• 中国出版政府奖提名奖

    中国百强科技报刊

    湖北出版政府奖

    中国高校百佳科技期刊

    中国最美期刊

    留言板

    尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

    姓名
    邮箱
    手机号码
    标题
    留言内容
    验证码

    塘沽地区湖相白云岩储层裂缝特征及其控制因素

    赵耀 姚光庆 穆立华 李乐 王刚

    赵耀, 姚光庆, 穆立华, 李乐, 王刚, 2016. 塘沽地区湖相白云岩储层裂缝特征及其控制因素. 地球科学, 41(2): 252-264. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.019
    引用本文: 赵耀, 姚光庆, 穆立华, 李乐, 王刚, 2016. 塘沽地区湖相白云岩储层裂缝特征及其控制因素. 地球科学, 41(2): 252-264. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.019
    Zhao Yao, Yao Guangqing, Mu Lihua, Li Le, Wang Gang, 2016. Characteristics and Controlling Factors of Fractures in Lacustrine Dolostones Reservoirs in Tanggu District. Earth Science, 41(2): 252-264. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.019
    Citation: Zhao Yao, Yao Guangqing, Mu Lihua, Li Le, Wang Gang, 2016. Characteristics and Controlling Factors of Fractures in Lacustrine Dolostones Reservoirs in Tanggu District. Earth Science, 41(2): 252-264. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.019

    塘沽地区湖相白云岩储层裂缝特征及其控制因素

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.019
    基金项目: 

    中国石油股份有限公司大港油田分公司重点项目 No.DGYT-2012-JS-566

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      赵耀(1986-),男,博士,主要从事开发地质工作.E-mail:yibeilol@hotmail.com

      通讯作者:

      姚光庆,E-mail:gqyao@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P618.13

    Characteristics and Controlling Factors of Fractures in Lacustrine Dolostones Reservoirs in Tanggu District

    • 摘要: 塘沽地区沙三5油组属于断块、高压和裂缝型湖相白云岩油藏,裂缝成因复杂,控制因素多,目前的研究未见深入.从岩心、薄片、测井等资料入手,配合有限元模拟分析,研究塘沽地区湖相白云岩储层裂缝成因、期次,描述裂缝特征,分析成缝控制因素.研究表明:(1) 裂缝以构造缝为主,层理缝和溶蚀缝比例较少,渗流能力依次减弱;(2) 共发育4期裂缝:平行层面的层理缝;倾角为45°的共轭斜交缝、倾角为60°的高角度斜交缝;倾角为75°~90°的高角度/垂直张性裂缝;倾角70°~85°的高角度/垂直缝;(3) 构造、岩性、成岩和超压是湖相白云岩储层裂缝的主控因素,其对断裂和应力场的作用尤为明显;(4) 本区裂缝发育优势区主要集中在距离中部断垒近的2组近NW和NE向断裂交叉地带,油气勘探中应综合研究寻找上述裂缝发育区与高压地层配合的“甜点”区.

       

    • 图  1  区域地质及研究区构造顶面

      Fig.  1.  Position and regional geological sketch of work area

      图  2  研究区裂缝特征

      a.早期高角度裂缝,塘39-3井,3831.72m;b.晚期高角度裂缝,塘12C井,3140.67m;c.水平缝,塘12C井,3125.84m;d.低角度裂缝,塘12C井, 3153.43m;e.网状裂缝,塘12C井,3153.43m;f.扩大溶蚀缝塘12C井,3140.67m;g.泥质泥晶白云岩,网状裂缝发育,正交偏光,10×5,塘12C井,3140.67m;h.泥质泥晶白云岩,帚状裂缝组合,正交偏光,10×5,塘12C井,3126.54m;i.泥质泥晶白云岩,网状裂缝组合,正交偏光,10×5,塘12C井,3140.67m;j.含泥泥晶白云岩,小裂缝发育,右侧见两条微裂缝,正交偏光,10×10,塘12C井,3131.05m;k.泥质泥晶白云岩,帚状裂缝组合,正交偏光,10×5,塘12C井,3140.67m;l.泥晶白云岩,顺层裂缝,单偏光,铸体薄片,10×10,塘12C井,3143.17m;m.泥晶白云岩,小裂缝及闭合缝切穿纹层,正交偏光,10×5,塘12C井Y20,3151.65m;n.泥晶白云岩,微裂缝切穿方沸石纹层,正交偏光,10×5,塘12C井,3143.17m;o.泥晶白云岩,微裂缝碎屑纹层正交偏光,10×10,塘12C井,3145.73m;p.溶蚀形成的扩容裂缝,塘39-3井,3830.74m;q.溶蚀形成的扩容裂缝,塘12C井,3132.05m;r.塘39-3井,溶蚀形成的扩容裂缝,3833.14m

      Fig.  2.  Fracture characteristics of study area

      图  3  缝与岩性关系

      a.裂缝发育程度与岩性关系;b.裂缝发育程度与层厚关系

      Fig.  3.  Relationship between lithology and fractures

      图  4  岩性与裂缝发育特征

      Fig.  4.  Fractures characteristic of different lithology

      图  5  塘沽地区湖相白云岩储层裂缝发育指数与断裂带关系

      Fig.  5.  Relationship between the fracture-developeing index and fault zone

      图  6  塘沽地区沙三5油组裂缝发育段厚度等值线

      Fig.  6.  Contour sketch of fractures developing thickness in ${{\text{E}}_{\text{1}}}s_{3}^{5}$

      图  7  沙三5油组1小层和3小层应力强度分布及裂缝线密度平面等值线

      a.沙三5油组1小层应力强度分布;b.沙三5油组3小层应力强度分布;c.沙三5油组1小层裂缝线密度平面等值线;d.沙三5油组3小层裂缝线密度平面等值线

      Fig.  7.  Contour sketch of stress intensity and fracture density in ${{\text{E}}_{\text{1}}}s_{3}^{{{5}^{1}}}$ , ${{\text{E}}_{\text{1}}}s_{3}^{{{5}^{3}}}$

      图  8  塘12C井不同成岩相的裂缝发育程度

      Fig.  8.  Relationship between diagenesisfacies and fractures of T12C

      图  9  不同压力井含油性分析

      Fig.  9.  Oilness analysis of different pressures

      图  10  塘沽地区超压分布与裂缝发育关系

      Fig.  10.  Relationship between overpressure and fracture

      图  11  塘29-16C井开采曲线

      Fig.  11.  Production curve of T29-26C

      表  1  塘12C井取心段各单层岩性和厚度统计

      Table  1.   Lithology and thickness statistics of core sample in T12C

      层号 ${{\text{E}}_{1}}s_{3}^{{{5}^{1}}}$ ${{\text{E}}_{1}}s_{3}^{{{5}^{2-1}}}$ ${{\text{E}}_{1}}s_{3}^{{{5}^{2-2}}}$
      白云岩类
      厚度
      白云岩厚度(m)//8.1
      含泥白云岩厚度(m)/0.87.8
      泥质白云岩厚度(m)/2.95.8
      泥质岩类
      厚度
      白云质泥岩厚度(m)3.74.33.1
      含白云泥岩厚度(m)13.46.21.7
      泥(页)岩厚度(m)///
      灰质泥岩厚度(m)///
      其他厚度灰质粉砂岩(m)///
      炭质沥青(m)//0.2
      总厚度(m)17.114.226.6
      下载: 导出CSV
    • Antonellini, M., Mollema, P.N., 2000.A Natural Analog for a Fractured and Faulted Reservoir in Dolomite:Triassic Sella Group, Northern Italy.AAPG Bulletin, 84(3):314-344.doi: 10.1306/c9ebcddd-1735-11d7-8645000102c1865d
      Berg, S.S., Skar, T., 2005.Controls on Damage Zone Asymmetry of a Normal Fault Zone:Outcrop Analyses of a Segment of the Moab Fault, SE Utah.Journal of Structural Geology, 27(10):1803-1822.doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2005.04.012
      Caine, J.S., Bruhn, R.L., Forster, C.B., 2010.Internal Structure, Fault Rocks, and Inferences Regarding Deformation, Fluid Flow, and Mineralization in the Seismogenic Stillwater Normal Fault, Dixie Valley, Nevada.Journal of Structural Geology, 32(11):1576-1589.doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2010.03.004
      Casado, A.I., Alonso-Zarza, A.M., Iglesia, Á.L., 2014.Morphology and Origin of Dolomite in Paleosols and Lacustrine Sequences.Examples from the Miocene of the Madrid Basin.Sedimentary Geology, 312:50-62.doi: 10.1016/j.sedgeo.2014.07.005
      Chen, H.D., Hu, S.H., Chen, A.Q., et al., 2013.Genesis of Non-Karst Dolomite Reservoirsin the Eastern Central Paleo-Up Lift in the Ordos Basin.Natural Gas Industry, 33(10):18-24(in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283749926_Genesis_of_non-karst_dolomite_reservoirs_in_the_eastern_central_paleo-uplift_in_the_Ordos_Basin
      Chester, F.M., Logan, J.M., 1986.Implications for Mechanical Properties of Brittle Faults from Observations of the Punchbowl Fault Zone, California.Pure and Applied Geophysics, 124(1-2):79-106.doi: 10.1007/bf00875720
      Deng, R.J., Chai, G.Q., Yang, Y., et al., 2001.Forming Conditions and Distribution Characteristics of Tertiary Oil and Gas Pools in Beitang Sag.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 28(1):27-29 (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.1007/s12583-009-0061-9
      Deng, R.J., Xu, B., Qi, J.F., et al., 2005.Petroleum Geological Role of Paleogene Overpressure Reservoirsin Tanggu-Xincun of Beitang Sag, Bohai Bay Basin.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 32(6):46-51(in Chinese with English abstract). http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-SKYK200202037.htm
      Feng, Y.L., Zhou, H.M., Ren, J.Y., et al., 2010.Paleogene Sequence Stratigraphy in the East of the Bohai Bay Basin and Its Response to Structural Movement.Science in China(Series D), 40(10):1356-1376(in Chinese). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225826860_Sequence_stratigraphy_and_depositional_systems_in_the_Paleogene_Liaodong_Bay
      Gale, J.F.W., Lander, R.H., Reed, R.M., et al., 2010.Modeling Fracture Porosity Evolution in Dolostone.Journal of Structural Geology, 32(9):1201-1211.doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2009.04.018
      Gong, L., Zeng, L.B., Zhang, B.J., et al., 2012.Control Factors for Fracture Development in Tight Conglomerate Reservoir of Jiulongshan Structure.Journal of China University of Petroleum (Edition of Natural Science), 36(6):6-12 (in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288044563_Control_factors_for_fracture_development_in_tight_conglomerate_reservoir_of_Jiulongshan_structure
      Groshong, R.H., 2001.Forced Folds and Fractures:Geological Society Special Publication.Tectonophysics, 334(1):57-59.doi: 10.1016/S0040-1951(01)00025-7
      Gudmundsson, A., 2000.Fracture Dimensions, Displacements and Fluid Transport.Journal of Structural Geology, 22(9):1221-1231.doi: 10.1016/s0191-8141(00)00052-3
      Gudmundsson, A., Kusumoto, S., Simmenes, T.H., et al., 2012.Effects of Overpressure Variations on Fracture Apertures and Fluid Transport.Tectonophysics, 581:220-230.doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.05.003
      Hanks, C.L., Lorenz, J.C., Teufel, L., et al., 1997.Lithologic and Structural Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution and Behavior with in the Lisburne Group, Northeastern Brooks Range and North Slope Subsurface, Alaska.AAPG Bulletin, 81(10):1700-1720.doi: 10.1306/3b05c424-172a-11d7-8645000102c1865d
      Huang, Q., Angelier, J., 1989.Fracture Spacing and Its Relation to Bed Thickness.Geological Magazine, 126(4):355-362.doi: 10.1017/s0016756800006555
      Kaviani, D., Bui, T., Jensen, J.L., et al., 2008.The Application of Artificial Neural Networks with Small Data Sets:An Example for Analysis of Fracture Spacing in the Lisburne Formation, Northeastern Alaska.SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, 11(3):598-605.doi: 10.2118/103188-pa
      Lavenu, A.P.C., Lamarche, J., Gallois, A., et al., 2013.Tectonic Versus Diagenetic Origin of Fractures in a Naturally Fractured Carbonate Reservoir Analog (Nerthe Anticline, Southeastern France).AAPG Bulletin, 97(12):2207-2232.doi: 10.1306/04041312225
      Luo, Y., Zhao, Y.C., Chen, H.H., et al., 2015.Fracture Characteristics under the Coupling Effect of Tectonic Stressand Fluid Pressure:A Case Study of the Fractured Shale Oil Reservoir in Liutun Subsag, Dongpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 42(2):177-185(in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285299792_Overpressured_fractured_mudstone_reservoir_in_salt-mud_interbed_-_A_case_from_Wenliu_structure_in_Dongpu_Sag
      Narr, W., Suppe, J., 1991.Joint Spacing in Sedimentary Rocks.Journal of Structural Geology, 13(9):1037-1048.doi: 10.1016/0191-8141(91)90055-n
      Nelson R.A.1985.Geology Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoir.Gulf Publishing Company, Houston.
      Pu, X.G., Zhou, L.H., Xiao, D.Q., et al., 2011.Lacustrine Carbonates in the Southwest Margin of Qikou Sag, Huanghua Depression, Bohai Bay Basin.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 38(2):136-144 (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.1016/S1876-3804(11)60022-0
      Sibson, R.H., 2003.Brittle-Failure Controls on Maximum Sustainable Overpressure in Different Tectonic Regimes.AAPG Bulletin, 87(6):901-908.doi: 10.1306/01290300181
      Volland, S., Kruhl, J.H., 2004.Anisotropy Quantification:The Application of Fractal Geometry Methods on Tectonic Fracture Patterns of a Hercynian Fault Zone in NW Sardinia.Journal of Structural Geology, 26(8):1499-1510.doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2003.10.005
      Wang, J.H., Wang, H., Ren, J.Y., et al., 2010.A Great Oblique Transition Zone in the Central Huanghua Depression and Its Significance for Petroleum Exploration.Acta Petrolei Sinica, 31(3):355-360 (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.1038/aps.2010.10
      Wang, J.H., Zou, C.N., Jin, J.Q., et al., 2011.Characteristics and Controlling Factors of Fractures in Igneous Rock Reservoirs.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 38(6):708-715 (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.1016/S1876-3804(12)60005-6
      Xu, Y.D., ,Liang, Y.P., Jiang, S.S., et al., 2014.Evolution of Cenozoic Sedimentary Basins in Eastern China.Earth Science, 39(8):1079-1098 (in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285947643_Evolution_of_cenozoic_sedimentary_basins_in_Eastern_China
      Yan, X.Z., Wang, Z.G., Liu, Q.J., et al., 2009.Reservoir Fracture Prediction by Multi-Parameter Criteria Method.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 36(6):749-755 (in Chinese with English abstract).
      Zeng, L.B., Gao, C.Y., Qi, J.F., et al., 2008.Ordos Basin Longdong Region, Low Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Fracture Distribution and Its Effect on the Seepage.Science in China(Series D), 38(1):41-47 (in Chinese).
      Zeng, L.B., Qi, J.F., Li, Y.G., 2007.The Relationship between Fractures and Tectonic Stress Field in the Extra Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir at the South of Western Sichuan Depression.Journal of Earth Science, 18(3):223-231.doi: 10.1016/s1002-0705(08)60003-5
      Zeng, L.B., Jin, Z.J., Tang, L.J., et al., 2001.Structural Controls of Petroleum and Gas Distribution on Northern Margin of Qaidam Basin, China.Earth Science, 26(1):54-58 (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-23872-7_9
      Zhang, P., Hou, G.T., Pan, W.Q., et al., 2013.Research on the Effectiveness of Fractures in Sinian-Cambrian Dolomite Reservoir in Tarim Basin.Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, 49(6):993-1001 (in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289189750_Research_on_the_effectiveness_of_fractures_in_Sinian-Cambrian_dolomite_reservoir_in_Tarim_Basin
      Zhao, L., Li, J.X., Li, K.C., et al., 2010.Development and Genetic Mechanism of Complex Carbonate Reservoir Fractures:A Case from the Zanarol Oilfield, Kazakhstan.Petroleum Exploration and Development, 37(3):304-309 (in Chinese with English abstract). doi: 10.1016/S1876-3804(10)60034-1
      Zhao, W.Z., Shen, A.J., Hu, S.Y., et al., 2012.Types and Distributional Features of Cambrian-Ordovician Dolostone Reservoirs in Tarim Basin, Northwestern China.Acta Petrologica Sinica, 28(3):758-768 (in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286851764_Types_and_distributional_features_of_Cambrian-Ordovician_dolostone_reservoirs_in_Tarim_Basin_northwestern_China
      Zhao, W.Z., Shen, A.J., Zheng, J.F., et al., 2014.The Porosity Origin of Dolostone Reservoirs in the Tarim, Sichuan and Ordos Basins and Its Implication to Reservoir Prediction.Science in China(Series D), 44(9):1925-1939 (in Chinese). doi: 10.1007/s11430-014-4920-6
      Zheng, H.R., Wu, M.B., Wu, X.W., et al., 2007.Oil-Gas Exploration Prospect of Dolomite Reservoir in the Lower Paleozoic of Tarim Basin.Acta Petrolei Sinica, 28(2):1-8 (in Chinese with English abstract). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287448529_Oil-gas_exploration_prospect_of_dolomite_reservoir_in_the_Lower_Paleozoic_of_Tarim_Basin
      Zhou, W.W., Wang, W.F., An, B., et al., 2014.Identificication of Potential Fault Zones and Its Geological Significance in Bohai Bay Basin.Earth Science, 39(11):1627-1638 (in Chinese with English abstract).
      Zhou, L.H., Lu, Y., Xiao, D.Q., et al., 2011.Basinal Texture Structure of Qikou Sag in Bohai Bay Basin and Its Evolution.Natural Gas Geoscience, 22(3):373-382 (in Chinese with English abstract).
      陈洪德, 胡思涵, 陈安清, 等, 2013.鄂尔多斯盆地中央古隆起东侧非岩溶白云岩储层成因.天然气工业, 33(10):18-24. doi: 10.3787/j.issn.1000-0976.2013.10.003
      邓荣敬, 柴公权, 杨桦, 等, 2001.北塘凹陷第三系油气藏形成条件与油气分布.石油勘探与开发, 28(1):27-29. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SKYK200101008.htm
      邓荣敬, 徐备, 漆家福, 等, 2005.北塘凹陷塘沽-新村地区古近系异常高压特征及其石油地质意义.石油勘探与开发, 32(6):46-51. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SKYK200506010.htm
      冯有良, 周海民, 任建业, 等, 2010.渤海湾盆地东部古近系层序地层及其对构造活动的响应.中国科学(D辑), 40(10):1356-1376. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-JDXK201010007.htm
      巩磊, 曾联波, 张本健, 等, 2012.九龙山构造致密砾岩储层裂缝发育的控制因素.中国石油大学学报(自然科学版), 36(6):6-12. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SYDX201206003.htm
      骆杨, 赵彦超, 陈红汉, 等, 2015.构造应力-流体压力耦合作用下的裂缝发育特征——以渤海湾盆地东濮凹陷柳屯洼陷裂缝性泥页岩"油藏"为例.石油勘探与开发, 42(2):177-185. doi: 10.11698/PED.2015.02.06
      蒲秀刚, 周立宏, 肖敦清, 等, 2011.黄骅坳陷歧口凹陷西南缘湖相碳酸盐岩地质特征.石油勘探与开发, 38(2):136-144. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SKYK201102004.htm
      王家豪, 王华, 任建业, 等, 2010.黄骅坳陷中区大型斜向变换带及其油气勘探意义.石油学报, 31(3):355-360. doi: 10.7623/syxb201003002
      王京红, 邹才能, 靳久强, 等, 2011.火成岩储集层裂缝特征及成缝控制因素.石油勘探与开发, 38(6):708-715. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SKYK201106009.htm
      徐亚东, 梁银平, 江尚松, 等, 2014.中国东部新生代沉积盆地演化.地球科学, 39(8):1079-1098. http://www.earth-science.net/WebPage/Article.aspx?id=2918
      闫相祯, 王志刚, 刘钦节, 等, 2009.储集层裂缝预测分析的多参数判据法.石油勘探与开发, 36(6):749-755. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SKYK200906013.htm
      曾联波, 高春宇, 漆家福, 等, 2008.鄂尔多斯盆地陇东地区特低渗透砂岩储层裂缝分布规律及其渗流作用.中国科学(D辑), 38(1):41-47. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-JDXK2008S1005.htm
      曾联波, 金之钧, 汤良杰, 等, 2001.柴达木盆地北缘油气分布的构造控制作用.地球科学, 26(1):54-58. http://www.earth-science.net/WebPage/Article.aspx?id=809
      张鹏, 侯贵廷, 潘文庆, 等, 2013.塔里木盆地震旦-寒武系白云岩储层构造裂缝有效性研究.北京大学学报(自然科学版), 49(6):993-1001. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-BJDZ201306008.htm
      赵伦, 李建新, 李孔绸, 等, 2010.复杂碳酸盐岩储集层裂缝发育特征及形成机制——以哈萨克斯坦让纳若尔油田为例.石油勘探与开发, 37(3):304-309. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-SKYK201003008.htm
      赵文智, 沈安江, 胡素云, 等, 2012.塔里木盆地寒武-奥陶系白云岩储层类型与分布特征.岩石学报, 28(3):758-768. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-YSXB201203006.htm
      赵文智, 沈安江, 郑剑锋, 等, 2014.塔里木、四川及鄂尔多斯盆地白云岩储层孔隙成因探讨及对储层预测的指导意义.中国科学(D辑), 44(9):1925-1939. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-JDXK201409005.htm
      郑和荣, 吴茂炳, 邬兴威, 等, 2007.塔里木盆地下古生界白云岩储层油气勘探前景.石油学报, 28(2):1-8. doi: 10.7623/syxb200702001
      周立宏, 卢异, 肖敦清, 等, 2011.渤海湾盆地歧口凹陷盆地结构构造及演化.天然气地球科学, 22(3):373-382. http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-TDKX201103002.htm
      周维维, 王伟锋, 安邦, 等, 2014.渤海湾盆地隐性断裂带识别及其地质意义.地球科学, 39(11):1627-1638. http://www.earth-science.net/WebPage/Article.aspx?id=2982
    • 加载中
    图(11) / 表(1)
    计量
    • 文章访问数:  3351
    • HTML全文浏览量:  1828
    • PDF下载量:  23
    • 被引次数: 0
    出版历程
    • 收稿日期:  2015-08-13
    • 刊出日期:  2016-02-15

    目录

      /

      返回文章
      返回