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    豫西火神庙岩体锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学及Hf同位素组成

    王赛 叶会寿 杨永强 张兴康 苏慧敏 杨晨英

    王赛, 叶会寿, 杨永强, 张兴康, 苏慧敏, 杨晨英, 2016. 豫西火神庙岩体锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学及Hf同位素组成. 地球科学, 41(2): 293-316. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.022
    引用本文: 王赛, 叶会寿, 杨永强, 张兴康, 苏慧敏, 杨晨英, 2016. 豫西火神庙岩体锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学及Hf同位素组成. 地球科学, 41(2): 293-316. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.022
    Wang Sai, Ye Huishou, Yang Yongqiang, Zhang Xingkang, Su Huimin, Yang Chenying, 2016. Zircon U-Pb Chronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Huoshenmiao Pluton, Western Henan. Earth Science, 41(2): 293-316. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.022
    Citation: Wang Sai, Ye Huishou, Yang Yongqiang, Zhang Xingkang, Su Huimin, Yang Chenying, 2016. Zircon U-Pb Chronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Huoshenmiao Pluton, Western Henan. Earth Science, 41(2): 293-316. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.022

    豫西火神庙岩体锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学及Hf同位素组成

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.022
    基金项目: 

    国土资源部公益性行业基金项目 No.200911007-08

    国家自然科学基金项目 No.41272104

    国家科技支撑计划项目 No.2011BAB04B06

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      王赛(1989-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿床成矿理论方面的研究.E-mail: wangsainb@163.com

      通讯作者: 叶会寿,E-mail: yehuishou@163.com
    • 中图分类号: P581

    Zircon U-Pb Chronology, Geochemistry and Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Huoshenmiao Pluton, Western Henan

    • 摘要: 火神庙岩体位于华北陆块南缘栾川矿集区西部,为一杂岩体,该岩体与火神庙钼矿床密切相关.目前,人们对火神庙岩体的研究程度较低,严重制约了对火神庙钼矿床成因的认识.系统开展了年代学、地球化学和Hf同位素组成研究.结果表明,石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的形成年龄分别为150.3±0.6Ma、146.0±0.6Ma和145.1±0.5Ma,为栾川矿集区晚侏罗世第2次大规模岩浆活动的产物.火神庙杂岩体属于I型花岗岩,是不同源区部分熔融形成的岩浆上升就位的结果.石英闪长岩是富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融的产物;二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩是富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融形成的镁铁质岩浆与太华群TTG岩系部分熔融形成的长英质岩浆混合后上升就位的结果.
    • 图 1  栾川钼多金属矿集区地质简图

      Figure 1.  Geological sketch of the Luanchuan ore district

      1.新元古界-早古生界陶湾群含砾灰岩、大理岩、千枚岩和石英岩;2.新元古界栾川群碎屑岩、碳酸盐岩和碱性火山岩;3.中元古界-新元古界宽坪群大理岩和基性火山岩;4.中元古界官道口群碎屑岩和含燧石条带大理岩;5.早白垩世花岗岩;6.晚侏罗世花岗斑岩;7.断裂;8.斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿床;9.矽卡岩型多金属硫铁矿床;10.热液脉型铅锌银矿床;a.太行山断裂带;b.三门峡-宝丰断裂带;c.栾川断裂带;d.商丹断裂带;e.南漳断裂带;据叶会寿等(2006)修改

      图 2  火神庙岩体地质简图

      Figure 2.  Geological sketch of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      1.三川组大理岩;2.花岗斑岩;3.二长花岗岩;4.石英闪长岩;5.矽卡岩型钼矿体;6.年代学及Hf同位素分析样品及编号;7.地球化学分析样品及编号

      图 3  火神庙岩体岩相学特征

      Figure 3.  Petrography of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      a.石英闪长岩;b.石英闪长岩的中细粒粒状结构和斜长石聚片双晶;c.石英闪长岩中的斜长石环带结构;d.石英闪长岩中的角闪石简单双晶;e.二长花岗岩;f.二长花岗岩的中细粒粒状结构和斜长石聚片双晶;g.花岗斑岩;h.花岗斑岩的斑状结构;i.花岗斑岩中的石英发生溶蚀;Qz.石英;Pl.斜长石;Am.角闪石;Bi.黑云母;Kfs.钾长石

      图 4  火神庙岩体锆石CL图像

      Figure 4.  CL images of Zircons from the Huoshenmiao pluton

      小圈为U-Pb分析点,大圈为Hf同位素分析点,内部数字为分析点号,图像外部数字为U-Pb年龄(上方)和εHf(t)值(下方)

      图 5  火神庙岩体石英闪长岩(a)、花岗斑岩(b)和二长花岗岩(c)锆石U-Pb年龄谐和图及二长花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄的Tera-Wasserburg图解(d)

      Figure 5.  Zircon U-Pb concordia diagram for quartz diorite (a), granite porphyry (b) and monzo-granite(c) of the Huoshenmiao pluton and the Tera-Wasserburg plot for Monzo-granite (d)

      图 6  火神庙岩体A/CNK-A/NK图解(a)及SiO2-K2O图解(b)

      Figure 6.  SiO2-K2O diagrams (a) and A/CNK-A/NK (b) of the granites from the Huoshenmiao pluton

      Peccerillo and Taylor(1976)Rickwood(1989)

      图 7  火神庙岩体微量元素原始地幔标准化蛛网图和稀土元素球粒陨石标准化图

      Figure 7.  Primitive mantle normalized trace element spider diagrams and chondrite normalized REE patterns of the granites from the Huoshenmiao pluton

      标准值据Sun and McDonough(1989)

      图 8  火神庙岩体锆石Hf同位素组成εHf(t)和两阶段模式年龄TDM2柱状图

      Figure 8.  Zircon Hf isotopic compositions and TDM2 of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      图 9  火神庙岩体地球化学判别图解

      Figure 9.  Geochemical discrimination diagrams for the Huoshenmiao pluton

      图 10  火神庙岩体岩浆形成温度判别图

      Figure 10.  The diagram of temperature of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      熊小林等(2011)

      图 11  火神庙岩体岩浆形成压力判别图解

      Figure 11.  The diagram of pressure of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      熊小林等(2011)

      表 1  火神庙岩体LA-MC-ICPMS错石U-Pb年龄测定结果

      Table 1.  LA-MC-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      样品号Pb(10-6)U(10-6)232Th/238U同位素比值同位素年龄(Ma)
      207Pb/206Pb1σ207Pb/235U1σ206Pb/238U1σ207Pb/206Pb1σ207Pb/235U1σ206Pb/238U1σ
      B34HSM193500.7000.04960.00210.16250.00700.02370.00021789715371511
      B34HSM293460.7500.04910.00200.16030.00670.02370.00021549615161511
      B34HSM-3155751.0200.04940.00160.16110.00540.02360.00021687715251511
      B34HSM-4124710.8500.04980.00320.16100.01020.02340.0002188148152101492
      B34HSM-5114360.8000.04940.00250.16100.00840.02360.000216811915281511
      B34HSM-683240.8500.04960.00590.16180.01940.02370.0003176277152181512
      B34HSM-7114330.7500.04950.00190.16060.00670.02350.00021709015161502
      B34HSM-8124600.9800.04980.00140.16170.00460.02350.00021876415241501
      B34HSM-9114430.7200.04930.00130.16010.00430.02360.00021626115141501
      B34HSM-1062450.7100.04960.00220.16120.00710.02360.000217810115271501
      B34HSM-1183330.6600.04970.00240.16140.00790.02350.000218311215271501
      B34HSM-12114350.7000.04940.00130.16060.00440.02360.00021686215141501
      B34HSM-13114190.6700.04990.00150.16250.00510.02360.00021917015351502
      B34HSM-14103630.7500.04990.00130.16260.00440.02360.00021916115341511
      B34HSM-15134880.9400.04910.00130.15950.00440.02360.00021526215041501
      B34HSM-16135120.8600.04960.00150.16170.00550.02370.00031747115251512
      B34HSM-17103950.6400.04920.00200.16060.00690.02370.00021599715161511
      B34HSM-1872960.5800.04960.00180.16010.00600.02340.00021778515161491
      B34HSM-19114270.6600.04980.00150.16090.00500.02340.00021867015151491
      B34HSM-2062300.5400.04940.00240.16110.00800.02370.000216711515281511
      B34HSM-21114540.7300.04970.00140.15980.00470.02330.00021836715141481
      B34HSM-22114530.7300.04910.00130.16030.00430.02370.00021546215141511
      B34HSM-23104180.6800.04930.00130.16100.00440.02370.00021616115241511
      B34HSM-2483210.6200.04940.00180.16160.00610.02370.00021698715261511
      B64jHSM-1305270.5850.09620.00250.75210.05120.05670.00291551485693935618
      B64jHSM-2135670.5930.05410.00140.17050.00440.02290.00013745816041461
      B64jHSM-3114460.9370.05920.00130.18680.00420.02290.00015734817441461
      B64jHSM-4124800.8080.05020.00090.15860.00290.02290.00012044214931461
      B64jHSM-5114600.8830.06710.00280.21190.00890.02290.00028418619581461
      B64jHSM-6114620.8900.06160.00400.19500.01380.02290.0002662140181131461
      B64jHSM-7114201.0370.06350.00110.21480.00400.02450.00017253719841561
      B64jHSM-8334660.6920.09350.00090.86270.02670.06690.00171497186322041811
      B64jHSM-993781.2350.05440.00120.17250.00400.02300.00013884816241471
      B64jHSM-10135510.6400.05130.00070.16190.00220.02290.00012533115221461
      B64jHSM-11135540.6250.05170.00080.16300.00260.02290.00012703715321461
      B64jHSM-1293381.4280.05480.00070.17330.00220.02290.00014032816221461
      B64jHSM-1393461.3800.07510.00190.23700.00610.02290.000110715221661461
      B64jHSM-14495040.4610.08660.00091.13710.03430.09530.00251351207712358715
      B64jHSM-1583261.5450.04940.00190.15610.00610.02290.00011658914761461
      B64jHSM-1693930.3170.05870.00120.18510.00390.02290.00015544317241461
      B64jHSM-1794520.0630.05830.00060.18200.00190.02260.00015432217021441
      B64jHSM-18145730.5810.05540.00100.17480.00330.02290.00014294016431461
      B64jHSM-1982911.8290.05310.00130.16730.00420.02290.00013325515741461
      B64jHSM-20145850.5570.05550.00090.17520.00300.02290.00014333716431461
      B64jHSM-21135400.6580.05470.00090.17240.00270.02290.00014013616231461
      B64jHSM-2293671.3090.05100.00110.16070.00340.02290.00012414815131461
      B64jHSM-23125070.7380.05770.00120.18240.00410.02290.00015194817041461
      B64jHSM-24103961.1420.06760.00120.21290.00410.02280.00018573619641461
      B33HSM-172462.3000.04910.00210.15250.00670.02260.000115010214461441
      B33HSM-231151.4400.04850.00930.15260.02890.02280.0002122450144271462
      B33HSM-3166261.7300.04890.00070.15130.00200.02240.00011443214321431
      B33HSM-441641.7000.04920.00190.15270.00600.02250.00011589214461441
      B33HSM-5104161.4200.04910.00090.15210.00290.02250.00011524414431431
      B33HSM-6103861.7400.04890.00090.15230.00280.02260.00011454214431441
      B33HSM-793182.4200.04870.00130.15280.00390.02280.00011346114441451
      B33HSM-82910771.9900.04890.00070.15440.00200.02290.00011413314621461
      B33HSM-9197051.7300.04920.00080.15330.00240.02260.00011583714521441
      B33HSM-10195962.5700.04880.00080.15330.00250.02280.00011393814521451
      B33HSM-1172681.5000.04910.00170.15470.00540.02290.00011518114651461
      B33HSM-12113841.5600.04890.00110.15440.00350.02290.00011415414631461
      B33HSM-13102862.2700.04860.00130.15380.00400.02290.00011296114541461
      B33HSM-14165391.4000.04890.00120.15430.00380.02290.00011455714641461
      B33HSM-15175281.5100.04800.00080.15200.00250.02300.00011004014421461
      B33HSM-16194662.7900.04880.00090.15440.00280.02300.00011414314631461
      B33HSM-17102532.3900.04880.00180.15510.00560.02300.00011408414651471
      B33HSM-1831060.9700.04890.00310.15370.00990.02280.000214315014591451
      B33HSM-19165161.3900.04880.00070.15340.00220.02280.00011403414521451
      B33HSM-20227611.0900.04890.00080.15460.00250.02290.00011433814621461
      B33HSM-21165551.3200.04850.00070.15230.00200.02280.00011223214421451
      B33HSM-22124191.2500.04900.00120.15370.00380.02270.00011485714541451
      B33HSM-23144931.3100.04940.00090.15400.00260.02260.00011674014521441
      B33HSM-2482282.4300.04880.00160.15220.00510.02260.00011367614451441
      B33HSM-25103671.0200.04910.00150.15490.00460.02290.00011526914641461
      B33HSM-2672281.4700.04880.00170.15410.00550.02290.00011388314551461
      下载: 导出CSV

      表 2  火神庙岩体主量(%)测定结果

      Table 2.  Major elements (%)data of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      样品号石英闪长岩二长花岗岩花岗斑岩
      B1/HSMB22/HSMB24/HSMB25/HSMB6B10B19B28B9/HSMB11/HSMB33/HSMB65/HSM
      SiO261.9656.7956.8760.8471.1070.4071.9069.7070.9170.3672.4071.10
      TiO20.500.750.750.530.210.210.190.230.160.160.140.16
      Al2O316.1316.8817.9717.5715.1015.7514.9015.9014.0914.4914.6014.95
      TFe2O34.158.026.625.160.970.911.321.391.121.171.311.26
      MnO0.130.180.130.110.040.030.030.040.080.130.090.07
      MgO1.492.732.331.830.160.150.170.190.170.160.180.19
      CaO4.445.755.714.581.051.441.001.571.621.700.961.59
      Na2O4.563.884.184.123.623.943.493.533.053.824.203.66
      K2O4.803.102.923.336.785.566.756.555.665.755.025.07
      P2O50.280.610.580.350.080.090.070.080.040.040.020.03
      LOI0.951.201.040.910.820.500.670.732.001.670.351.31
      TATAL99.3999.8999.1099.3399.9398.98100.4999.9198.9099.4599.3099.40
      K2O+Na2O9.366.987.107.4510.409.5010.2410.088.719.579.228.73
      K2O/Na2O1.050.800.700.811.871.411.931.861.861.511.201.39
      A/CNK0.780.830.880.940.991.041.001.011.000.931.041.04
      A/NK1.271.731.791.691.131.261.141.231.261.161.181.30
      σ4.623.533.633.113.853.293.633.812.723.352.892.71
      DI765960679390939090919289
      Mg#464445452828232426242426
      Tzr736735733762791795777797769765776781
      注:A/CNK=(Al2O3)/(CaO+K2O+Na2O)摩尔数分数比;A/NK=(Al2O3)/(K2O+Na2O)摩尔数分数比;里特曼指数δ=(K2O+Na2O)2/(SiO2-43);Mg#=100×(MgO/40.31)/(MgO/40.31+TFe2O3×0.8998/71.85×0.85);全岩锆饱和温度TZr=12900/(lnDZr+0.85M+2.95)-273.15,DZr=49600/w(Zr),M=(2Ca+K+Na)/(Si×Al),w(Zr)为岩石中Zr的质量分数;熔体组成参数FM=(1/Si)[Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)]/Al.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表 3  火神庙岩体微量和稀土元素(10-6)测定结果

      Table 3.  Trace elements (10-6) data of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      样品号石英闪长岩二长花岗岩花岗斑岩
      B1/HSMB22/HSMB24/HSMB25/HSMB6B10B19B28B9/HSMB11/HSMB33/HSMB65/HSM
      Li6.675.813.325.124.001.902.001.906.979.732.107.90
      Be2.151.822.651.682.822.451.712.234.002.212.692.72
      Sc12.459.245.938.591.801.701.701.702.832.051.401.60
      V140.1145.078.587.318.013.015.09.012.08.75.07.0
      Cr6.309.458.727.571.001.002.001.005.433.521.473.66
      Co15.1814.4913.6410.401.001.201.601.401.070.711.300.90
      Ni4.036.344.203.392.201.401.702.701.481.191.300.70
      Cu15.342.8613.995.234.401.0014.603.205.388.7711.804.30
      Zn252.1144.7101.886.450.024.0103.044.052.753.555.063.0
      Ga32.731.326.931.321.219.618.018.819.021.717.918.0
      Rb9888165129140120142146285192148141
      Sr1377165210621433406552448502152190138156
      Y20.418.916.220.617.013.712.214.413.913.615.212.1
      Zr176154177177187185156201238151168180
      Cd0.860.770.470.610.190.110.260.170.270.260.210.26
      In0.090.070.090.070.070.060.050.070.040.030.040.03
      Nb31.228.833.232.839.734.428.139.450.533.137.935.6
      Cs4.435.093.804.732.381.871.581.831.931.261.221.19
      Ba2367310836003155220019801475205016781537512823
      La76.462.253.472.022.723.926.616.150.549.539.047.7
      Ce149.6116.297.8132.264.357.453.640.487.782.970.286.0
      Pr16.1211.969.0612.647.237.456.355.817.737.377.789.61
      Nd52.845.231.645.524.225.121.221.724.923.525.429.1
      Sm9.288.175.417.763.973.753.273.944.293.954.044.16
      Eu2.192.171.481.890.901.000.931.130.780.770.810.84
      Gd6.905.863.995.752.882.812.642.803.112.983.353.32
      Tb0.870.730.500.740.460.430.390.440.440.410.520.52
      Dy4.643.912.814.102.682.402.112.652.692.463.362.90
      Ho0.880.720.550.800.530.510.430.560.560.510.640.61
      Er2.431.941.612.291.691.531.271.521.751.601.891.85
      Tm0.330.250.240.320.220.220.160.230.290.280.320.30
      Yb1.761.691.631.731.531.561.331.661.881.652.182.12
      Lu0.320.230.250.300.280.250.210.270.330.290.330.33
      Hf3.663.183.873.855.104.703.905.106.253.905.905.70
      Ta1.421.291.821.852.982.242.032.612.661.702.031.92
      Pb69.959.057.348.629.138.042.420.451.635.347.352.0
      Bi0.050.050.130.070.080.070.060.060.120.110.090.07
      Th13.311.318.018.124.820.917.120.624.923.524.523.8
      U3.122.443.853.632.281.312.431.335.284.184.945.21
      ∑REE32526121028813412812099187178160189
      LREE30624619927212311911689176168147177
      HREE18.3415.1311.3816.2210.279.718.5410.1311.0510.1912.5911.95
      LREE/HREE17161717121213916161215
      (La/Yb)N28302727111114719221316
      δEu0.800.910.930.830.780.900.940.990.620.660.650.67
      Sr/Y66688770244037351114913
      Y/Yb9.911.611.211.911.18.89.28.77.48.37.05.7
      (Ho/Yb)N1.011.501.281.391.040.980.971.010.890.930.880.86
      Nb/La0.620.410.460.461.751.441.062.451.000.670.970.75
      注:δEu=2EuN/(SmN+GdN).
      下载: 导出CSV

      表 4  火神庙岩体的锆石Hf同位素分析结果

      Table 4.  Hf isotopic data of zircon from the Huoshenmiao pluton

      测点号年龄(Ma)176Yb/177Hf176Lu/177Hf176Hf/177Hf2σεHf(0)εHf(t)2σTDM1(Ga)TDM2(Ga)fLu/Hf
      B34-HSM-1151.20.0185910.0008440.2821640.000020-21.5-18.30.71.532.36-0.97
      B34-HSM-2150.80.0206920.0009380.2822000.000018-20.2-17.00.61.482.28-0.97
      B34-HSM-3150.70.0243270.0010900.2822080.000021-19.9-16.70.81.472.26-0.97
      B34-HSM-4149.30.0196850.0008860.2821990.000017-20.3-17.10.61.482.28-0.97
      B34-HSM-5150.60.0246720.0011100.2822390.000017-18.8-15.60.61.432.19-0.97
      B34-HSM-6150.80.0212760.0009770.2822400.000017-18.8-15.60.61.432.19-0.97
      B34-HSM-7150.00.0244710.0010760.2822080.000020-20.0-16.80.71.482.26-0.97
      B34-HSM-8150.00.0176050.0007830.2822220.000018-19.5-16.30.61.442.23-0.98
      B34-HSM-9150.10.0246080.0011040.2821860.000020-20.7-17.50.71.512.31-0.97
      B34-HSM-10150.10.0140420.0006410.2821270.000019-22.8-19.60.71.572.44-0.98
      B34-HSM-11150.00.0180520.0008070.2822380.000018-18.9-15.70.61.422.20-0.98
      B34-HSM-12150.10.0211760.0009700.2822250.000020-19.3-16.20.71.452.22-0.97
      B34-HSM-13150.40.0228470.0010420.2822030.000018-20.1-16.90.61.482.27-0.97
      B34-HSM-14150.50.0216990.0009630.2822620.000018-18.0-14.80.71.392.14-0.97
      B34-HSM-15150.10.0303400.0013240.2821890.000022-20.6-17.50.81.512.31-0.96
      B34-HSM-16150.80.0287440.0011690.2821980.000020-20.3-17.10.71.492.28-0.96
      B34-HSM-17150.70.0170270.0007270.2821520.000020-21.9-18.70.71.542.38-0.98
      B34-HSM-18149.10.0202680.0008970.2822330.000019-19.1-15.90.71.432.21-0.97
      B34-HSM-19149.30.0209570.0009290.2821980.000019-20.3-17.10.71.482.28-0.97
      B34-HSM-20150.70.0171570.0007680.2821930.000020-20.5-17.20.71.482.29-0.98
      B64/HSM-2145.80.0626780.0017760.2822150.000019-19.7-16.70.71.492.25-0.9
      B64/HSM-3146.00.0866740.0024990.2821470.000015-22.1-19.10.51.622.41-0.92
      B64/HSM-4146.10.0860410.0024490.2820050.000017-27.1-24.20.61.822.72-0.93
      B64/HSM-5146.00.0758610.0020980.2821290.000018-22.7-19.70.61.632.45-0.94
      B64/HSM-6146.20.0687840.0019070.2820710.000016-24.8-21.80.61.702.58-0.94
      B64/HSM-9146.60.0780740.0024650.2820790.000017-24.5-21.60.61.722.56-0.93
      B64/HSM-10146.00.0816580.0024130.2821420.000018-22.3-19.30.61.622.42-0.93
      B64/HSM-11145.90.1035770.0029190.2820680.000015-24.9-22.00.51.762.59-0.91
      B64/HSM-12146.20.0932070.0024580.2821320.000019-22.6-19.70.71.642.44-0.93
      B64/HSM-13145.90.0820430.0021610.2821320.000019-22.6-19.70.71.632.44-0.93
      B64/HSM-15146.20.0778330.0021030.2820530.000017-25.4-22.40.61.742.62-0.94
      B64/HSM-16145.90.0869800.0022700.2820440.000020-25.7-22.80.71.762.64-0.93
      B64/HSM-18145.90.0702620.0018510.2820460.000017-25.7-22.70.61.742.63-0.94
      B64/HSM-19145.80.0820710.0024520.2821690.000022-21.3-18.40.81.592.36-0.93
      B64/HSM-20145.90.1062880.0026790.2821840.000017-20.8-17.90.61.582.33-0.92
      B64/HSM-21145.70.0800870.0021100.2820860.000015-24.2-21.30.51.692.54-0.94
      B64/HSM-22145.70.0597910.0017710.2821270.000015-22.8-19.80.51.622.45-0.95
      B64/HSM-23146.10.0718820.0019420.2820680.000016-24.9-21.90.61.712.58-0.94
      B64/HSM-24145.60.0731870.0018830.2821010.000015-23.7-20.70.51.662.51-0.94
      B33HSM-1143.80.0595670.0023040.2820630.000022-25.1-22.10.81.732.59-0.93
      B33HSM-2145.60.0518450.0020940.2820270.000019-26.3-23.30.71.772.67-0.94
      B33HSM-3143.00.0871180.0033130.2821100.000019-23.4-20.60.71.712.50-0.90
      B33HSM-4143.50.0572380.0022960.2819860.000020-27.8-24.90.71.842.77-0.93
      B33HSM-5143.20.0473200.0018950.2820050.000018-27.1-24.20.61.802.72-0.94
      B33HSM-6143.90.0555020.0022180.2820120.000018-26.9-23.90.61.802.71-0.93
      B33HSM-7145.10.0501960.0020380.2820260.000016-26.4-23.40.61.772.68-0.94
      B33HSM-8146.10.0459960.0018320.2821560.000020-21.8-18.80.71.582.38-0.94
      B33HSM-9144.00.0139930.0005640.2817820.000022-35.0-31.90.82.043.21-0.98
      B33HSM-10145.10.0502780.0020570.2820140.000018-26.8-23.80.61.792.70-0.94
      B33HSM-11145.70.0647440.0024880.2821120.000020-23.3-20.40.71.672.49-0.93
      B33HSM-12146.10.0823680.0031610.2820320.000021-26.2-23.30.71.822.67-0.90
      B33HSM-13146.20.0432820.0017500.2820800.000018-24.5-21.40.61.682.55-0.95
      B33HSM-14145.70.0560860.0021680.2821020.000022-23.7-20.70.81.672.51-0.93
      B33HSM-15146.40.0471320.0018830.2820260.000022-26.4-23.40.81.772.67-0.94
      B33HSM-16146.40.0412510.0016460.2820930.000020-24.0-21.00.71.662.52-0.95
      B33HSM-17146.80.0535220.0021310.2820180.000019-26.7-23.70.71.792.69-0.94
      B33HSM-18145.30.0493230.0019490.2820220.000017-26.5-23.50.61.772.68-0.94
      B33HSM-19145.20.0644930.0025500.2820270.000018-26.3-23.40.61.802.68-0.92
      B33HSM-20146.20.0405750.0015990.2820820.000023-24.4-21.40.81.672.55-0.95
      注:εHf(t)={[(176Hf/177Hf)s-(176Lu/177Hf)s×(eλt-1)]/[(176Hf/177Hf)CHUR, 0-(176Lu/177Hf)CHUR×(eλt-1)]-1}×10000;TDM1=1/λ×ln{1+ [(176Hf/177Hf)s-(176Hf/177Hf)DM]/[(176Lu/177Hf)s-(176Lu/177Hf)DM]};TDM2=1/λ×ln{1+[(176Hf/177Hf)s, t-(176Hf/177Hf)DM, t]/[(176Lu/177Hf)C-(176Lu/177Hf)DM]}+t;s=sample, (176Hf/177Hf)CHUR, 0=0.282772,(176Lu/177Hf)CHUR=0.0332,(176Hf/177Hf)DM=0.28325,其中t=锆石结晶年龄,λ=1.867×10-11a-1,(176Lu/177Hf)C=0.
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2015-07-21
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    豫西火神庙岩体锆石U-Pb年代学、地球化学及Hf同位素组成

      通讯作者: 叶会寿, yehuishou@163.com
      作者简介: 王赛(1989-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿床成矿理论方面的研究.E-mail: wangsainb@163.com
    • 1. 中国地质大学地球科学与资源学院,北京 100083
    • 2. 中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所国土资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室,北京 100037
    • 3. 河北省地质调查院,河北石家庄 050081
    • 4. 中国地质大学地球科学学院,湖北武汉 430074
    基金项目:  国土资源部公益性行业基金项目 No.200911007-08国家自然科学基金项目 No.41272104国家科技支撑计划项目 No.2011BAB04B06

    摘要: 火神庙岩体位于华北陆块南缘栾川矿集区西部,为一杂岩体,该岩体与火神庙钼矿床密切相关.目前,人们对火神庙岩体的研究程度较低,严重制约了对火神庙钼矿床成因的认识.系统开展了年代学、地球化学和Hf同位素组成研究.结果表明,石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的形成年龄分别为150.3±0.6Ma、146.0±0.6Ma和145.1±0.5Ma,为栾川矿集区晚侏罗世第2次大规模岩浆活动的产物.火神庙杂岩体属于I型花岗岩,是不同源区部分熔融形成的岩浆上升就位的结果.石英闪长岩是富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融的产物;二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩是富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融形成的镁铁质岩浆与太华群TTG岩系部分熔融形成的长英质岩浆混合后上升就位的结果.

    English Abstract

    • 华北陆块南缘东秦岭钼矿带东部的栾川矿集区是中国最重要的钼多金属矿集区之一(吕文德等,2006叶会寿等2006),研究人员已在矿集区中东部的南泥湖、上房沟、石宝沟等花岗斑岩体周围发现了众多的斑岩-矽卡岩型钼(钨)矿床、矽卡岩型多金属硫铁矿床和热液脉型铅锌银矿床,探明钼资源储量达300×104t、铅锌达700×104t、银达8000t,但矿集区西部的找矿工作一直没有取得重大进展.近年来,随着中国地质调查局地质调查项目的开展,在栾川矿集区西部火神庙岩体周围发现了火神庙钼矿床,查明钼资源储量5万余吨,平均品位0.12%(辛志刚,2010),它的发现显示了矿集区西部具有巨大的找矿潜力,为在该地区寻找钼多金属矿产提供了依据.矿床地质特征研究显示火神庙钼矿床与火神庙岩体密切相关,为一矽卡岩型钼矿床(焦二中,2007卢克学等,2008辛志刚,2010何亚清和陈凤群,2013王赛等, 2014a, 2014b).然而,目前火神庙岩体的研究程度较低,徐兆文和任启江(1988)报道了火神庙岩体二长(石英)闪长岩和二长花岗岩的地球化学特征,尚缺少花岗斑岩地球化学特征的报道;杨荣勇等(1997)测得火神庙岩体全岩Rb-Sr等时线年龄为162.8±6.2Ma,由于全岩Rb-Sr同位素体系的局限性(封闭温度较低(650±50℃;Harrison et al., 1979),亚固相扩散和热液蚀变均可导致Rb-Sr同位素体系重置)等条件的影响,导致该年龄误差较大,不能对火神庙岩体的形成时代进行较好的约束,其与王赛等(2014a)报道的辉钼矿Re-Os同位素等时线年龄(145.7±3.9Ma)差距也较大(>10Ma),远超过一般成矿系统的持续时间(Bodnar,2009),因此这一较大的年龄差严重制约了对火神庙钼矿床成因的认识.本文在前人研究的基础上,结合野外地质调查,进一步厘定了火神庙岩体的岩石组成,并对不同类型岩石进行了系统的年代学、地球化学及Hf同位素组成研究,旨在精确厘定火神庙岩体的形成时代、探讨火神庙岩体的成因,并为进一步确定火神庙钼矿床的成因提供依据.

      • 栾川矿集区位于华北陆块南缘栾川断裂带与马超营断裂带之间的栾川台缘褶皱带内(图 1).区内出露地层主要有中元古界官道口群、新元古界栾川群和新元古界-早古生界陶湾群.官道口群主要由中浅变质滨浅海相碎屑岩和含燧石条带白云质大理岩组成;栾川群主要包括碎屑岩、碳酸盐岩和碱性火山岩;陶湾群主要由含砾灰岩、大理岩、千枚岩和石英岩组成.

        图  1  栾川钼多金属矿集区地质简图

        Figure 1.  Geological sketch of the Luanchuan ore district

        矿集区内发育一系列倒转褶皱和逆掩推覆断层(吕文德等,2006).褶皱构造主要有杨树凹-白沙洞向斜、银河沟背斜、增河口向斜、黄背岭-石宝沟背斜和核桃岔向斜(叶会寿等,2006).断裂构造按走向可分为NWW向和NE向2组,NWW向断裂有栾川断裂、庙子断裂以及一系列自北向南推覆的逆冲断裂,其延伸长、规模大,是矿集区内的主要断裂;NE向断裂呈近等间距“行列式”分布(杨阳等,2012),主要有黄背岭-南泥湖-马圈断裂带和石宝沟-庄科断裂带.

        矿集区内岩浆多期次侵位,主要发育有新元古代变辉长岩(830Ma,Wang et al., 2011)和晚侏罗世花岗斑岩.晚侏罗世花岗斑岩,如南泥湖、上房沟、石宝沟、黄背岭等,主要分布于NWW向与NE向断裂交汇处,具有数量多、规模小(出露面积<3km2)、分异程度高的特点,在时间、空间和成因上与钼多金属矿化密切相关(李永峰等, 2003, 2005吕文德等,2006叶会寿等,2006毛景文等,2009).年代学、地球化学及同位素研究显示花岗斑岩具有高硅、富钾、碱性-钙碱性以及准铝质-弱过铝质的特点,属I型花岗岩,主要形成于古老地壳物质的部分熔融、并有少量地幔组分的参与,形成于中生代晚侏罗世挤压向伸展转换的构造环境(毛景文等,2005包志伟等,2009Mao et al., 2010王晓霞等,2011杨阳等,2012).

        矿集区内发育大量斑岩-矽卡岩型钼矿床、矽卡岩型多金属硫铁矿床和热液脉型铅锌银矿床,它们围绕花岗斑岩体由内向外规律性分布:钼矿床(如南泥湖-三道庄、上房沟、火神庙等)主要赋存于花岗岩体内及外接触带中;多金属硫铁矿床(如骆驼山、银和沟等)主要赋存于花岗岩体外接触带的层状矽卡岩中;铅锌银矿床(如冷水北沟、杨树凹、百炉沟、银洞沟等)主要赋存于花岗岩体外围围岩NE向断裂带中,为栾川矿集区晚侏罗世同一构造-岩浆-流体活动的产物(叶会寿等,2006毛景文等,2009).

      • 火神庙岩体位于栾川矿集区西部、石家沟-火神庙背斜的北翼,呈小岩珠侵位于三川组大理岩中,在平面上呈近EW向眼球状产出,长约650m,宽约300m,出露面积约0.2km2(杨荣勇等,1997).火神庙岩体为一杂岩体,主要由石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩组成.石英闪长岩出露于火神庙岩体的外围,构成了火神庙岩体的主体;花岗斑岩呈带状出露于火神庙岩体的中部;二长花岗岩呈椭圆状出露于火神庙岩体的中心、包裹于花岗斑岩中,钼矿体则主要赋存于火神庙岩体东南部花岗斑岩与三川组大理岩接触带的矽卡岩中(图 2).

        图  2  火神庙岩体地质简图

        Figure 2.  Geological sketch of the Huoshenmiao pluton

        石英闪长岩(图 3a):深灰色,中细粒花岗结构(图 3b),块状构造,主要矿物有斜长石(50%~70%)、角闪石(15%~20%)和石英(5%~10%),次要矿物有钾长石(3%~5%)、黑云母(2%~4%)和辉石(1%~2%).斜长石,半自形-自形板柱状,粒径为2~6mm,发育聚片双晶(图 3b)、卡钠复合双晶和环带结构(图 3c),部分发生微弱绢云母化;角闪石,半自形-自形长柱状,粒径为1~4mm,可见角闪石简单双晶(图 3d),部分发生微弱的绿泥石化;石英,他形粒状,粒径为0.5~2.0mm,主要分布于其他矿物颗粒之间;钾长石,半自形-他形板状,粒径为2~3mm,发育卡式双晶,部分发生微弱的高岭土化;黑云母,褐绿色,半自形-自形鳞片状,粒径为0.5~2.0mm;辉石,粒状,粒径为0.5~1.0mm,发育不完全解理.副矿物有锆石、磷灰石、磁铁矿、钛铁矿等.

        图  3  火神庙岩体岩相学特征

        Figure 3.  Petrography of the Huoshenmiao pluton

        二长花岗岩(图 3e):灰白色-肉红色,中细粒花岗结构(图 3f),块状构造,主要矿物有钾长石(30%~40%)、石英(25%~35%)和斜长石(20%~30%),次要矿物为黑云母(1%~2%).钾长石,半自形-他形板柱状,粒径为1~3mm,见卡式双晶,部分发生微弱高岭土化;石英,他形粒状,粒径为0.5~1.5mm,主要分布于其他矿物颗粒之间;斜长石,半自形-自形板状,粒径为1~3mm,见聚片双晶(图 3f)和卡钠复合双晶,部分发生微弱绢云母化;黑云母,褐色,半自形鳞片状,粒径为0.5~1.0mm.副矿物有锆石、磷灰石、磁铁矿、钛铁矿等.

        花岗斑岩(图 3g):灰白色,斑状结构(图 3h3i),块状构造.斑晶为钾长石、斜长石和石英,含量约为15%~25%,粒径为0.5~2.0mm.钾长石斑晶,半自形-他形板柱状,发育卡式双晶,部分发生微弱高岭土化;斜长石斑晶,半自形-他形板状,发育聚片双晶,部分发生微弱的绢云母化;石英斑晶,他形粒状,普遍被基质交代,发生溶蚀现象(图 3i).基质为隐晶质,成分与斑晶相同.副矿物有锆石、磷灰石、磁铁矿、钛铁矿等.

      • 用于LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb定年、地球化学及Hf同位素分析的石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩分别来自于火神庙岩体3个不同类型的岩石,具体采样位置见图 2.锆石分选工作是在北京天和信矿业技术开发有限公司完成的,阴极发光(cathode luminescence,简称CL)照相是在西北大学大陆动力学国家重点实验室完成的.LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb定年是在中国地质调查局天津地质矿产研究所同位素实验室完成的,仪器配置和实验流程见李怀坤等(2010).实验过程中采用锆石标样GJ1进行U、Pb同位素分馏校正(Jackson et al., 2004),并通过208Pb校正法对普通铅进行校正(Andersen, 2002),同时利用NIST612作为外标计算锆石的U、Th、Pb含量,最后利用ICPMSDataCal程序(Liu et al., 2010)和Isoplot程序(Ludwig, 2003)对数据进行处理.

        样品主量、微量及稀土元素的分析测试工作是在广州澳实矿物实验室完成的.主量元素由荷兰PANalytical公司生产的Axios仪器利用熔片X射线荧光光谱法进行测定,并采用等离子光谱和化学法测定进行互相检测.微量及稀土元素利用美国PerkinElmer公司生产的Elan9000电感耦合等离子质谱仪(ICP-MS)进行测定.主量元素的分析精度和准确度优于5%,微量及稀土元素的分析精度和准确度优于10%.

        锆石Hf同位素测试是在中国地质科学院矿产资源研究所国土资源部成矿作用与资源评价重点实验室进行的,仪器配置和实验流程见侯可军等(2007).实验过程中采用锆石标样GJ1作为参考物质(Jackson et al., 2004),其176Hf/177Hf加权平均值为0.281997±12(n=24),与文献报道值(0.282015±19,Elhlou et al., 20060.282008±25,侯可军等,2007)在误差范围内基本一致.

      • 对火神庙岩体石英闪长岩(样品编号:B34/HSM)、二长花岗岩(B64/HSM)和花岗斑岩(B33/HSM)进行了锆石U-Pb年代学研究,具体结果见表 1,所测锆石的CL图像、测点位置及相应的U-Pb年龄见图 4,年龄谐和图见图 5.

        样品号Pb(10-6)U(10-6)232Th/238U同位素比值同位素年龄(Ma)
        207Pb/206Pb1σ207Pb/235U1σ206Pb/238U1σ207Pb/206Pb1σ207Pb/235U1σ206Pb/238U1σ
        B34HSM193500.7000.04960.00210.16250.00700.02370.00021789715371511
        B34HSM293460.7500.04910.00200.16030.00670.02370.00021549615161511
        B34HSM-3155751.0200.04940.00160.16110.00540.02360.00021687715251511
        B34HSM-4124710.8500.04980.00320.16100.01020.02340.0002188148152101492
        B34HSM-5114360.8000.04940.00250.16100.00840.02360.000216811915281511
        B34HSM-683240.8500.04960.00590.16180.01940.02370.0003176277152181512
        B34HSM-7114330.7500.04950.00190.16060.00670.02350.00021709015161502
        B34HSM-8124600.9800.04980.00140.16170.00460.02350.00021876415241501
        B34HSM-9114430.7200.04930.00130.16010.00430.02360.00021626115141501
        B34HSM-1062450.7100.04960.00220.16120.00710.02360.000217810115271501
        B34HSM-1183330.6600.04970.00240.16140.00790.02350.000218311215271501
        B34HSM-12114350.7000.04940.00130.16060.00440.02360.00021686215141501
        B34HSM-13114190.6700.04990.00150.16250.00510.02360.00021917015351502
        B34HSM-14103630.7500.04990.00130.16260.00440.02360.00021916115341511
        B34HSM-15134880.9400.04910.00130.15950.00440.02360.00021526215041501
        B34HSM-16135120.8600.04960.00150.16170.00550.02370.00031747115251512
        B34HSM-17103950.6400.04920.00200.16060.00690.02370.00021599715161511
        B34HSM-1872960.5800.04960.00180.16010.00600.02340.00021778515161491
        B34HSM-19114270.6600.04980.00150.16090.00500.02340.00021867015151491
        B34HSM-2062300.5400.04940.00240.16110.00800.02370.000216711515281511
        B34HSM-21114540.7300.04970.00140.15980.00470.02330.00021836715141481
        B34HSM-22114530.7300.04910.00130.16030.00430.02370.00021546215141511
        B34HSM-23104180.6800.04930.00130.16100.00440.02370.00021616115241511
        B34HSM-2483210.6200.04940.00180.16160.00610.02370.00021698715261511
        B64jHSM-1305270.5850.09620.00250.75210.05120.05670.00291551485693935618
        B64jHSM-2135670.5930.05410.00140.17050.00440.02290.00013745816041461
        B64jHSM-3114460.9370.05920.00130.18680.00420.02290.00015734817441461
        B64jHSM-4124800.8080.05020.00090.15860.00290.02290.00012044214931461
        B64jHSM-5114600.8830.06710.00280.21190.00890.02290.00028418619581461
        B64jHSM-6114620.8900.06160.00400.19500.01380.02290.0002662140181131461
        B64jHSM-7114201.0370.06350.00110.21480.00400.02450.00017253719841561
        B64jHSM-8334660.6920.09350.00090.86270.02670.06690.00171497186322041811
        B64jHSM-993781.2350.05440.00120.17250.00400.02300.00013884816241471
        B64jHSM-10135510.6400.05130.00070.16190.00220.02290.00012533115221461
        B64jHSM-11135540.6250.05170.00080.16300.00260.02290.00012703715321461
        B64jHSM-1293381.4280.05480.00070.17330.00220.02290.00014032816221461
        B64jHSM-1393461.3800.07510.00190.23700.00610.02290.000110715221661461
        B64jHSM-14495040.4610.08660.00091.13710.03430.09530.00251351207712358715
        B64jHSM-1583261.5450.04940.00190.15610.00610.02290.00011658914761461
        B64jHSM-1693930.3170.05870.00120.18510.00390.02290.00015544317241461
        B64jHSM-1794520.0630.05830.00060.18200.00190.02260.00015432217021441
        B64jHSM-18145730.5810.05540.00100.17480.00330.02290.00014294016431461
        B64jHSM-1982911.8290.05310.00130.16730.00420.02290.00013325515741461
        B64jHSM-20145850.5570.05550.00090.17520.00300.02290.00014333716431461
        B64jHSM-21135400.6580.05470.00090.17240.00270.02290.00014013616231461
        B64jHSM-2293671.3090.05100.00110.16070.00340.02290.00012414815131461
        B64jHSM-23125070.7380.05770.00120.18240.00410.02290.00015194817041461
        B64jHSM-24103961.1420.06760.00120.21290.00410.02280.00018573619641461
        B33HSM-172462.3000.04910.00210.15250.00670.02260.000115010214461441
        B33HSM-231151.4400.04850.00930.15260.02890.02280.0002122450144271462
        B33HSM-3166261.7300.04890.00070.15130.00200.02240.00011443214321431
        B33HSM-441641.7000.04920.00190.15270.00600.02250.00011589214461441
        B33HSM-5104161.4200.04910.00090.15210.00290.02250.00011524414431431
        B33HSM-6103861.7400.04890.00090.15230.00280.02260.00011454214431441
        B33HSM-793182.4200.04870.00130.15280.00390.02280.00011346114441451
        B33HSM-82910771.9900.04890.00070.15440.00200.02290.00011413314621461
        B33HSM-9197051.7300.04920.00080.15330.00240.02260.00011583714521441
        B33HSM-10195962.5700.04880.00080.15330.00250.02280.00011393814521451
        B33HSM-1172681.5000.04910.00170.15470.00540.02290.00011518114651461
        B33HSM-12113841.5600.04890.00110.15440.00350.02290.00011415414631461
        B33HSM-13102862.2700.04860.00130.15380.00400.02290.00011296114541461
        B33HSM-14165391.4000.04890.00120.15430.00380.02290.00011455714641461
        B33HSM-15175281.5100.04800.00080.15200.00250.02300.00011004014421461
        B33HSM-16194662.7900.04880.00090.15440.00280.02300.00011414314631461
        B33HSM-17102532.3900.04880.00180.15510.00560.02300.00011408414651471
        B33HSM-1831060.9700.04890.00310.15370.00990.02280.000214315014591451
        B33HSM-19165161.3900.04880.00070.15340.00220.02280.00011403414521451
        B33HSM-20227611.0900.04890.00080.15460.00250.02290.00011433814621461
        B33HSM-21165551.3200.04850.00070.15230.00200.02280.00011223214421451
        B33HSM-22124191.2500.04900.00120.15370.00380.02270.00011485714541451
        B33HSM-23144931.3100.04940.00090.15400.00260.02260.00011674014521441
        B33HSM-2482282.4300.04880.00160.15220.00510.02260.00011367614451441
        B33HSM-25103671.0200.04910.00150.15490.00460.02290.00011526914641461
        B33HSM-2672281.4700.04880.00170.15410.00550.02290.00011388314551461

        表 1  火神庙岩体LA-MC-ICPMS错石U-Pb年龄测定结果

        Table 1.  LA-MC-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data of the Huoshenmiao pluton

        图  4  火神庙岩体锆石CL图像

        Figure 4.  CL images of Zircons from the Huoshenmiao pluton

        图  5  火神庙岩体石英闪长岩(a)、花岗斑岩(b)和二长花岗岩(c)锆石U-Pb年龄谐和图及二长花岗岩锆石U-Pb年龄的Tera-Wasserburg图解(d)

        Figure 5.  Zircon U-Pb concordia diagram for quartz diorite (a), granite porphyry (b) and monzo-granite(c) of the Huoshenmiao pluton and the Tera-Wasserburg plot for Monzo-granite (d)

        CL图像显示所测锆石多呈柱状或长柱状,自形程度较高,颗粒较大,长为100~300μm,宽为50~100μm,长宽比为2:1~4:1,锆石U含量为106×10-6~1077×10-6,Th/U比值为0.32~2.79,平均为1.14,具有岩浆锆石高Th/U比值(>0.4) 的特征(Wu and Zheng, 2004),并发育清晰的震荡韵律环带,显示其为岩浆成因(Connely, 2001).

        对石英闪长岩和花岗斑岩分别进行了24个和26个点的锆石U-Pb同位素分析,年龄谐和图显示所获锆石U-Pb年龄具有很高的谐和度(图 5a5b),所有测点均投影在谐和线上,表明所测锆石未受后期热液的影响.由于235U和238U的半衰期和丰度存在差异,导致在年轻锆石中放射性成因207Pb的丰度比206Pb低一个数量级,因此对于年龄较小(<1Ga)的锆石,采用206Pb/238U年龄更为准确(Composton et al., 1992; Griffin et al., 2004).对所获得的206Pb/238U年龄进行加权平均计算,得到石英闪长岩LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄为150.3±0.6Ma(MSWD=0.22)、花岗斑岩LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄为145.1±0.5Ma(MSWD=2.0).

        对二长花岗岩进行了24个点的锆石U-Pb同位素分析,其中B64/HSM-17的Th/U比值为0.063,与变质锆石相当,所以其206Pb/238U年龄无法代表岩体的形成年龄;由于B64/HSM-1、B64/HSM-8和B64/HSM-14的Pb含量较高,且206Pb/238U年龄变化较大、精度较低,故舍去;B64/HSM-7所获206Pb/238U年龄为156±1Ma,与矿集区内南泥湖、石宝沟岩体较老的年龄相当(毛景文等,2005向君峰等,2012杨阳等,2012),可能记录了该地区一次更早的岩浆侵位事件;其余19个点的206Pb/238U年龄基本一致,获得加权平均年龄为146.0±0.4Ma(MSWD=0.08),但年龄谐和图显示所获锆石U-Pb年龄谐和度较低(图 5c),除少数点位于谐和线上外,多数锆石均发生不同程度的铅丢失,沿不一致线分布,不一致线的上交点年龄为146.0±0.6Ma(MSWD=0.08),与利用Tera-Wasserburg图解(图 5dTera and Wasserburg, 1972)获得不一致线的下交点年龄(146.0±0.6Ma,MSWD=0.09) 完全一致,显示测年结果具有很高的可靠性,因此笔者认为二长花岗岩的LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄为146.0±0.6Ma(MSWD=0.09).

      • 对火神庙岩体石英闪长岩(B22/HSM、B24/HSM、B1/HSM和B25/HSM)、二长花岗岩(B6、B10、B19和B28) 和花岗斑岩(B9/HSM、B11/HSM、B33/HSM和B65/HSM)进行了主量、微量和稀土元素分析,主量元素分析结果见表 2,微量和稀土元素分析结果见表 3.

        样品号石英闪长岩二长花岗岩花岗斑岩
        B1/HSMB22/HSMB24/HSMB25/HSMB6B10B19B28B9/HSMB11/HSMB33/HSMB65/HSM
        SiO261.9656.7956.8760.8471.1070.4071.9069.7070.9170.3672.4071.10
        TiO20.500.750.750.530.210.210.190.230.160.160.140.16
        Al2O316.1316.8817.9717.5715.1015.7514.9015.9014.0914.4914.6014.95
        TFe2O34.158.026.625.160.970.911.321.391.121.171.311.26
        MnO0.130.180.130.110.040.030.030.040.080.130.090.07
        MgO1.492.732.331.830.160.150.170.190.170.160.180.19
        CaO4.445.755.714.581.051.441.001.571.621.700.961.59
        Na2O4.563.884.184.123.623.943.493.533.053.824.203.66
        K2O4.803.102.923.336.785.566.756.555.665.755.025.07
        P2O50.280.610.580.350.080.090.070.080.040.040.020.03
        LOI0.951.201.040.910.820.500.670.732.001.670.351.31
        TATAL99.3999.8999.1099.3399.9398.98100.4999.9198.9099.4599.3099.40
        K2O+Na2O9.366.987.107.4510.409.5010.2410.088.719.579.228.73
        K2O/Na2O1.050.800.700.811.871.411.931.861.861.511.201.39
        A/CNK0.780.830.880.940.991.041.001.011.000.931.041.04
        A/NK1.271.731.791.691.131.261.141.231.261.161.181.30
        σ4.623.533.633.113.853.293.633.812.723.352.892.71
        DI765960679390939090919289
        Mg#464445452828232426242426
        Tzr736735733762791795777797769765776781
        注:A/CNK=(Al2O3)/(CaO+K2O+Na2O)摩尔数分数比;A/NK=(Al2O3)/(K2O+Na2O)摩尔数分数比;里特曼指数δ=(K2O+Na2O)2/(SiO2-43);Mg#=100×(MgO/40.31)/(MgO/40.31+TFe2O3×0.8998/71.85×0.85);全岩锆饱和温度TZr=12900/(lnDZr+0.85M+2.95)-273.15,DZr=49600/w(Zr),M=(2Ca+K+Na)/(Si×Al),w(Zr)为岩石中Zr的质量分数;熔体组成参数FM=(1/Si)[Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)]/Al.

        表 2  火神庙岩体主量(%)测定结果

        Table 2.  Major elements (%)data of the Huoshenmiao pluton

        样品号石英闪长岩二长花岗岩花岗斑岩
        B1/HSMB22/HSMB24/HSMB25/HSMB6B10B19B28B9/HSMB11/HSMB33/HSMB65/HSM
        Li6.675.813.325.124.001.902.001.906.979.732.107.90
        Be2.151.822.651.682.822.451.712.234.002.212.692.72
        Sc12.459.245.938.591.801.701.701.702.832.051.401.60
        V140.1145.078.587.318.013.015.09.012.08.75.07.0
        Cr6.309.458.727.571.001.002.001.005.433.521.473.66
        Co15.1814.4913.6410.401.001.201.601.401.070.711.300.90
        Ni4.036.344.203.392.201.401.702.701.481.191.300.70
        Cu15.342.8613.995.234.401.0014.603.205.388.7711.804.30
        Zn252.1144.7101.886.450.024.0103.044.052.753.555.063.0
        Ga32.731.326.931.321.219.618.018.819.021.717.918.0
        Rb9888165129140120142146285192148141
        Sr1377165210621433406552448502152190138156
        Y20.418.916.220.617.013.712.214.413.913.615.212.1
        Zr176154177177187185156201238151168180
        Cd0.860.770.470.610.190.110.260.170.270.260.210.26
        In0.090.070.090.070.070.060.050.070.040.030.040.03
        Nb31.228.833.232.839.734.428.139.450.533.137.935.6
        Cs4.435.093.804.732.381.871.581.831.931.261.221.19
        Ba2367310836003155220019801475205016781537512823
        La76.462.253.472.022.723.926.616.150.549.539.047.7
        Ce149.6116.297.8132.264.357.453.640.487.782.970.286.0
        Pr16.1211.969.0612.647.237.456.355.817.737.377.789.61
        Nd52.845.231.645.524.225.121.221.724.923.525.429.1
        Sm9.288.175.417.763.973.753.273.944.293.954.044.16
        Eu2.192.171.481.890.901.000.931.130.780.770.810.84
        Gd6.905.863.995.752.882.812.642.803.112.983.353.32
        Tb0.870.730.500.740.460.430.390.440.440.410.520.52
        Dy4.643.912.814.102.682.402.112.652.692.463.362.90
        Ho0.880.720.550.800.530.510.430.560.560.510.640.61
        Er2.431.941.612.291.691.531.271.521.751.601.891.85
        Tm0.330.250.240.320.220.220.160.230.290.280.320.30
        Yb1.761.691.631.731.531.561.331.661.881.652.182.12
        Lu0.320.230.250.300.280.250.210.270.330.290.330.33
        Hf3.663.183.873.855.104.703.905.106.253.905.905.70
        Ta1.421.291.821.852.982.242.032.612.661.702.031.92
        Pb69.959.057.348.629.138.042.420.451.635.347.352.0
        Bi0.050.050.130.070.080.070.060.060.120.110.090.07
        Th13.311.318.018.124.820.917.120.624.923.524.523.8
        U3.122.443.853.632.281.312.431.335.284.184.945.21
        ∑REE32526121028813412812099187178160189
        LREE30624619927212311911689176168147177
        HREE18.3415.1311.3816.2210.279.718.5410.1311.0510.1912.5911.95
        LREE/HREE17161717121213916161215
        (La/Yb)N28302727111114719221316
        δEu0.800.910.930.830.780.900.940.990.620.660.650.67
        Sr/Y66688770244037351114913
        Y/Yb9.911.611.211.911.18.89.28.77.48.37.05.7
        (Ho/Yb)N1.011.501.281.391.040.980.971.010.890.930.880.86
        Nb/La0.620.410.460.461.751.441.062.451.000.670.970.75
        注:δEu=2EuN/(SmN+GdN).

        表 3  火神庙岩体微量和稀土元素(10-6)测定结果

        Table 3.  Trace elements (10-6) data of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      • 火神庙岩体中,石英闪长岩SiO2含量较低(SiO2=56.79%~61.96%),镁、铁、钙含量较高(MgO=1.49%~2.73%、Fe2O3=4.15%~8.02%、CaO=4.44%~5.75%),与一般中偏酸性岩浆岩的镁、铁、钙含量相当(华仁民等,2013),全碱含量较高(K2O+Na2O=6.98%~9.36%),富钠(Na2O=3.88%~4.56%,K2O=2.92%~4.80%,Na2O/K2O=0.95~1.43),里特曼指数σ=3.11~4.62,Al2O3含量较高(Al2O3=16.13%~17.97%),铝饱和指数A/CNK=0.78~0.94,属准铝质系列和高钾钙碱性-钾玄岩系列岩石(图 6).

        图  6  火神庙岩体A/CNK-A/NK图解(a)及SiO2-K2O图解(b)

        Figure 6.  SiO2-K2O diagrams (a) and A/CNK-A/NK (b) of the granites from the Huoshenmiao pluton

        与石英闪长岩相比,二长花岗岩SiO2含量明显升高(SiO2=69.70%~71.90%),与世界范围内花岗岩的平均值(69.26%~71.63%)相当(Le Maitre, 1976),镁、铁、钙含量急剧降低(MgO=0.17%~0.19%、Fe2O3=0.97%~1.39%、CaO=1.05%~1.57%),全碱含量进一步升高(K2O+Na2O=9.50%~10.40%),富钾(K2O=5.56%~6.78%,Na2O=3.49%~3.94%,K2O/Na2O=1.41~1.93),里特曼指数σ=3.29~3.85,Al2O3含量略有降低(Al2O3=14.90%~15.90%),铝饱和指数A/CNK=0.99~1.04,属准铝质-弱过铝质系列和钾玄岩系列岩石(图 6).

        花岗斑岩主量元素特征与二长花岗岩基本一致,具有高硅(SiO2=70.36%~72.40%)、高碱(K2O+Na2O=8.71%~9.57%)、富钾(K2O=5.02%~5.75%、Na2O=3.05%~4.20%、K2O/Na2O=1.20~1.86)、富铝(Al2O3=14.09%~14.95%)、贫镁、铁、钙(MgO=0.16%~0.19%、Fe2O3=1.12%~1.31%、CaO=0.96%~1.70%)的特征,里特曼指数σ=2.71~3.35,铝饱和指数A/CNK=0.93~1.04,属准铝质-弱过铝质系列和钾玄岩系列岩石(图 6).

      • 火神庙岩体中,石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的原始地幔标准化微量元素配分曲线均呈现出富集大离子亲石元素、亏损高场强元素的右倾特征(图 7),并具有较为一致的Rb(88×10-6~285×10-6)、Th(11.27×10-6~24.85×10-6)、Nb(28.10×10-6~50.47×10-6)、Ta(1.29×10-6~2.98×10-6)、Zr(151×10-6~238×10-6)、Hf(3.18×10-6~6.25×10-6)及差异明显的Ba(512×10-6~3600×10-6)、Sr(138×10-6~1652×10-6)、P(87×10-6~2663×10-6)和Ti(839×10-6~4496×10-6)含量,从石英闪长岩→二长花岗岩→花岗斑岩,Ba、Sr、P和Ti含量逐渐降低.微量元素原始地幔标准化蛛网图显示石英闪长岩相对富集Ba、U、K和Sr,相对亏损Rb、Th、Nb、Ta、Hf和Ti;二长花岗岩相对富集Rb、Ba、Th、K和Hf,相对亏损U、Ta、P和Ti;花岗斑岩则表现为Rb、Th、U、K和Hf的相对富集以及Ba、Ta、Sr、P和Ti的相对亏损.总体而言,二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩微量元素特征基本一致,但与石英闪长岩具有明显的差异.

        图  7  火神庙岩体微量元素原始地幔标准化蛛网图和稀土元素球粒陨石标准化图

        Figure 7.  Primitive mantle normalized trace element spider diagrams and chondrite normalized REE patterns of the granites from the Huoshenmiao pluton

      • 火神庙岩体中,石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的球粒陨石标准化稀土元素配分曲线均呈现出轻稀土富集、重稀土亏损的右倾特征,但稀土总量、轻重稀土分馏程度和Eu异常等不尽相同(图 7).石英闪长岩稀土总量较高,∑REE=210×10-6~325×10-6,轻重稀土分馏明显,LREE/HREE=16~17、(La/Yb)N=27~30,负Eu异常微弱,δEu=0.80~0.93.与石英闪长岩相比,二长花岗稀土总量显著降低,∑REE=99×10-6~133×10-6,轻重稀土分馏程度显著降低,LREE/HREE=9~13、(La/Yb)N=7~14,负Eu异常微弱,δEu=0.78~0.99.花岗斑岩稀土元素总量较二长花岗岩略有升高,∑REE=160×10-6~189×10-6,轻重稀土分馏程度略有升高,LREE/HREE=12~16、(La/Yb)N=13~22,负Eu异常中等,δEu=0.62~0.67.

      • 在进行LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb定年后,又在锆石U-Pb年龄分析点处进行了Hf同位素分析,具体结果见表 4,测点位置及相应的εHf(t)值见图 4.

        测点号年龄(Ma)176Yb/177Hf176Lu/177Hf176Hf/177Hf2σεHf(0)εHf(t)2σTDM1(Ga)TDM2(Ga)fLu/Hf
        B34-HSM-1151.20.0185910.0008440.2821640.000020-21.5-18.30.71.532.36-0.97
        B34-HSM-2150.80.0206920.0009380.2822000.000018-20.2-17.00.61.482.28-0.97
        B34-HSM-3150.70.0243270.0010900.2822080.000021-19.9-16.70.81.472.26-0.97
        B34-HSM-4149.30.0196850.0008860.2821990.000017-20.3-17.10.61.482.28-0.97
        B34-HSM-5150.60.0246720.0011100.2822390.000017-18.8-15.60.61.432.19-0.97
        B34-HSM-6150.80.0212760.0009770.2822400.000017-18.8-15.60.61.432.19-0.97
        B34-HSM-7150.00.0244710.0010760.2822080.000020-20.0-16.80.71.482.26-0.97
        B34-HSM-8150.00.0176050.0007830.2822220.000018-19.5-16.30.61.442.23-0.98
        B34-HSM-9150.10.0246080.0011040.2821860.000020-20.7-17.50.71.512.31-0.97
        B34-HSM-10150.10.0140420.0006410.2821270.000019-22.8-19.60.71.572.44-0.98
        B34-HSM-11150.00.0180520.0008070.2822380.000018-18.9-15.70.61.422.20-0.98
        B34-HSM-12150.10.0211760.0009700.2822250.000020-19.3-16.20.71.452.22-0.97
        B34-HSM-13150.40.0228470.0010420.2822030.000018-20.1-16.90.61.482.27-0.97
        B34-HSM-14150.50.0216990.0009630.2822620.000018-18.0-14.80.71.392.14-0.97
        B34-HSM-15150.10.0303400.0013240.2821890.000022-20.6-17.50.81.512.31-0.96
        B34-HSM-16150.80.0287440.0011690.2821980.000020-20.3-17.10.71.492.28-0.96
        B34-HSM-17150.70.0170270.0007270.2821520.000020-21.9-18.70.71.542.38-0.98
        B34-HSM-18149.10.0202680.0008970.2822330.000019-19.1-15.90.71.432.21-0.97
        B34-HSM-19149.30.0209570.0009290.2821980.000019-20.3-17.10.71.482.28-0.97
        B34-HSM-20150.70.0171570.0007680.2821930.000020-20.5-17.20.71.482.29-0.98
        B64/HSM-2145.80.0626780.0017760.2822150.000019-19.7-16.70.71.492.25-0.9
        B64/HSM-3146.00.0866740.0024990.2821470.000015-22.1-19.10.51.622.41-0.92
        B64/HSM-4146.10.0860410.0024490.2820050.000017-27.1-24.20.61.822.72-0.93
        B64/HSM-5146.00.0758610.0020980.2821290.000018-22.7-19.70.61.632.45-0.94
        B64/HSM-6146.20.0687840.0019070.2820710.000016-24.8-21.80.61.702.58-0.94
        B64/HSM-9146.60.0780740.0024650.2820790.000017-24.5-21.60.61.722.56-0.93
        B64/HSM-10146.00.0816580.0024130.2821420.000018-22.3-19.30.61.622.42-0.93
        B64/HSM-11145.90.1035770.0029190.2820680.000015-24.9-22.00.51.762.59-0.91
        B64/HSM-12146.20.0932070.0024580.2821320.000019-22.6-19.70.71.642.44-0.93
        B64/HSM-13145.90.0820430.0021610.2821320.000019-22.6-19.70.71.632.44-0.93
        B64/HSM-15146.20.0778330.0021030.2820530.000017-25.4-22.40.61.742.62-0.94
        B64/HSM-16145.90.0869800.0022700.2820440.000020-25.7-22.80.71.762.64-0.93
        B64/HSM-18145.90.0702620.0018510.2820460.000017-25.7-22.70.61.742.63-0.94
        B64/HSM-19145.80.0820710.0024520.2821690.000022-21.3-18.40.81.592.36-0.93
        B64/HSM-20145.90.1062880.0026790.2821840.000017-20.8-17.90.61.582.33-0.92
        B64/HSM-21145.70.0800870.0021100.2820860.000015-24.2-21.30.51.692.54-0.94
        B64/HSM-22145.70.0597910.0017710.2821270.000015-22.8-19.80.51.622.45-0.95
        B64/HSM-23146.10.0718820.0019420.2820680.000016-24.9-21.90.61.712.58-0.94
        B64/HSM-24145.60.0731870.0018830.2821010.000015-23.7-20.70.51.662.51-0.94
        B33HSM-1143.80.0595670.0023040.2820630.000022-25.1-22.10.81.732.59-0.93
        B33HSM-2145.60.0518450.0020940.2820270.000019-26.3-23.30.71.772.67-0.94
        B33HSM-3143.00.0871180.0033130.2821100.000019-23.4-20.60.71.712.50-0.90
        B33HSM-4143.50.0572380.0022960.2819860.000020-27.8-24.90.71.842.77-0.93
        B33HSM-5143.20.0473200.0018950.2820050.000018-27.1-24.20.61.802.72-0.94
        B33HSM-6143.90.0555020.0022180.2820120.000018-26.9-23.90.61.802.71-0.93
        B33HSM-7145.10.0501960.0020380.2820260.000016-26.4-23.40.61.772.68-0.94
        B33HSM-8146.10.0459960.0018320.2821560.000020-21.8-18.80.71.582.38-0.94
        B33HSM-9144.00.0139930.0005640.2817820.000022-35.0-31.90.82.043.21-0.98
        B33HSM-10145.10.0502780.0020570.2820140.000018-26.8-23.80.61.792.70-0.94
        B33HSM-11145.70.0647440.0024880.2821120.000020-23.3-20.40.71.672.49-0.93
        B33HSM-12146.10.0823680.0031610.2820320.000021-26.2-23.30.71.822.67-0.90
        B33HSM-13146.20.0432820.0017500.2820800.000018-24.5-21.40.61.682.55-0.95
        B33HSM-14145.70.0560860.0021680.2821020.000022-23.7-20.70.81.672.51-0.93
        B33HSM-15146.40.0471320.0018830.2820260.000022-26.4-23.40.81.772.67-0.94
        B33HSM-16146.40.0412510.0016460.2820930.000020-24.0-21.00.71.662.52-0.95
        B33HSM-17146.80.0535220.0021310.2820180.000019-26.7-23.70.71.792.69-0.94
        B33HSM-18145.30.0493230.0019490.2820220.000017-26.5-23.50.61.772.68-0.94
        B33HSM-19145.20.0644930.0025500.2820270.000018-26.3-23.40.61.802.68-0.92
        B33HSM-20146.20.0405750.0015990.2820820.000023-24.4-21.40.81.672.55-0.95
        注:εHf(t)={[(176Hf/177Hf)s-(176Lu/177Hf)s×(eλt-1)]/[(176Hf/177Hf)CHUR, 0-(176Lu/177Hf)CHUR×(eλt-1)]-1}×10000;TDM1=1/λ×ln{1+ [(176Hf/177Hf)s-(176Hf/177Hf)DM]/[(176Lu/177Hf)s-(176Lu/177Hf)DM]};TDM2=1/λ×ln{1+[(176Hf/177Hf)s, t-(176Hf/177Hf)DM, t]/[(176Lu/177Hf)C-(176Lu/177Hf)DM]}+t;s=sample, (176Hf/177Hf)CHUR, 0=0.282772,(176Lu/177Hf)CHUR=0.0332,(176Hf/177Hf)DM=0.28325,其中t=锆石结晶年龄,λ=1.867×10-11a-1,(176Lu/177Hf)C=0.

        表 4  火神庙岩体的锆石Hf同位素分析结果

        Table 4.  Hf isotopic data of zircon from the Huoshenmiao pluton

        由于锆石化学性质稳定,抗风化能力强,Lu/Hf比值低(176Lu/177Hf<0.0005) 且不受部分熔融作用和分离结晶的影响,故锆石Hf同位素组成基本代表了岩体结晶时的初始Hf同位素组成(Griffin et al., 2004; Zheng et al., 2007).因此,近年来锆石Hf同位素组成已成为岩石成因的重要示踪剂,是探讨岩浆起源、演化以及揭示壳幔相互作用过程的最有利工具之一(Griffin et al., 2002吴福元等,2007b董增产等,2015).本次研究的所有测点的176Lu/177Hf比值为0.000564~0.003313,表明锆石在岩体形成之后仅发生了极少量放射性成因Hf积累,因此所测定的176Lu/177Hf比值基本代表了岩浆形成时的源区Hf同位素组成.由于所测锆石的fLu/Hf值(-0.98~-0.90) 明显低于镁铁质地壳的fLu/Hf值(-0.34, Amelin et al., 1999)和硅铝质地壳的fLu/Hf值(-0.72, Vervoort et al., 1996),因此锆石Hf同位素两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)能够指示岩石源区物质从地幔中分离出来的时限.

        对石英闪长岩(B34/HSM)进行了20个点的Hf同位素分析,结果显示176Hf/177Hf比值为0.282127~0.282262,由对应测点的锆石U-Pb年龄计算得到初始176Hf/177Hf比值为0.282125~0.282260,εHf(t)为-19.6~-14.8,单阶段模式年龄(TDM1)为1.57~1.39Ga,两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)为2.44~2.14Ga.锆石Hf同位素组成εHf(t)和两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)直方图(图 8)显示εHf(t)主体为-17.5~-15.5,TDM2主体为2.30~2.25Ga.

        图  8  火神庙岩体锆石Hf同位素组成εHf(t)和两阶段模式年龄TDM2柱状图

        Figure 8.  Zircon Hf isotopic compositions and TDM2 of the Huoshenmiao pluton

        对二长花岗岩(B64/HSM)进行了19个点的Hf同位素分析,结果显示176Hf/177Hf比值为0.282005~0.282214,由对应测点的锆石U-Pb年龄计算得到初始176Hf/177Hf比值为0.281999~0.282210,εHf(t)为-24.2~-16.7,单阶段模式年龄(TDM1)为1.82~1.49Ga,两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)为2.72~2.25Ga.锆石Hf同位素组成εHf(t)和两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)直方图(图 8)显示εHf(t)主体为-22.0~-19.0,TDM2主体为2.65~2.40Ga.

        对花岗斑岩(B33/HSM)共进行了20个点的Hf同位素分析,结果显示176Hf/177Hf比值为0.281782~0.282156,由对应测点的锆石U-Pb年龄计算得到初始176Hf/177Hf比值为0.281781~0.282151,εHf(t)为-31.9~-18.8,单阶段模式年龄(TDM1)为2.04~1.58Ga,两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)为3.21~2.38Ga.锆石Hf同位素组成εHf(t)和两阶段模式年龄(TDM2)直方图(图 8)显示εHf(t)主体为-24.0~-20.0,TDM2主体为2.75~2.50Ga.

      • 锆石具有很高的U-Pb同位素体系封闭温度,是确定岩浆结晶年龄的理想对象(Meinhold, 2010).由于本次研究所测锆石均为岩浆锆石,故所获得的LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄可以作为火神庙岩体的形成年龄,因此笔者认为石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的形成年龄分别为150.3±0.6Ma、146.0±0.6Ma和145.1±0.5Ma,与王赛等(2014a)报道的火神庙钼矿床辉钼矿Re-Os同位素等时线年龄(145.7±3.9Ma)相当,因此笔者认为火神庙岩体和火神庙钼矿床均形成于晚侏罗世,应该为同一地质事件的产物.

        鉴于栾川矿集区钼多金属的巨量堆积,前人在此进行了大量的成岩、成矿年代学研究(李永峰等, 2003, 2005毛景文等,2005Mao et al., 2008, 2010包志伟等,2009向君峰等,2012杨阳等,2012王赛等,2014a),研究结果显示栾川矿集区在晚侏罗世发生过两次大规模的岩浆侵位事件(约158Ma和约145Ma),如南泥湖岩体(158.2±3.1Ma,毛景文等,2005145.2±1.5Ma~146.7±1.2Ma,向君峰等,2012)及内部的暗色包体(148.3±0.6Ma,未发表)、上房沟岩体(157.6±2.7Ma,毛景文等,2005)、石宝沟岩体(145.3±1.7Ma~147.2±1.7Ma,包志伟等,2009156±1Ma~157±1Ma,杨阳等,2012)及西沟辉长岩墙(147.5±1.7Ma,包志伟等,2009);钼成矿作用仅发生在145Ma左右,如南泥湖-三道庄钼矿床(146.1±1.1Ma,向君峰等,2012)、上房沟钼矿床(144.8±2.1Ma,李永峰等,2005)、大王沟钼矿床(145.3±2.9Ma,Mao et al., 2008)和火神庙钼矿床(145.7±3.9Ma,王赛等,2014a).综上笔者认为,火神庙岩体和火神庙钼矿床均为栾川矿集区晚侏罗世第2次大规模岩浆活动的产物.

      • 岩石矿物学和地球化学特征是判别花岗岩类型的重要手段,但当花岗岩经历了高度结晶分异作用之后,矿物组成和化学成分都趋向于低共熔花岗岩,从而导致岩石类型的判断变得十分困难,此时最可靠的方法是寻找与高分异花岗岩相关的、更多保留有原始矿物学和地球化学特征的偏镁铁质岩石(吴福元等,2007a).

        研究显示角闪石、堇青石和碱性暗色矿物分别为判别I型、S型及A型花岗岩重要的矿物学标志(Miller, 1985).石英闪长岩具有较低的硅以及较高的镁、钙、铁含量,表明岩石结晶分异程度较低(分异指数DI=59~76),且内部见大量角闪石,因此说明石英闪长岩属于I型花岗岩.二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩中均未见角闪石,并具有高硅、富碱和贫镁、钙、铁的地球化学特征,显示岩石经历了高度的结晶分异(图 9a),分异指数DI(89~93) 与西藏冈底斯东部的察隅高分异I型花岗岩(82~92) 相当(朱弟成等,2009),但因其与同时代偏镁铁质的I型花岗岩(石英闪长岩)伴生,故笔者认为二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩亦应属于I型花岗岩(吴福元等,2007a),这亦得到了岩石地球化学特征的支持.二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩均为准铝质-弱过铝质岩石(A/CNK=0.93~1.04),P2O5含量极低(<0.09%)、且与SiO2含量呈明显的负相关(图 9b),符合HW磷灰石饱和规则(Harrison and Watson, 1984),具有高分异I型和A型花岗岩的特征(李献华等,2007敬海鑫等,2015),但利用全岩锆饱和温度计(Watson and Harrison, 1983; Miller et al., 2003)获得的全岩锆饱和温度(777~797℃和765~781℃)与I型花岗岩平均温度(781℃)相当、较A型花岗岩(>800℃)明显偏低(King et al., 1997).上述结果表明,火神庙岩体属于I型花岗岩,与栾川矿集区内的南泥湖、上房沟、石宝沟等花岗斑岩体岩石类型一致(杨阳等,2012Bao et al., 2014).

        图  9  火神庙岩体地球化学判别图解

        Figure 9.  Geochemical discrimination diagrams for the Huoshenmiao pluton

      • 栾川矿集区内未见晚侏罗世大规模发育的中基性火山岩,且中生代时下地壳基底岩石主要为具有拉斑玄武岩质组分的高压基性麻粒岩、榴辉岩(郑建平等,2005)和太华群TTG岩系,由此表明火神庙岩体既不是地幔玄武岩/玄武安山岩的结晶分异的产物(Grove et al., 1997),也不是受幔源岩浆改造沉积物重熔的产物(Kemp et al., 2007),而更可能是火山岩部分熔融的产物(Chappell and White, 2001李献华等,2009).研究显示,单个侵入体从岩浆形成到锆石U-Pb同位素体系封闭的时间一般不超过1Ma(Glazner et al., 2004),因此二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩基本一致,但较石英闪长岩差异明显的LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄暗示火神庙岩体是源区部分熔融形成的不同批次岩浆就位的结果(Coleman et al., 2004),这亦得到了地球化学及同位素特征的支持.二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩具有基本一致的地球化学特征和锆石Hf同位素组成,但较石英闪长岩具有明显的差异,且在Th/Sm-Th图上二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩呈现出明显的线性关系(图 9c),表明二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩是同批岩浆结晶形成的(Zhu et al., 2008),而石英闪长岩则是另一批岩浆上升就位的产物.二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩成分的差异是岩浆结晶分异的结果(如花岗斑岩Ba、Sr、Eu、P、Ti较二长花岗岩更为亏损,显示花岗斑岩是由二长花岗岩通过斜长石、钾长石、磷灰石和钛铁矿分离结晶而来),而与石英闪长岩成分的差异则是岩浆源区成分不同的反映(Coleman et al., 2004).

        石英闪长岩低SiO2(56.79%~61.96%)、高Mg#(44~46)、富Na2O(Na2O/K2O=0.95~1.43) 及富集大离子亲石元素和轻稀土元素、亏损高场强元素和重稀土元素的地球化学特征表明岩浆源区有壳源物质和岩石圈地幔组分的参与(杨承海等,2008熊小林等,2011).通常地幔组分参与花岗岩的形成主要有2种机制,即(1) 幔源岩浆底侵形成的镁铁质下地壳部分熔融;(2) 幔源镁铁质岩浆与壳源长英质岩浆混合(邱检生等,2008).石英闪长岩的微量和稀土元素地球化学特征与华北陆块南缘下地壳基性麻粒岩具有明显的差异(郑建平等,2005),且实验岩石学研究已经证明玄武岩部分熔融形成的熔体通常具有低Mg#(<44) 和富Na2O(>4.3%)的特征(Wolf and Wyllie, 1994Rapp and Waston, 1995),因此石英闪长岩即使是镁铁质下地壳部分熔融的产物也必须有高Mg、低Na的富集地幔新生幔源玄武质岩浆的混入(徐夕生等,2007),但基本一致的锆石Hf同位素组成(εHf(t)=-19.6~-14.8,集中于-17.5~-15.5) 排除了岩浆混合的可能(Bolhar et al., 2008),暗示岩浆源区可能是富集岩石圈地幔(陈立辉和周新华,2003).石英闪长岩与矿集区内同时代的镁铁质暗色包体和辉长岩墙具有基本一致的微量和稀土元素地球化学特征及锆石Hf同位素组成(杨阳等,2012Bao et al., 2014),因此笔者认为它们拥有相同的岩浆源区,均为富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融的产物,而石英闪长岩较幔源基性岩浆更高的SiO2含量可能是岩浆结晶分异的结果.由于富集岩石圈地幔主要继承了壳源物质的放射性成因同位素特征(郑永飞等,2013),石英闪长岩两阶段锆石Hf同位素模式年龄(TDM2)与大别-苏鲁造山带超高压变火成岩相似(Chen et al., 2007)、明显不同于华北陆壳所具有的太古代两阶段锆石Hf同位素模式年龄(Wu et al., 2005),因此说明混入岩石圈地幔的是俯冲的华南陆壳而不是拆沉的华北陆壳,这亦得到了岩石Pb同位素组成的支持(Bao et al., 2014).

        二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩高SiO2(69.70%~72.40%)、低Mg#(23~28)、富K2O(K2O/Na2O=1.20~1.93) 及富集大离子亲石元素和轻稀土元素、亏损高场强元素和重稀土元素的地球化学特征表明其主要来自于下地壳的部分熔融(熊小林等,2011).二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的微量和稀土元素地球化学特征及Sr同位素初始比值((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.7085,杨荣勇等,1996)与新太古界太华群TTG岩系基本一致(图 7)(第五春荣等,2007肖娥等,2012),且两阶段锆石Hf同位素模式年龄(TDM2=3.76~2.25Ga,集中于2.75~2.40Ga)与太华群TTG岩系锆石U-Pb年龄相当(倪志耀等,2003第五春荣等,2010),由此说明二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩是太华群TTG岩系部分熔融的产物,这亦得到了实验岩石学的支持(熊小林等,2011),但将太华群TTG岩系锆石Hf同位素组成(第五春荣等, 2007, 2010)按t=145Ma(二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的形成年龄)计算的εHf(t)值为-42.1~-64.6,较二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的锆石εHf(t)值(-16.7~-31.9) 具有明显的差异,表明岩浆源区除太华群TTG岩系外还有其他组分的参与.二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩明显不均一的锆石Hf同位素组成(变化范围达15个ε单位)(Chiu et al., 2009)暗示岩浆熔体处于一个开放的系统(Kemp et al., 2007).由于锆石Hf同位素组成不受岩浆分离结晶和部分熔融的影响,因此锆石Hf同位素组成的不均一性很可能指示了幔源镁铁质岩浆与壳源长英质岩浆的混合(Bolhar et al., 2008),且最高的εHf(t)值(-16.7) 与石英闪长岩相当,由此说明二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩是太华群TTG岩系部分熔融形成的长英质岩浆与富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融形成的镁铁质岩浆混合的产物,但二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩中未见镁铁质暗色微粒包体等指示存在岩浆混合的岩石学证据,这可能是在足够长的时间及地壳深部岩浆房较高的温压条件下,均匀的长英质岩浆与少量镁铁质岩浆发生了完全混合的缘故(Martin et al., 1994).

      • 由于花岗岩大多是绝热上升就位的,所以岩浆早期结晶时的温度可以近似代表岩浆形成的温度(吴福元等,2007a).全岩锆饱和温度计显示石英闪长岩岩浆形成温度为733~762℃,二长花岗岩岩浆形成温度为777~797℃,花岗斑岩岩浆形成温度为765~781℃(表 2).由于石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩中基本未见残留锆石,表明早期岩浆中Zr含量很低(未饱和),因此全岩锆饱和温度仅能代表岩浆形成时的最低温度(Miller et al., 2003),此时岩浆形成温度的估算可以利用熊小林等(2011)提出的长英质熔体TiO2溶解度模型(图 10).二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩Mg#值为23~28,且基本处于TiO2饱和状态(图 10a),利用该模型获得岩浆形成温度为750~850℃(图 10b),综上笔者认为二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩岩浆形成温度为765~850℃.石英闪长岩处于TiO2不饱和状态(图 10a),无法利用该模型计算岩浆形成温度,但因其来自于富集岩石圈地幔,故笔者认为岩浆形成温度更高,即从石英闪长岩→二长花岗岩→花岗斑岩,岩浆形成温度逐渐降低.

      • 岩浆形成压力的判断主要基于熔体与残留相平衡的理论(张旗等,2011).火神庙岩体石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的稀土元素配分曲线均呈现出轻稀土富集、重稀土亏损的右倾特征(图 7),暗示岩浆源区残留有石榴子石和角闪石;石英闪长岩和二长花岗岩高Sr(406×10-6~1652×10-6)和弱负Eu异常(δEu=0.78~0.99) 的地球化学特征暗示岩浆源区残留有少量斜长石,花岗斑岩低Sr(138×10-6~190×10-6)及中等负Eu异常(δEu=0.62~0.67) 的地球化学特征表明岩浆源区残留有较多的斜长石.石英闪长岩Sr/Y比值为66~87、Y/Yb比值为9.9~11.9、(Ho/Yb)N比值为1.01~1.50,表明岩浆源区残留相为石榴子石+角闪石±斜长石;二长花岗岩Sr/Y比值为24~40、Y/Yb比值为8.7~11.1、(Ho/Yb)N比值为0.97~1.04,表明岩浆源区残留相为角闪石±石榴子石±斜长石;花岗斑岩Sr/Y比值为9~14、Y/Yb比值为5.7~8.3、(Ho/Yb)N比值为0.86~0.93,表明岩浆源区残留相为斜长石+角闪石±石榴子石(葛小月等,2002Haschke et al., 2010).二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩Nb/La比值为0.67~2.45,较华北陆块下地壳(0.2~1.0) 明显偏高,可能是岩浆源区混入了Nb/La比值较高的富集岩石圈地幔组分的缘故,且Nb/La比值随La/Yb比值的增加而降低(图 9c),表明岩浆源区残留有金红石(熊小林等,2011),而起源于富集岩石圈地幔的石英闪长岩Nb/La比值为0.46~0.61,较二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩明显偏低,暗示岩浆源区残留有更多的金红石(熊小林等,2011).根据部分熔融域相平衡关系(图 11),笔者根据Winther and Newton(1991)Xiong et al.(2005)的研究结果估算火神庙岩体岩浆形成压力约为1.5~1.9GPa,且从石英闪长岩→二长花岗岩→花岗斑岩,岩浆形成压力逐渐降低.

        图  10  火神庙岩体岩浆形成温度判别图

        Figure 10.  The diagram of temperature of the Huoshenmiao pluton

        图  11  火神庙岩体岩浆形成压力判别图解

        Figure 11.  The diagram of pressure of the Huoshenmiao pluton

      • 华北陆块与华南陆块在三叠纪发生了强烈的俯冲-碰撞作用,形成了规模巨大的秦岭-大别-苏鲁造山带(李曙光等,1989Chen et al., 1995; Ames et al., 1996; Rowley et al., 1997).在华南陆块俯冲和折返过程中,温压条件的改变致使陆壳物质在俯冲隧道内发生变质脱水和部分熔融,生成的富水流体和长英质熔体交代上覆华北岩石圈地幔,形成了富集岩石圈地幔(郑永飞等,2013).在晚侏罗世中国东部构造体制大转换引起的伸展背景下(毛景文等,2005),富集岩石圈地幔不仅部分熔融形成了镁铁质岩浆,而且诱发上覆的太华群TTG岩系部分熔融形成了长英质岩浆.由于两种岩浆侵位时间间隔较短,导致长英质岩浆侵位时镁铁质岩浆尚未完全固结,其可以比较容易推挤未固结或半固结的镁铁质岩浆而侵入其中,形成了由“内侵式”主导的“正环带”结构(冯佐海等,2009).镁铁质岩浆不仅结晶分异形成了石英闪长岩,而且与长英质岩浆混合、并经高度结晶分异形成了二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩.在岩浆的结晶分异过程中,岩浆系统的温压条件发生过突变,导致了石英闪长岩中“反环带”斜长石的出现(未发表),这亦可能是稍早形成的二长花岗岩具有典型的花岗结构、而稍晚形成的花岗斑岩出现斑状结构的主要原因.由于辉钼矿Re-Os同位素等时线年龄与二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的LA-(MC)-ICPMS锆石U-Pb年龄基本一致,且钼矿体主要富存于花岗斑岩与三川组大理岩接触带的矽卡岩中(图 2),因此笔者认为火神庙钼矿床与花岗斑岩密切相关,是混合后的长英质岩浆结晶分异过程中释放出的成矿流体经沸腾作用和水-岩反应形成的(王赛等,2014b).

      • (1) 火神庙岩体石英闪长岩、二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩的形成年龄分别为150.3±0.6Ma、146.0±0.6Ma和145.1±0.5Ma,为栾川矿集区晚侏罗世第2次大规模岩浆活动的产物.

        (2) 火神庙岩体属于I型花岗岩,是不同源区部分熔融形成的岩浆上升就位的结果.石英闪长岩是富集岩石圈地幔部分熔融的产物,二长花岗岩和花岗斑岩是富集岩石圈地幔形成的镁铁质岩浆与太华群TTG岩系部分熔融形成的长英质岩浆混合后就位的结果.

        (3) 火神庙岩体不同岩浆形成的温压条件不同,从石英闪长岩→二长花岗岩→花岗斑岩,岩浆形成的温度和压力逐渐降低.

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