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    广西某地花岗岩风化壳中稀土元素特征与iREE矿床成矿机制

    赵芝 王登红 潘华 屈文俊

    赵芝, 王登红, 潘华, 屈文俊, 2017. 广西某地花岗岩风化壳中稀土元素特征与iREE矿床成矿机制. 地球科学, 42(10): 1697-1706. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.115
    引用本文: 赵芝, 王登红, 潘华, 屈文俊, 2017. 广西某地花岗岩风化壳中稀土元素特征与iREE矿床成矿机制. 地球科学, 42(10): 1697-1706. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.115
    Zhao Zhi, Wang Denghong, Pan Hua, Qu Wenjun, 2017. REE Geochemistry of a Weathering Profile in Guangxi, Southern China, and Genesis of Ion-Adsorption Type REE Deposit. Earth Science, 42(10): 1697-1706. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.115
    Citation: Zhao Zhi, Wang Denghong, Pan Hua, Qu Wenjun, 2017. REE Geochemistry of a Weathering Profile in Guangxi, Southern China, and Genesis of Ion-Adsorption Type REE Deposit. Earth Science, 42(10): 1697-1706. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.115

    广西某地花岗岩风化壳中稀土元素特征与iREE矿床成矿机制

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.115
    基金项目: 

    中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金 K1506

    中国地质调查局地质大调查项目 DD20160056

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      赵芝(1984-),女,博士,主要从事离子吸附型稀土矿床成矿理论研究

      通讯作者:

      王登红

    • 中图分类号: P595

    REE Geochemistry of a Weathering Profile in Guangxi, Southern China, and Genesis of Ion-Adsorption Type REE Deposit

    • 摘要: 为了解风化壳中离子交换相稀土元素的特征,对广西某地花岗岩风化壳剖面样品进行了X射线衍射及主量、稀土元素地球化学特征的研究.剖面自上而下可划分为腐殖土层(A1)、亚粘土层(A2)、网纹状风化层(B1)和全风化层(B2);自A1至B2,粘土矿物的含量和化学风化蚀变指数快速降低;与母岩相比A1、A2、B1中全相Ce、Nd和HREE相对富集,B2中全相稀土与母岩特征相似,所有样品的离子交换相HREE亏损,Y相对富集;离子交换相轻、重稀土一起富集在B2中.据此推测,花岗岩中褐帘石、榍石等易风化的稀土矿物为离子交换相稀土提供了主要的物源,锆石、磷钇矿等难风化的稀土矿物的残留及表生稀土矿物的形成使全相HREE相对富集;离子交换相轻、重稀土元素的分馏程度随风化程度的增加而变化.

       

    • 图  1  研究区花岗岩体地质简图

      Fig.  1.  Simplified geological map of the studied granite in Guangxi Province

      图  2  花岗岩风化壳剖面(a)及样品分布示意(b)

      A1.腐殖土层;A2.亚粘土层;B1.网纹状风化层;B2.全风化层

      Fig.  2.  Photo of the studied weathering profile in Guangxi Province (a) and map showing the distribution of samples (b)

      图  3  风化壳剖面中代表性样品的照片及矿物组合

      Fig.  3.  Photo of the representative weathered granite samples and evolution of minerals within the studied samples

      图  4  风化壳剖面中CIA、REE、LREE及HREE变化特征

      A1.腐殖土层(DZ-1df);A2.亚粘土层(DZ-2S, 3S, 4样品稀土数据均值);B1.网纹状风化层(DZ-2Z, 3Z, 4Z样品稀土数据均值);B2.全风化层(DZ-3X, 4X, 5X样品稀土数据均值)

      Fig.  4.  Evolution of CIA, REE, LREE and HREE within the studied weathering profile

      图  5  风化壳样品的球粒陨石标准化稀土配分曲线

      左侧为全相稀土,右侧为离子交换相稀土;球粒陨石数据引自Taylor and McLennan(1985)

      Fig.  5.  Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the weathered granite samples

      表  1  代表性风化壳样品的XRD分析结果

      Table  1.   XRD analysis of the representative weathered granite samples

      样号 层位 深度
      (m)
      矿物含量(%)
      粘土含量 石英 钾长石 斜长石 方解石 白云石 菱铁矿 黄铁矿 赤铁矿 菱锰矿 硬石膏 方沸石 辉石 角闪石
      DZ-3S 亚粘土层 3 84.1 15.9 / / / / / / / / / / / /
      DZ-3Z 网纹状风化层 6 50.5 21.1 28.4 / / / / / / / / / / /
      DZ-4X 全风化层 11 32.4 19.5 48.1 / / / / / / / / / / /
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  代表性样品的粘土矿物XRD分析结果

      Table  2.   XRD analysis of the representative clay samples

      样号 层位 深度
      (m)
      粘土矿物相对百分含量(%) 混层比
      蒙皂石 伊蒙混层 绿蒙混层 伊利石 高岭石 绿泥石
      DZ-3S 亚粘土层 3 / / / 2 98 / /
      DZ-3Z 网纹状风化层 6 / / / 8 92 / /
      DZ-4X 全风化层 11 / / / 4 96 / /
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  风化壳样品的主量元素测试结果(%)

      Table  3.   Major element compositions of the weathered granite samples (%)

      样号 层位 深度(m) SiO2 Al2O3 CaO Fe2O3 FeO K2O MgO MnO Na2O P2O5 TiO2 CO2 H2O+ LOI CIA
      DZ-1df A1 0.5 73.21 14.56 0.02 0.71 2.37 0.13 0.10 0.02 <0.01 0.02 0.23 0.35 6.13 8.41 98.9
      DZ-1S A1 78.32 13.00 0.02 2.03 1.08 0.15 0.09 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.21 0.10 5.20 5.22 98.6
      DZ-2S A2 74.01 17.32 0.02 0.74 0.90 0.34 0.13 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.28 0.10 6.74 6.45 97.8
      DZ-3S A2 3.0 74.24 16.33 0.02 1.35 1.08 0.31 0.11 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.26 0.10 6.52 6.22 97.9
      DZ-4S A2 70.44 18.45 0.02 2.08 0.90 0.38 0.14 0.05 <0.01 0.01 0.32 0.10 7.48 7.07 97.7
      DZ-5S A1 69.70 18.12 0.02 2.44 1.04 0.25 0.14 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.29 0.12 7.38 7.12 98.4
      DZ-1Z A2 73.95 16.54 0.02 1.15 1.37 0.29 0.11 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.27 0.10 6.66 6.58 98.0
      DZ-2Z B1 77.68 14.31 0.02 0.29 1.62 0.30 0.11 0.10 <0.01 0.01 0.20 0.10 5.76 5.58 97.7
      DZ-3Z B1 6.0 72.79 16.22 0.03 1.30 1.76 1.68 0.13 0.07 <0.01 0.01 0.29 0.09 5.82 5.90 89.8
      DZ-4Z B1 73.60 16.28 0.02 1.04 1.69 0.63 0.16 0.23 <0.01 0.01 0.27 0.09 6.36 6.02 95.9
      DZ-5Z A2 73.80 15.96 0.02 2.45 0.68 0.21 0.10 0.04 <0.01 0.01 0.28 0.12 6.58 6.30 98.5
      DZ-1X A2 76.45 14.18 0.02 2.01 0.61 0.41 0.15 0.03 <0.01 0.01 0.23 0.10 5.94 5.60 96.9
      DZ-2X B1 75.49 16.43 0.02 0.37 0.61 0.44 0.13 0.02 <0.01 0.01 0.29 0.10 6.38 6.34 97.1
      DZ-3X B2 75.30 13.78 0.03 1.30 0.90 4.99 0.11 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.25 0.10 3.42 3.32 71.3
      DZ-4X B2 11.0 73.08 14.51 0.03 1.70 1.01 5.08 0.09 0.10 0.06 0.01 0.27 0.10 3.70 3.57 72.0
      DZ-5X B2 74.87 14.07 0.02 2.04 0.40 4.13 0.12 0.16 0.01 0.01 0.23 0.12 3.94 3.87 75.8
      DZ-6X A2 70.75 17.11 0.02 3.61 0.72 0.33 0.11 0.07 <0.01 0.02 0.28 0.15 7.14 7.18 97.9
      花岗岩 30.0 73.52 12.53 1.26 0.57 2.71 4.81 0.36 0.05 2.95 0.06 0.33 0.55
        注:花岗岩主量元素数据为21件样品的均值,岩石类型有粗粒、中粗粒及细粒黑云母花岗岩,引自前人保密文献.花岗岩的深度30 m是根据区域上风化壳厚度为20~30 m而假定的.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  风化壳样品中全相稀土元素分析测试结果(10-6)

      Table  4.   Rare earth element compositions of the weathered granite samples (10-6)

      样号 层位 La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Y Sc REE LREE/HREE
      DZ-1df A1 5.71 62.7 1.09 5.80 0.98 0.17 0.98 0.27 2.26 0.60 2.21 0.34 2.33 0.35 16.3 7.84 102 3.0
      DZ-1S A1 4.56 129 0.77 6.83 0.67 0.16 0.88 0.24 2.11 0.56 2.08 0.33 2.35 0.37 15.2 9.46 166 5.9
      DZ-2S A2 7.34 86.9 1.33 8.39 1.10 0.24 0.94 0.21 1.73 0.46 1.89 0.32 2.35 0.37 13.4 6.57 127 4.9
      DZ-3S A2 5.55 109 0.97 7.03 0.87 0.22 0.81 0.22 1.80 0.48 1.88 0.31 2.32 0.36 13.6 6.16 145 5.7
      DZ-4S A2 6.60 174 1.30 10.8 1.18 0.24 1.25 0.32 2.71 0.73 2.92 0.48 3.58 0.55 20.4 9.76 227 5.9
      DZ-5S A1 7.27 191 1.28 12.1 0.99 0.19 1.08 0.32 2.69 0.71 2.62 0.42 2.94 0.44 20.1 8.88 244 6.8
      DZ-1Z A2 5.27 114 0.93 6.86 0.74 0.17 0.70 0.19 1.57 0.43 1.70 0.29 2.08 0.32 11.9 7.63 147 6.7
      DZ-2Z B1 9.53 285 2.21 22.5 1.87 0.25 1.36 0.35 2.83 0.67 2.46 0.42 3.12 0.48 17.0 5.82 350 11.2
      DZ-3Z B1 28.4 116 9.56 42.8 5.54 0.59 2.25 0.42 3.01 0.70 2.69 0.39 2.80 0.43 18.2 6.24 234 6.6
      DZ-4Z B1 13.0 426 3.90 36.7 3.24 0.46 2.11 0.51 3.68 0.90 3.34 0.54 3.93 0.61 24.5 9.42 523 12.0
      DZ-5Z A2 10.0 142 1.67 11.3 1.14 0.24 1.14 0.25 2.10 0.55 2.12 0.35 2.42 0.36 16.1 6.95 192 6.6
      DZ-1X A2 10.8 151 2.14 12.9 1.92 0.26 2.10 0.53 4.31 1.08 3.74 0.59 3.91 0.59 31.2 8.39 227 3.7
      DZ-2X B1 37.5 33.7 10.2 40.4 5.98 0.59 3.16 0.68 5.24 1.26 4.41 0.65 4.40 0.66 34.4 5.02 183 2.3
      DZ-3X B2 101 24.8 25.8 102 28.5 3.93 30.0 4.61 26.3 5.08 15.2 1.95 12.5 1.83 136 5.59 520 1.2
      DZ-4X B2 126 147 31.2 124 31.7 4.24 31.9 4.99 28.3 5.33 15.6 2.00 12.6 1.83 147 5.29 715 1.9
      DZ-5X B2 98.3 143 24.4 100 25.2 3.35 23.4 3.58 20.2 3.83 11.7 1.49 9.73 1.42 102 4.84 572 2.2
      DZ-6X A2 12.4 226 2.99 21.8 2.30 0.29 1.76 0.36 2.63 0.61 2.27 0.36 2.53 0.39 16.7 9.18 294 9.6
      LC-JY 花岗岩 56.1 93.1 13.2 41.7 12.1 1.1 8.3 1.5 7.8 1.8 6.4 0.7 6.2 0.6 48.7 299.4 3.0
        注:LC-JY为4件中粗粒花岗岩样品均值,数据引自前人保密文献.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  5  风化壳样品中离子交换相稀土元素分析测试结果(10-6)

      Table  5.   Ion-exchangeable rare earth element compositions of the weathered granite samples (10-6)

      样号 层位 La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Y Sc REE
      DZ-1df A1 0.32 6.11 0.04 0.07 0.02 -0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.14 0.46 7
      DZ-1S A1 0.34 14.34 0.04 0.10 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.09 0.30 15
      DZ-2S A2 1.53 17.27 0.24 0.78 0.16 0.02 0.13 0.02 0.09 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.52 0.43 21
      DZ-3S A2 0.83 22.27 0.12 0.34 0.07 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.34 0.39 24
      DZ-4S A2 0.93 15.77 0.14 0.51 0.10 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.35 0.40 18
      DZ-5S A1 1.13 45.15 0.19 0.78 0.11 0.01 0.16 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.36 0.49 48
      DZ-1Z A2 1.30 21.55 0.24 0.42 0.11 0.01 0.10 0.02 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.43 0.65 24
      DZ-2Z B1 1.51 11.02 0.35 1.13 0.17 0.02 0.16 0.02 0.11 0.02 0.07 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.71 0.42 15
      DZ-3Z B1 11.30 5.47 1.95 6.84 0.52 0.04 0.40 0.02 0.11 0.01 0.07 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.48 0.34 27
      DZ-4Z B1 3.35 18.77 0.85 3.21 0.46 0.05 0.40 0.05 0.21 0.04 0.14 0.02 0.08 0.01 1.14 0.28 29
      DZ-5Z A2 1.16 30.11 0.16 0.59 0.06 0.00 0.09 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.26 0.28 33
      DZ-1X A2 2.58 12.75 0.33 1.06 0.12 0.00 0.12 0.01 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.52 0.35 18
      DZ-2X B1 13.89 7.27 3.46 12.75 1.51 0.11 1.02 0.07 0.40 0.07 0.26 0.02 0.11 0.02 1.98 0.19 43
      DZ-3X B2 64.97 0.78 7.65 23.77 3.62 0.40 4.86 0.39 1.92 0.32 0.83 0.06 0.34 0.05 12.94 0.42 123
      DZ-4X B2 25.65 0.62 2.37 7.16 0.98 0.10 1.44 0.11 0.55 0.10 0.23 0.02 0.10 0.02 4.25 0.26 44
      DZ-5X B2 122.44 2.41 16.93 56.29 8.76 0.99 10.50 0.85 4.06 0.65 1.82 0.13 0.72 0.09 25.84 0.24 253
      DZ-6X A2 4.12 9.28 0.66 2.06 0.26 0.03 0.29 0.03 0.10 0.02 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.92 0.46 18
      CS1-a 监控样 204.30 2.81 28.79 91.88 20.11 5.26 34.85 5.10 30.66 6.54 18.51 2.10 11.37 2.09 368.80 0.01 464
      CS1-b 监控样 202.60 2.83 28.11 90.46 19.56 5.04 34.18 4.99 29.76 6.38 17.46 1.99 10.67 1.96 360.80 0.01 456
      CS2-a 监控样 30.80 15.27 7.43 25.22 4.76 0.73 2.63 0.30 1.64 0.32 0.97 0.12 0.77 0.11 7.87 0.06 91
      CS2-b 监控样 33.07 16.30 8.00 27.66 5.14 0.79 2.76 0.32 1.81 0.35 1.07 0.13 0.84 0.12 8.55 0.07 98
      FY1-a 重复样 96.25 16.72 22.07 80.37 17.62 3.30 25.11 4.39 26.88 5.12 13.50 1.73 9.48 1.42 211.20 0.01 324
      FY1-b 重复样 97.74 17.02 22.33 83.02 17.82 3.31 25.62 4.44 27.21 5.21 13.58 1.74 8.91 1.42 214.60 0.01 329
      FY2-a 重复样 393.10 43.27 86.38 302.20 62.41 9.57 60.41 8.73 53.24 10.83 31.21 4.01 25.04 3.65 514.80 0.04 1 094
      FY2-b 重复样 396.30 42.93 86.78 301.90 63.04 9.70 59.98 8.82 54.23 10.93 31.58 4.06 25.52 3.74 528.50 0.04 1 099
      下载: 导出CSV
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