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    山东省灵山岛下白垩统浊积岩中与滑塌作用相关的软沉积物变形构造

    梁钊 周瑶琪

    梁钊, 周瑶琪, 2017. 山东省灵山岛下白垩统浊积岩中与滑塌作用相关的软沉积物变形构造. 地球科学, 42(10): 1715-1724. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.544
    引用本文: 梁钊, 周瑶琪, 2017. 山东省灵山岛下白垩统浊积岩中与滑塌作用相关的软沉积物变形构造. 地球科学, 42(10): 1715-1724. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.544
    Liang Zhao, Zhou Yaoqi, 2017. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Related to Slumping in Lower Cretaceous Turbidite in Lingshan Island, Shandong Province. Earth Science, 42(10): 1715-1724. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.544
    Citation: Liang Zhao, Zhou Yaoqi, 2017. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Related to Slumping in Lower Cretaceous Turbidite in Lingshan Island, Shandong Province. Earth Science, 42(10): 1715-1724. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.544

    山东省灵山岛下白垩统浊积岩中与滑塌作用相关的软沉积物变形构造

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.544
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41322013

    “深地资源勘查开采”重大科技创新工程项目 2017CXGC1608

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      梁钊(1986-),男,博士生,主要从事地球化学研究

    • 中图分类号: P583

    Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Related to Slumping in Lower Cretaceous Turbidite in Lingshan Island, Shandong Province

    • 摘要: 灵山岛上出露的软沉积物变形构造其成因具有多样性,而灯塔剖面底部滑塌层内的变形构造的触发因素尚不明确.结合野外观察和极射赤平投影方法,研究了滑塌层和内部变形构造的形成过程、触发机制和地质意义,结果表明:灯塔剖面主要由浊积岩沉积序列组成.滑塌层夹在未变形层之间,由地震触发形成,内部发育4个滑脱面,将滑塌层划分为5个变形单元,缩短率和变形程度各不相同.软沉积物变形构造主要为褶皱,形态特征表现为砂岩厚度在枢纽部位大大增加,也可见一些砂岩增厚和减薄现象,两者均是液化的砂岩在驱动力作用下的结果.滑塌过程中,滑塌层中的砂泥岩与海底沉积物之间的孔隙流体自由交换被切断,产生了暂时性的超压,导致了液化的发生.褶皱的轴线延伸方向为SSW-NNE,轴面倾斜方向主要为SEE(120°),指示古水流主要来自SEE方向,与浊积岩内底痕指示的古水流方向一致,说明斜坡沉积系统上发育的滑塌褶皱能够指示古水流方向.

       

    • 图  1  灵山岛地理位置与地质概况

      a.胶南地区构造地质图(吕洪波等,2011);b.灵山岛地质概况(栾光忠等,2010王安东,2013);c.灵山岛地层发育简况

      Fig.  1.  Geographic location and geological setting of Lingshan Island

      图  2  灯塔剖面地层发育特征

      a.灯塔剖面全景照片;b.薄层浊积岩和页岩互层沉积细节照片;c.厚层砂岩层底部发育荷重模

      Fig.  2.  Stratigraphic framework of Dengta section

      图  3  灯塔剖面底部滑塌层拼接照片

      相机盖直径6 cm

      Fig.  3.  Composite picture of the slump in the lower part of Dengta section

      图  4  滑塌层上下界面特征

      a.下伏浊积岩顶部挤入构造;b.上覆浊积岩平直的顶面和不规则底面

      Fig.  4.  The characteristics of the top and bottom surfaces of the slump

      图  5  滑塌层内部各变形单元特征

      图中短划线为变形单元上下界面.a.变形单元① 细节照片(笔帽长4.5 cm);b.变形单元② 细节照片;c, d.变形单元③ 细节照片;e.变形单元④ 细节照片(相机盖直径6 cm);f.变形单元⑤ 细节照片(中性笔直径1 cm)

      Fig.  5.  The characteristics of the internal deformation units of the slump

      图  6  变形的沉积岩中2种不同类型褶皱理想图

      图 6修改自Waldron and Gagnon(2011);黄色代表砂岩;黑色代表泥岩.a.低变质程度沉积岩层中典型褶皱的几何形态,砂岩层内弧曲率更大,而泥岩层外弧曲率更大;b.砂岩液化时形成的褶皱,几何形态特征与a相反(红色直线代表等倾斜线,连接连续层面上倾向倾角相同的点)

      Fig.  6.  Idealized diagrams of two different types of folds in deformed sedimentary rocks

      图  7  灵山岛2种不同类型褶皱形态特征

      a.灯塔剖面下部滑塌层内部褶皱在枢纽部位砂岩厚度大大增加(箭头);b.船厂剖面西侧滑塌层内部褶皱在枢纽部位泥岩厚度大大增加(箭头);相机盖直径为6 cm

      Fig.  7.  The morphological characteristics of two different types of folds in Lingshan Island

      图  8  灵山岛早白垩世古流向分析

      a.灯塔剖面、地层与内部褶皱各要素产状空间关系示意;b.褶皱轴线(绿点)和轴面法线(红点)的极射赤平投影图(n=20);c, d.测量浊积岩相中沟模(c)和槽模(d)得到的古流向玫瑰花图

      Fig.  8.  The paleocurrent analysis of Lingshan Island in Early Cretaceous

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