示向包古图组方向为地层变新方向;k, l.太勒古拉西部(k)及包古图河西侧包古图组与太勒古拉组界线附近的粒序层理与冲刷构造,指示向太勒古拉组方向为地层变新方向;m.太勒古拉组遗迹化石Zoophycos(动藻迹),照片面高角度斜交层面;n.包古图组遗迹化石?Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面;o, p.太勒古拉组(o)和包古图组(p)中的遗迹化石Nereites(类砂蚕迹),照片面平行层面;q.太勒古拉组遗迹化石?Phycosiphon(藻管迹),照片面平行层面.地质锤长30 cm,野簿长度18 cm,记号笔长度13.5 cm,硬币直径2 cm

      Fig.  8.  Stratigraphic characteristics and trace fossils preserved in the Carboniferous Xibeikulasi, Baogutu and Tailegula Formations from western Junggar, northwestern China

      图  9  西准噶尔中古生代古地理格局示意

      Fig.  9.  Sketch showing the middle Palaeozoic archipelagic ocean in western Junggar, northwestern China

      表  1  地层区划、生物区系和环境相分级依据及其级序关系

      Table  1.   Hierarchy, criterion and relationship among stratigraphic regionalization, paleobiogeography and environmental facies

      级别 地层区划 生物区系 环境相 级序关系
      名称 依据 边界类型 名称 依据 名称 依据
      一级 地层大区/stratomegaregion 大地构造环境与沉积组合类型、系或界、生物区、大相可对比 对接带,深大断裂,大相和生物大区分界线 生物大区/biomegapro-vince/realm 底栖科或浮游属可对比 大相/相组/megasedfacies 生物+化学相标志相同或相似 高级别的地层区划单元通常对应高级别的生物区系单元和环境相单元,但不一定是一一对应关系
      二级 地层区/stratoregion 沉积组合类型、统、生物区或生物分区、相可对比 叠接带,深大断裂,沉积相、生物区、地层类型分界线 生物区/省/域bioprovince/province/region 底栖属或浮游种可对比 相/sedfacies 生物+化学+物理相标志相同或相似
      三级 地层分区/stratosubregion 地层类型和组基本可对比;生物分区或生物小区、亚相可对比 叠接带,大-中型断裂,生物分区、亚相和地层类型分界线 生物分区/亚省/biosubprovince/subprovince 浮游种可对比 亚相/subsedfacies 生物+化学+物理相标志相同;相标志组合相似
      四级 地层小区/stratomicroregion 地层类型和组甚至段、生物小区或生物分区、亚相或微相可对比 大-中型断裂,生物小区和地层类型分界线 生物小区/地方中心/biomicropro-vince/endemic center 底栖种甚至亚种可对比 微相/microsedfacies 生物+化学+物理相标志相同;相标志组合相同
      注:据黄汲清(1962)王鸿祯(1978)殷鸿福(1988)龚一鸣(1993)张克信等(2014)编制.
      下载: 导出CSV
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