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    潜流带水文-生物地球化学:原理、方法及其生态意义

    杜尧 马腾 邓娅敏 廖曼 郑倩琳

    杜尧, 马腾, 邓娅敏, 廖曼, 郑倩琳, 2017. 潜流带水文-生物地球化学:原理、方法及其生态意义. 地球科学, 42(5): 661-673. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.054
    引用本文: 杜尧, 马腾, 邓娅敏, 廖曼, 郑倩琳, 2017. 潜流带水文-生物地球化学:原理、方法及其生态意义. 地球科学, 42(5): 661-673. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.054
    Du Yao, Ma Teng, Deng Yamin, Liao Man, Zheng Qianlin, 2017. Hydro-Biogeochemistry of Hyporheic Zone: Principles, Methods and Ecological Significance. Earth Science, 42(5): 661-673. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.054
    Citation: Du Yao, Ma Teng, Deng Yamin, Liao Man, Zheng Qianlin, 2017. Hydro-Biogeochemistry of Hyporheic Zone: Principles, Methods and Ecological Significance. Earth Science, 42(5): 661-673. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.054

    潜流带水文-生物地球化学:原理、方法及其生态意义

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.054
    基金项目: 

    国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项 No.2012ZX07204-003-04

    中国地质调查局项目 Nos.121201001000150121

    中国地质调查局项目 12120114069301

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      杜尧(1989-),男,博士研究生,主要从事地表水-地下水相互作用、同位素水文学方面的研究.ORCID:0000-0002-5934-9288. E-mail:cugduyao@aliyun.com

      通讯作者:

      马腾,ORCID:0000-0003-2827-9579.E-mail:mateng@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P641.3

    Hydro-Biogeochemistry of Hyporheic Zone: Principles, Methods and Ecological Significance

    • 摘要: 精确量化潜流带水文交换和生物地球化学反应一直是一个挑战,潜流带水文-生物地球化学研究的核心任务是将小尺度上的水文通量及生物地球化学反应动力学与更大尺度上它们对河流水质和生态的累积效应关联起来.基于潜流带水文-生物地球化学耦合原理,系统综述了渗流仪测量、测压管测量、示踪剂注射试验、温度示踪等潜流带水文学研究方法以及野外示踪试验、室内培养试验等生物地球化学研究方法,针对性地评述了潜流带水文-生物地球化学过程在更大尺度上的累积效应及其对河流生态系统的重要意义,并指出未来的研究将从潜流带研究技术方法的先进化、水文地貌理论与模型的深入化和潜流带生物地球化学过程的尺度化等方面持续地发展.

       

    • 图  1  水文迁移与生物地球化学反应对潜流带反应程度控制的原理

      潜流带反应程度在浅层潜流路径上可能受限于反应而在深层潜流路径上可能受限于迁移,反应时间尺度和迁移时间尺度的差异会导致潜流带反应的有效深度与实际潜流带深度不一致.改自Harvey et al.(2013)

      Fig.  1.  The sketch for the control of hydrologic transport and biogeochemical process on hyporheic zone reaction progress

      图  2  暂时性储积模型的概念图解

      a.表示仅考虑垂向交换;b.表示同时考虑垂向和侧向交换.改自Harvey and Gooseff(2015)

      Fig.  2.  Conceptual scheme of transient storage model (TSM)

      图  3  反应意义因子(RSF)的概念图解

      改自Harvey et al.(2013)

      Fig.  3.  Conceptual scheme of reaction significance factor (RSF)

      图  4  多尺度与多维潜流路径的模型

      改自Stonedahl et al.(2010)

      Fig.  4.  Conceptual scheme of multiscale and multidimensional hyporheic flow

      图  5  基于反应意义因子估算的密西西比河流网络反硝化潜力

      图a表示总体的反硝化RSF,值越高表示反硝化反应意义越大;图b表示垂向与横向RSF的比值,值越高表示垂向交换影响下的反硝化效率相对于侧向交换越大.改自Gomez-Velez et al.(2015)

      Fig.  5.  Denitrification potential of Mississippi River network based on RSF

      表  1  量化潜流交换的主要方法

      Table  1.   Primary methods for quantifying hyporheic exchange

      方法 空间尺度 时间尺度 优势 劣势
      渗流仪测量 cm2~m2 数小时~数月 可直接量化渗流速率、可多次使用、价格低廉 只能针对时间和空间点、交换量较小时结果可能存在不确定性
      测压管测量 cm2~m2 数秒~数分 可简单而精确地获取水力梯度 只能针对时间和空间点、需人工密集安装
      示踪剂注射试验 10 m2~km2 数小时~数天 可评价整个河段的流量、损失及侧向流入量 无法识别长时间尺度的潜流路径;结果可能因示踪剂被吸附而受影响
      河底温度示踪 cm2~m2 数秒~数月 低廉的价格、精确的温度测量、长时间的热记录、可识别渗流速率和方向 只能针对空间点、不能识别地下流动的补给
      环境示踪剂 cm2~m2 数分~数天 可直接测定示踪剂浓度、简单的质量平衡计算 只能针对时间和空间点、要求不同水体端元的浓度差异显著
      质量平衡 10 m2~km2 数小时~数年 直接测量河水流量、简单的水量均衡计算 当流量较低或是紊流时难以测定、要求所有监测点的流量特征曲线
       注:改自Hatch et al.(2006)Gonzalez-Pinzon et al.(2015)Harvey and Gooseff(2015).
      下载: 导出CSV
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