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    二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物大灭绝与残存

    宋海军 童金南

    宋海军, 童金南, 2016. 二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物大灭绝与残存. 地球科学, 41(6): 901-918. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.077
    引用本文: 宋海军, 童金南, 2016. 二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物大灭绝与残存. 地球科学, 41(6): 901-918. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.077
    Song Haijun, Tong Jinnan, 2016. Mass Extinction and Survival during the Permian-Triassic Crisis. Earth Science, 41(6): 901-918. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.077
    Citation: Song Haijun, Tong Jinnan, 2016. Mass Extinction and Survival during the Permian-Triassic Crisis. Earth Science, 41(6): 901-918. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.077

    二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物大灭绝与残存

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.077
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41530104

    国家自然科学基金项目 41302271

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      宋海军(1983-),男,副教授,主要从事二叠纪-三叠纪古生物和古环境研究.E-mail: haijunsong@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P534.63

    Mass Extinction and Survival during the Permian-Triassic Crisis

    • 摘要: 当今人类正在面临大气二氧化碳浓度升高、全球变暖、海洋酸化等一系列气候环境问题,有科学家提出这可能导致第6次生物大灭绝.类似的灾难事件在地质历史上多次发生,因此以史为鉴、以古示今才能更好地认识、应对和解决这些问题.显生宙最大的一次生物灭绝事件发生在2.52亿年前的二叠纪-三叠纪之交,超过90%的海洋物种永久消失.此次生物灭绝的过程和原因一直是科学家关注和致力解决的关键科学问题之一.近年来的研究表明当前人类面临的这些极端的气候环境事件在2.52亿年前也都有发生,而且更为严重.本文重点围绕近年来有关二叠纪-三叠纪之交的生物和环境事件研究进展,结合化石和环境指标的地质记录以及生物与环境之间的相互作用关系,总结生物灭绝的过程和形式及相关环境因子的贡献,并探讨残存生物能够躲过这次灾难事件得以延续和发展的内在机制和外界原因.

       

    • 图  1  显生宙海洋生物多样性曲线

      修改自Sepkoski(1978, 1984).a.科级多样性;b.属级多样性

      Fig.  1.  Marine biodiversity curves during the Phanerozoic

      图  2  二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物的两幕式、选择性灭绝

      修改自Song et al.(2013b)

      Fig.  2.  Episodic and selective extinction of biota during the Permian-Triassic crisis

      图  3  二叠纪-三叠纪之交有孔虫、介形虫和腕足动物在不同相区的灭绝过程示意

      Fig.  3.  Extinction pattern of foraminifer, ostracod, and brachiopod from different facies during the Permian-Triassic crisis

      图  4  古、中生代之交生物类群的转变

      a, c.修改自Bambach et al.(2002);b, d, f.修改自Song et al.(2013b);e.数据来源于Sepkoski Online Data (http://strata.geology.wisc.edu/jack/start.php)

      Fig.  4.  Biotic turnover during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition

      图  5  不同生物门类对溶氧量和高温的响应

      修改自Song et al.(2014b)

      Fig.  5.  Biological effects of decreased oxygen concentration and increased temperature

      图  6  二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物避难带模型

      修改自Song et al.(2014b)

      Fig.  6.  Refuge model during the Permian-Triassic crisis

      表  1  二叠纪-三叠纪灭绝事件中科、属、种级灭绝率

      Table  1.   Extinction rates of family, genus, and species during the Permian-Triassic crisis

      科级灭绝率
      (%)
      属级灭绝率
      (%)
      种级灭绝率
      (%)
      文献来源
      52.0 64.8 96.0 Raup, 1979
      57.0 - - Sepkoski, 1984
      - - 91.4 殷鸿福等, 1984
      51.0 82.0 95.0 Jablonski, 1994
      - - 94.0 Jin et al., 2000
      - - 90.1 Song et al., 2013b
      - - 62.0 Wang et al., 2014
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  西伯利亚火山年龄与二叠纪-三叠纪之交灭绝事件年龄对比

      Table  2.   Ages of Siberian volcano and Permian-Triassic extinction event

      方法 西伯利亚火山喷发年龄 二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物灭绝年龄 文献来源
      40Ar/39Ar 249±4 Ma Rampino and Stothers, 1988
      40Ar/39Ar 248.4±2.4 Ma Renne and Basu, 1991
      206Pb/238U 248±4 Ma 251±4 Ma Campbell et al., 1992
      40Ar/39Ar 250.0±0.3 Ma 250.0±0.2 Ma Renne et al., 1995
      40Ar/39Ar 249±2 Ma Dalrymple et al., 1995
      40Ar/39Ar 248.3±1.7 Ma Venkatesan et al., 1997
      206Pb/238U 251.4±0.3 Ma Bowring et al., 1998
      40Ar/39Ar 249.40±0.51 Ma Reichow et al., 2002
      206Pb/238U 251.7±0.4 Ma Kamo et al., 2003
      206Pb/238U 252.6±0.2 Ma Mundil et al., 2004
      40Ar/39Ar 250.30±1.10 Ma 249.25±0.14 Ma Reichow et al., 2009
      206Pb/238U 252.28±0.08 Ma Shen et al., 2011
      206Pb/238U 251.941±0.037 Ma Burgess et al., 2014
      下载: 导出CSV
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