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    太原盆地应力场演化与强震关系的数值模拟研究

    李平恩 廖力 刘盼

    李平恩, 廖力, 刘盼, 2017. 太原盆地应力场演化与强震关系的数值模拟研究. 地球科学, 42(9): 1623-1636. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.526
    引用本文: 李平恩, 廖力, 刘盼, 2017. 太原盆地应力场演化与强震关系的数值模拟研究. 地球科学, 42(9): 1623-1636. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.526
    LI Ping'en, Liao Li, Liu Pan, 2017. Numerical Simulation of Relationship between Stress Field Evolution and Historical Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan Basin. Earth Science, 42(9): 1623-1636. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.526
    Citation: LI Ping'en, Liao Li, Liu Pan, 2017. Numerical Simulation of Relationship between Stress Field Evolution and Historical Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan Basin. Earth Science, 42(9): 1623-1636. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.526

    太原盆地应力场演化与强震关系的数值模拟研究

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.526
    基金项目: 

    中国地震局地球物理研究所基本科研业务费专项 No.DQJB14C06

    国家自然科学基金项目 No.41674105

    地震行业科研专项 No.201408014

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      李平恩(1977-), 男, 副研究员, 主要从事地球动力学数值模拟方面的研究

    • 中图分类号: P315

    Numerical Simulation of Relationship between Stress Field Evolution and Historical Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan Basin

    • 摘要: 近年来,太原盆地内尽管没有强震发生,小震却异常活跃,而研究太原盆地构造应力场的分布和演化规律的工作比较少.采用有限元数值方法,综合考虑区域地质构造差异、主要活动断裂带、地形起伏和岩石圈分层结构,引入深部速度结构,建立包含太原盆地在内的山西地区三维粘弹性模型.以GPS观测值和最大主压应力方向测量值为约束条件,重建研究区现今构造背景应力场.在此基础上,依次模拟了自公元512年以来太原盆地6级以上和山西地震带7级以上历史强震序列.计算结果显示,太原盆地内的3次6级以上历史地震均落在应力场增加值大于0.01 MPa的区域,盆地近年来小震空间分布与现今应力增加值大于0.01 MPa的区域有较好的对应关系.研究表明:山西地震带内历史强震序列和长期构造加载对太原盆地内3次历史强震均有促进作用,太原盆地的地震活动性明显受区域当前应力水平的控制.

       

    • 图  1  太原盆地及邻区主要断裂带及历史强震分布

      主要断裂带数据源自“基于GIS的地震分析预报系统”软件提供的中国断层数据;历史强震数据源自“基于GIS的地震分析预报系统”软件提供的地震数据

      Fig.  1.  Distribution of main faults and historic strong earthquakes in Taiyuan basin and its adjacent area

      图  2  包含太原盆地在内的山西地区三维有限元模型

      Fig.  2.  imensional FEM model of Shanxi area including Taiyuan basin

      图  3  三维模型从Moho面(上表面)到100 km深度(下表面)的材料参数

      Fig.  3.  Material parameter of 3D model from Moho (upper surface) to 100 km (lower surface) depth

      图  4  模型的加载条件

      Fig.  4.  Loading condition of model

      图  5  模拟值与观测值的比较

      a.地壳水平运动速率模拟值与观测值的比较;b.最大主压应力方向模拟值与观测值的比较

      Fig.  5.  Comparison of simulated values and the observed values

      图  6  太原盆地等效应力年变化(a)和最大剪应力年变化(b)

      Fig.  6.  Annual variation of effective stress (a) and max shear stress (b) in Taiyuan basin

      图  7  太原盆地512年以来等效应力演化

      a.1038年定襄7¼地震后,1102年太原6½地震前;b.1303年洪洞8.0地震后,1614年平遥6½地震前;c.1614年平遥6½地震后,1618年介休6½地震前;d.1830年磁县7½地震后,1989年阳高6.1地震前.红色实心圆圈表示后继地震位置,虚线表示0等值线

      Fig.  7.  Evolution of effective stress in Taiyuan basin since AD 512

      图  8  太原盆地512年以来最大剪应力演化

      a.1038年定襄7¼地震后,1102年太原6½地震前;b.1303年洪洞8.0地震后,1614年平遥6½地震前;c.1614年平遥6½地震后,1618年介休6½地震前;d.1830年磁县7½地震后,1989年阳高6.1地震前.红色实心圆圈表示后继地震位置,虚线表示0等值线

      Fig.  8.  Evolution of max shear stress in Taiyuanbasin since AD 512

      图  9  自512年以来历史地震震源处的等效应力变化曲线

      a.1102年太原地震前震源处;b.1614年平遥地震前震源处;c.1618年介休地震前震源处

      Fig.  9.  Effective stress evolution at the epicenter of historical strong earthquake in Taiyuan basin since AD 512

      图  10  自512年以来历史地震震源处的最大剪应力变化曲线

      a.1102年太原地震前震源处;b.1614年平遥地震前震源处;c.1618年介休地震前震源处

      Fig.  10.  Max shear stress evolution at the epicenter of historical strong earthquake in Taiyuan basin since AD 512

      图  11  2008年后太原盆地等效应力场与小震分布(a)和最大剪应力场与小震分布(b)

      Fig.  11.  Effective stress variation and distribution (a) and max shear stress variation and distribution (b) of small earthquake in Taiyuan basin after 2008

      图  12  2009年1月—2015年10月太原盆地ML2.0级以上中小震震源机制解空间分布

      红色为正断型地震,蓝色为走滑型地震,黑色为逆冲型地震,皮球大小表示震级

      Fig.  12.  Distribution of focal mechanism for moderate and small earthquake with ML≥2.0 in Taiyuan basin from January 2009 to October 2015

      表  1  三维模型的粘滞系数

      Table  1.   Coefficient of viscosity of 3-dimensinal model

      分层深度(km)η(1020 Pa·s)
      上地壳地表~-201.0×103
      下地壳-20~Moho面1.0×102
      岩石圈上地幔Moho面~-801.0×10
      软流圈上地幔-80~-1001.0
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  模拟中用到512年以来太原盆地6级以上和山西地震带7级以上地震目录及震源参数

      Table  2.   Earthquake catalogue and source parameter of earthquakes with M≥6 in Taiyuan basin and earthquakes with M≥7 in Shanxi seismic zone in simulation

      序号时间震中位置M发震断层破裂长度(km)水平错动(cm)参考文献
      年—月—日地点经度(°E)纬度(°N)
      1512-05-23原平、代县间112.838.9五台山北麓、西麓80.7185.5(1)
      21038-01-15定襄、忻定间112.938.4系舟山山前57.093.6(1)
      31102-01-22太原112.437.7交城34.312.5(2)
      41303-09-25洪洞111.736.38.0霍山山前85.0402.5(1, 3~5)
      51614-10-23平遥112.137.2太谷34.310.9(2)
      61618-05-20介休111.937.0太谷41.812.5(2, 6)
      71626-06-28灵丘114.239.47.0太白维山前86.619.7(1~2)
      81683-11-22原平112.738.77.0五台山西麓70.034.4(2)
      91695-05-18临汾111.536.08.0临汾-浮山62.2447.5(2, 5, 7~8)
      101830-06-12河北磁县114.336.4磁县-大明57.0173.9(1~2, 9)
       注:(1)刘光勋等(1993);(2)沈正康等(2004);(3)江娃利等(2004);(4)徐锡伟等(1993);(5)刁桂苓等(2007);(6)殷娜和韩军青(2010);(7)王挺梅等(1993);(8)武烈(1995);(9)许华明等(2010).
      下载: 导出CSV
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