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    单斜辉石中石英出溶体的显微结构和成因机制

    徐海军 赵素涛 武云

    徐海军, 赵素涛, 武云, 2016. 单斜辉石中石英出溶体的显微结构和成因机制. 地球科学, 41(6): 948-970. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.080
    引用本文: 徐海军, 赵素涛, 武云, 2016. 单斜辉石中石英出溶体的显微结构和成因机制. 地球科学, 41(6): 948-970. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.080
    Xu Haijun, Zhao Sutao, Wu Yun, 2016. Microstructure and Mechanism of Quartz Exsolution in Clinopyroxene. Earth Science, 41(6): 948-970. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.080
    Citation: Xu Haijun, Zhao Sutao, Wu Yun, 2016. Microstructure and Mechanism of Quartz Exsolution in Clinopyroxene. Earth Science, 41(6): 948-970. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.080

    单斜辉石中石英出溶体的显微结构和成因机制

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2016.080
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41172070

    国家自然科学基金项目 41272080

    国家自然科学基金项目 41204060

    高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金项目 20120145120003

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      徐海军(1978-),男,副教授,博士,主要从事显微构造和大陆深部构造研究.E-mail: hj_xu@sina.com

    • 中图分类号: P583; P588.34

    Microstructure and Mechanism of Quartz Exsolution in Clinopyroxene

    • 摘要: 矿物出溶结构保存有早期母体矿物的物理化学条件信息,对其开展研究不仅有助于了解寄主岩石的来源深度,而且有助于研究减压折返的动力学演化过程.在世界许多高压-超高压带的榴辉岩和石榴辉石岩中,人们普遍发现单斜辉石中有定向排列的针状或棒状SiO2析出物,其矿物相主要为α石英,有时会伴生钙质角闪石等含水矿物.这些定向针状或棒状体通常平行于单斜辉石c[001]轴方向延伸,石英长轴可以为其c[0001]轴或a[1120]轴.电子背散射衍射(EBSD)测试结果表明,多数石英(96%)析出物与寄主单斜辉石具有结晶学取向关系:(1) 50%的石英c轴平行,并且[0001]Qz//[001]Cpx;(2)35%的石英至少有一个a轴平行,并且[1120]Qz//[001]Cpx;(3)11%的石英至少有一个s{1121}面平行,并且(1121)Qz//(100)Cpx.钙质角闪石析出物与寄主单斜辉石也具有密切结晶学取向关系:(100)Amp//(100)Cpx、[010]Amp//[010]Cpx、[001]Amp//[001]Cpx、[100]Amp∧[100]Cpx≈32°.上述定量显微构造证据表明,单斜辉石中定向石英析出物是由出溶作用所形成,并且多数石英出溶体形成于α石英稳定域.已有高温高压实验研究数据表明,单斜辉石中空位的形成和钙埃斯科拉组分(CaEs)的含量均受化学组成、压力、温度等多种因素综合影响:单斜辉石中CaEs含量对化学组成非常敏感,并受到共生矿物体系中自由SiO2相和蓝晶石的共同缓冲;相同化学组成和等压条件下,CaEs含量总体上随温度升高缓慢降低;相同化学组成和等温条件下,CaEs含量在<6 GPa区间随压力升高而增加,在>6 GPa区间随压力升高而降低.单斜辉石定向SiO2析出物的形成可能涉及多种因素,高压只是其中必要条件之一.榴辉岩质单斜辉石中“石英±角闪石”析出物很可能形成于开放体系,与熔流体活动密切相关,涉及多阶段物质扩散、晶体成核生长、重结晶、退变质反应等复杂作用过程.单斜辉石中定向SiO2析出物的显微结构特征并非超高压岩石的必要条件,这种特殊显微结构也不能作为证明超高压的充分条件.

       

    • 图  1  榴辉岩单斜辉石中石英出溶体显微照片

      a.新鲜榴辉岩矿物组合为石榴石+绿辉石+金红石,其中半自形绿辉石中含丰富石英棒状体;b.放大图像显示不同长度和宽度的石英棒状体呈定向排列,其长轴延长方向平行寄主单斜辉石c[001]方向;c.弱退变质榴辉岩矿物组合为石榴石+单斜辉石+金红石+石英+角闪石+斜长石,退变质角闪石沿着石榴子石与单斜辉石颗粒边界分布,单斜辉石中含有若干定向粗大石英棒状体和大量细小石英析出体;d.石英析出体截面呈柱状或不规则多边形状,部分石英析出体一侧伴生细小角闪石,注意角闪石+石英析出体常与粒内微裂隙相邻;e.单斜辉石内部含有大量石英±角闪石析出体和粒间与粒内微裂隙;f.放大图像显示较粗大角闪石紧邻粒内开放式裂隙.a,b来自南大别双河新鲜榴辉岩(RP-28);c,d,e,f来自苏鲁威海刘公岛弱退变质榴辉岩(WH08-4).a,b,c为光学显微镜单偏光图像;d,e,f为扫描电镜电子背散射图像;Amp.角闪石;Cpx.单斜辉石;Grt.石榴子石;Qz.石英;Rt.金红石

      Fig.  1.  Photographs showing parageneses and textures of clinopyroxene with quartz precipitations in eclogite

      图  2  天然榴辉岩单斜辉石中主量元素和端元组分对应关系

      a.单斜辉石中Na2O-Al2O3质量百分比对应关系;b.单斜辉石单位分子中Na-Si原子数对应关系;c.钙切尔马克(CaTs)分子与硬玉(Jd)分子对应关系;d.钙埃斯科拉(CaEs)分子与硬玉(Jd)分子对应关系.电子探针数据据Katayama et al.(2000)Tsai and Liou(2000)Dobrzhinetskaya et al.(2002)Page et al.(2005)梁金龙等(2006)Proyer et al.(2009)Xu et al.(2015)

      Fig.  2.  Relations for major element and end-number contents in clinopyroxene from natural eclogites

      图  3  威海榴辉岩(WH08-4) 电子背散射照片和Si、Na、Al、Mg、Ca元素面分布照片

      Fig.  3.  BSE image and Si, Na, Al, Mg and Ca mappings of eclogite (WH08-4) from Weihai, eastern China

      图  4  高温高压实验合成单斜辉石中CaEs和Si含量变化

      a.CaEs摩尔含量随压力变化;b.Si原子数随压力变化;c.CaEs摩尔含量随温度变化;d.Si原子数随温度变化;e.CaEs摩尔含量与总阳离子数对应关系;f.Si与Al原子数对应关系;g.CaEs摩尔含量与Si原子数对应关系;h.Si与Na+K原子数对应关系.数据引自Wood and Henderson(1978)Gasparik(1985, 1986)、Zhao et al.(2011)Kawasaki and Osanai(2015)

      Fig.  4.  Variation of CaEs component and Si cation per formula unit in clinopyroxene synthesized in high pressure and high temperature experiments

      图  5  石英和角闪石析出体与寄主单斜辉石结晶学取向对应关系

      a.单斜辉石中角闪石析出体结晶学取向上半球散点图;b.单斜辉石中石英析出体结晶学取向上半球散点图;c.石英析出体结晶学取向反极图.EBSD测量数据来自两块榴辉岩:南大别双河新鲜榴辉岩(RP-28,170 Qz in 17 Cpx)和苏鲁威海刘公岛弱退变质榴辉岩(WH08-4,53 Amp and 2 015 Qz in 35 Cpx).为获得统计对比分析结果,所有寄主单斜辉石均旋转到同一取向,石英和角闪石的结晶学取向则随寄主单斜辉石作协同旋转.单斜辉石的结晶学参考坐标已在上半球等角度散点图中标出,即[001]cpx位于南北方向,[010]cpx位于东西方向,(100)cpx位于圆心.石英反极图分别沿着//[010]cpx,//[001]cpx和⊥(100)cpx三个方向投影

      Fig.  5.  Diagnostic crystallographic topotactic relationships between quartz and amphibole precipitates and host clinopyroxene

      图  6  单斜辉石析出石英+角闪石的可能模式

      a.超高压环境条件下,在柯石英稳定域内,超硅单斜辉石可以含有过量硅和一定空位;b.随着压力降低,亚稳态超硅单斜辉石释放出少量硅,这些析出硅在单斜辉石核部结晶生长;c.随着压力和温度进一步降低,在α石英稳定域,单斜辉石在开放体系熔流体活动的促进下丢失Na等化学组分,同时伴有大量硅析出并在单斜辉石核部结晶生长出大量α石英微晶;d.在α石英稳定域,早期石英微晶重结晶形成较为粗大的定向棒状体,并伴随后续硅的析出和结晶形成微细石英针状体;e.在裂隙附近,单斜辉石和石英析出体受熔流体活动影响,发生退变质反应形成石英+角闪石特殊结构

      Fig.  6.  Possible quartz+amphibole precipitate formation model in clinopyroxene

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