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    济南泉域岩溶水水化学特征及其成因

    王珺瑜 王家乐 靳孟贵

    王珺瑜, 王家乐, 靳孟贵, 2017. 济南泉域岩溶水水化学特征及其成因. 地球科学, 42(5): 821-831. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.070
    引用本文: 王珺瑜, 王家乐, 靳孟贵, 2017. 济南泉域岩溶水水化学特征及其成因. 地球科学, 42(5): 821-831. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.070
    Wang Junyu, Wang Jiale, Jin Menggui, 2017. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Causes of Karst Water in Jinan Spring Catchment. Earth Science, 42(5): 821-831. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.070
    Citation: Wang Junyu, Wang Jiale, Jin Menggui, 2017. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Causes of Karst Water in Jinan Spring Catchment. Earth Science, 42(5): 821-831. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.070

    济南泉域岩溶水水化学特征及其成因

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.070
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41672246

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      王珺瑜(1992-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事地下水数值模拟研究.ORCID:0000-0001-7043-3213.E-mail:jywang@2014.cug.edu.cn

      通讯作者:

      靳孟贵,ORCID:0000-0002-0125-4286.E-mail:mgjin@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P641.3

    Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation Causes of Karst Water in Jinan Spring Catchment

    • 摘要: 济南泉域水质逐年变差,查明其污染来源和影响因素,对岩溶水资源开发利用及生态环境保护具有十分重要的意义,而对包含补给径流区的全区岩溶水系统分析尚未见报道.综合运用水化学(Piper三线图、离子比例系数、相关分析)和多元统计(因子分析、聚类分析)方法分析地下水水化学特征,探讨了不同区域水质影响因素及影响强度.因子分析反映了灰岩水岩作用、工业和生活污染、白云岩水岩作用、农牧业和生活污染对水化学组分的影响,贡献率依次为33.1%、28.4%、12.0%和11.8%.分析结果表明:研究区岩溶水水质受水岩作用和人类活动的双重影响;南部补给区、西郊及其以西排泄区水质优良,主要受碳酸盐岩溶解的影响;直接补给径流区部分岩溶水受农牧业和农村生活污染的影响,NO3-含量较高;东郊排泄区、城区及近郊开采区受工业及城镇生活污染的影响,水质较差,少数地段SO42-、NO3-、TDS和总硬度超标.

       

    • 图  1  研究区水文地质略图及采样点分布

      Fig.  1.  The study area and sampling points

      图  2  济南岩溶地下水水化学Piper图

      Fig.  2.  Piper diagram of karst groundwater in Jinan

      图  3  济南岩溶地下水水化学类型分布

      Fig.  3.  The spatial distribution of hydrochemical types of karst groundwater in Jinan

      图  4  TDS与矿物饱和指数关系

      Sic.方解石饱和指数;Sid.白云石饱和指数;Sig.石膏饱和指数;SIh.岩盐饱和指数

      Fig.  4.  Relationships between TDS and the saturation indexes of minerals

      图  5  离子比值关系

      图a, b中,mEq/L=mmol/L×原子价

      Fig.  5.  Relationships between the ratios of the selected ions

      图  6  研究区地下水水化学样品聚类树状图

      Fig.  6.  Cluster dendrogram of groundwater hydrochemical samples in the study area

      图  7  水化学样品系统聚类空间分布

      Fig.  7.  Spatial distribution of the hydrochemical sample clusters from HCA

      表  1  济南岩溶水水化学分析结果统计

      Table  1.   Results of the hydrochemical analysis of karst water in Jinan

      参数单位极小值极大值均值标准差变异系数
      T10.317.016.61.220.07
      pH/7.78.58.10.170.02
      K++Na+mg/L3.0170.618.924.151.28
      Ca2+mg/L66.3197.0105.426.540.25
      Mg2+mg/L10.436.620.55.480.27
      Cl-mg/L7.6247.735.738.121.07
      SO42-mg/L30.6287.591.243.420.48
      HCO3-mg/L144.3348.3251.641.510.17
      NO3-mg/L5.6100.337.822.920.61
      F-mg/L0.10.40.20.070.35
      TDSmg/L270.31125449.9134.670.30
      总硬度mg/L228.4607.4347.775.570.22
      CODmg/L0.21.80.60.330.54
      注:变异系数无量纲.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  岩溶水各水化学组分间的相关系数

      Table  2.   Correlation coefficient of hydrochemical composition of karst groundwater

      项目K++Na+Ca2+Mg2+Cl-SO42-HCO3-NO3-F-pHTDS总硬度COD
      K++Na+1.000.55*0.28*0.94*0.68*0.31*-0.110.14-0.37*0.82*0.57*0.55*
      Ca2+1.000.27*0.65*0.69*0.70*0.47*0.11-0.62*0.91*0.96*0.10
      Mg2+1.000.260.44*0.51*0.110.06-0.230.46*0.54*0.05
      Cl-1.000.61*0.35*-0.010.14-0.46*0.84*0.65*0.46*
      SO42-1.000.30*-0.010.06-0.29*0.82*0.74*0.40*
      HCO3-1.000.40*-0.01-0.68*0.63*0.77*-0.16
      NO3-1.000.35*-0.210.31*0.44*-0.25
      F-1.000.100.180.120.11
      pH1.00-0.55*-0.61*0.03
      TDS1.000.93*0.31*
      总硬度1.000.10
      COD1.00
      注:*表示通过α=0.05显著性检验.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  旋转因子载荷矩阵

      Table  3.   Matrix of rotated factor loadings

      水化学指标F1F2F3F4
      K++Na+0.3130.885*0.103-0.007
      Ca2+0.844*0.3850.1160.217
      Mg2+0.2010.1110.941*0.021
      Cl-0.4380.824*0.0300.031
      SO42-0.3370.688*0.4090.017
      HCO3-0.832*-0.0330.3670.029
      NO3-0.510-0.2920.0080.691*
      F--0.1200.1740.0310.885*
      pH-0.831*-0.1280.0270.180
      TDS0.677*0.642*0.2830.191
      总硬度0.800*0.3710.3820.197
      COD-0.2380.798*-0.0290.009
      贡献率(%)33.06728.44012.00711.820
      累积贡献率(%)33.06761.50773.51485.334
      注:*表示较高的因子载荷.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  系统聚类水化学参数平均含量

      Table  4.   Average contents of hydrochemical parameters in the clusters determined from HCA

      ClusternK++Na+Ca2+Mg2+Cl-SO42-HCO3-NO3-F-pHTDS总硬度COD
      11610.986.618.921.465.8239.324.90.28.1361.0294.30.4
      21114.684.917.322.587.6200.223.30.38.3366.0283.20.9
      31815.4114.320.231.785.2268.853.00.28.1468.8368.60.5
      4928.4135.927.161.6130.9293.550.70.28.0597.8451.00.6
      51170.6197.028.0247.7287.5326.312.50.27.71125607.41.8
      注:n表示各类所包含的样品数量,各指标(除pH)单位均为mg/L.
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2016-12-27
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