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    沉积盆地断裂趋势带形成演化及其控藏作用

    王伟锋 周维维 徐守礼

    王伟锋, 周维维, 徐守礼, 2017. 沉积盆地断裂趋势带形成演化及其控藏作用. 地球科学, 42(4): 613-624. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.048
    引用本文: 王伟锋, 周维维, 徐守礼, 2017. 沉积盆地断裂趋势带形成演化及其控藏作用. 地球科学, 42(4): 613-624. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.048
    Wang Weifeng, Zhou Weiwei, Xu Shouli, 2017. Formation and Evolution of Concealed Fault Zone in Sedimentary Basins and Its Significance in Hydrocarbon Accumulation. Earth Science, 42(4): 613-624. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.048
    Citation: Wang Weifeng, Zhou Weiwei, Xu Shouli, 2017. Formation and Evolution of Concealed Fault Zone in Sedimentary Basins and Its Significance in Hydrocarbon Accumulation. Earth Science, 42(4): 613-624. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.048

    沉积盆地断裂趋势带形成演化及其控藏作用

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.048
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41340008

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      王伟锋 (1958-),男,教授,主要从事含油气盆地地质构造、油气储层地质、油藏描述、油气地质工程等领域的研究和教学工作.ORCID:0000-0003-1497-4431.E-mail: wwf_1958@163.com

    • 中图分类号: P618.13

    Formation and Evolution of Concealed Fault Zone in Sedimentary Basins and Its Significance in Hydrocarbon Accumulation

    • 摘要: 断裂趋势带是指盆地沉积盖层内的弱变形构造带,属于断裂带形成演化早期或中期阶段的产物.沉积盆地断裂趋势带隐蔽性较强,识别标志不明显,往往被忽视,因而在断裂趋势带上未发现油气藏的区域应该是未来油气勘探值得重视的领域.根据断裂趋势带的规模可将其划分为:(1) 圈闭级断裂趋势带,特征是多个雁列式断块、弧形断块或者复合型断块圈闭呈线状排列组成;(2) 洼陷级断裂趋势带,表现为雁列式展布的多条断裂或褶皱,其间由小断层断续相连;(3) 凹陷级断裂趋势带,表现为洼陷、凸起、沉积相带或圈闭等构造单元呈线状断续相间排列;(4) 坳陷级断裂趋势带,属于区域性隐性断裂,一般表现为沿固定方向基底埋深突变、沉积盖层厚度突变、沉积相带突变等特征;(5) 盆地级断裂趋势带,表现为成排成带的低幅度构造定向延伸组合成的大规模鼻状褶皱带或大型低幅度隆起.另外,结合构造物理模拟实验建立了基底断裂走滑型断裂趋势带的5阶段演化模式分析认为,断裂趋势带油气聚集模式可以概括为6种:雁列状断块聚集模式、带状断块聚集模式、雁列状褶皱聚集模式、平行状复合圈闭聚集模式、网格状复合圈闭聚集模式、环状复合圈闭聚集模式.

       

    • 图  1  圈闭级断裂趋势带特征及结构模式

      a.东营凹陷王家岗断裂趋势带;c.东营凹陷八面河断裂趋势带;b, d.圈闭级断裂趋势带构造模式

      Fig.  1.  Characteristic of the trap scale concealed fault zone

      图  2  洼陷级断裂趋势带特征及结构模式

      a.金湖凹陷崔庄断裂趋势带构造特征;b.断裂趋势带构造模式

      Fig.  2.  Characteristic of the sub-sag scale concealed fault zone

      图  3  凹陷级断裂趋势带特征

      a.凹陷级断裂趋势带平面特征 (渤海湾盆地东部T1'构造图);b.凹陷级断裂趋势带剖面特征 (剖面位置如a黑色虚线所示)

      Fig.  3.  Characteristic of sag scale concealed fault zone

      图  4  坳陷级断裂趋势带特征

      a.黄骅坳陷中区断裂趋势带平面特征;b.断裂趋势带剖面特征 (方框内指示断裂趋势带发育区)

      Fig.  4.  Characteristic of depression scale concealed fault zone

      图  5  盆地级断裂趋势带特征

      a.鄂尔多斯盆地基底断裂、沉积相、油藏叠合图,据王建民等 (2013)改动;b.四川盆地须家河组断裂趋势带,据汪泽成等 (2008)

      Fig.  5.  Characteristic of basin scale concealed fault zone

      图  6  基底断裂走滑型断裂趋势带演化过程

      a.早期弱雁列式隐性期 (诱导裂缝期);b.早中期强雁列式隐性期 (局部破裂期);c.中期断续状隐-显期 (主破裂期);d.中后期串状显-隐期 (主滑动期);e.后期张扭性走滑断裂 (滑动破碎带)

      Fig.  6.  Evolution of basement strike-slip type concealed fault zone

      图  7  断裂趋势带形成演化的应力机制

      a.代表初始隐性活动期应力状态及派生构造;b.代表显性断裂形成期应力状态及派生构造

      Fig.  7.  Mechanism of the stress about formation and evolution in concealed fault zone

      图  8  歧口凹陷断裂趋势带控制沉积体系展布

      祁鹏等 (2010)

      Fig.  8.  The control of concealed fault zone on the distribution of depositional system in Qikou depression

      图  9  断裂趋势带圈闭组合模式

      a.交叉型断块圈闭;b.弧形断块圈闭;c.复合型断块圈闭

      Fig.  9.  Trap patterns of concealed fault zone

      图  10  鄂尔多斯盆地断裂趋势带对输导体系的改造

      a.鄂尔多斯盆地上古生界裂缝方向预测;b.鄂尔多斯盆地上古生界渗透率异常平面分布;据赵文智等 (2003)改动

      Fig.  10.  The north-east concealed fault zone transformed the petroleum transport system in Ordos basin

      图  11  东营凹陷与威利斯顿盆地油气分布

      a.营凹陷馆陶组末期流体势、断裂趋势带、油藏叠合图;b.威利斯顿盆地油藏与断裂趋势带叠合图;据Gilbert (1974)改动

      Fig.  11.  The distribution of reservoirs in Dongying sag and Williston depression

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