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    准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷晚二叠世至中三叠世古气候、物源及构造背景

    黄云飞 张昌民 朱锐 易雪斐 瞿建华 唐勇

    黄云飞, 张昌民, 朱锐, 易雪斐, 瞿建华, 唐勇, 2017. 准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷晚二叠世至中三叠世古气候、物源及构造背景. 地球科学, 42(10): 1736-1749. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.559
    引用本文: 黄云飞, 张昌民, 朱锐, 易雪斐, 瞿建华, 唐勇, 2017. 准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷晚二叠世至中三叠世古气候、物源及构造背景. 地球科学, 42(10): 1736-1749. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.559
    Huang Yunfei, Zhang Changmin, Zhu Rui, Yi Xuefei, Qu Jianhua, Tang Yong, 2017. Palaeoclimatology, Provenance and Tectonic Setting during Late Permian to Middle Triassic in Mahu Sag, Junggar Basin, China. Earth Science, 42(10): 1736-1749. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.559
    Citation: Huang Yunfei, Zhang Changmin, Zhu Rui, Yi Xuefei, Qu Jianhua, Tang Yong, 2017. Palaeoclimatology, Provenance and Tectonic Setting during Late Permian to Middle Triassic in Mahu Sag, Junggar Basin, China. Earth Science, 42(10): 1736-1749. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.559

    准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷晚二叠世至中三叠世古气候、物源及构造背景

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.559
    基金项目: 

    长江青年基金项目 2015cqn27

    国家自然科学基金项目 41502012

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      黄云飞(1986-),男,讲师,博士,主要从事二叠纪-三叠纪之交生物灭绝与复苏方面的研究

    • 中图分类号: P595

    Palaeoclimatology, Provenance and Tectonic Setting during Late Permian to Middle Triassic in Mahu Sag, Junggar Basin, China

    • 摘要: 二叠纪-三叠纪之交重大地质转折期,海相地质记录指示全球发生了一系列显著的生物和环境事件, 但是,该时期陆相古气候、古风化作用等方面的研究还很薄弱,争议较大.为了恢复新疆准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷上二叠统乌尔禾组至中三叠统克拉玛依组的古气候、物源特征等, 本研究对玛湖凹陷钻井岩心中的泥岩样品开展了全岩主量和微量元素测试,采用多种化学风化指数判定源区风化程度及古气候条件,通过多种地球化学比值及图解来恢复源岩岩性及其构造背景.化学蚀变指数(Chemical Index of Alteration, CIA)、化学风化指数(Chemical Index of Weathering, CIW)、Parker风化指数(Weathering Index of Parker, WIP)和斜长石蚀变指数(Plagioclase Index of Alteration, PIA)等多种化学风化作用指标均指示,玛湖凹陷自晚二叠世至早三叠世发生显著的风化作用变化,由低等程度的化学风化作用转变为中等程度的化学风化作用,某些季节可能会较为温暖湿润,且在整个早三叠世保持大致稳定,在早三叠世晚期稍减弱,这与锶同位素反映的全球风化作用变化趋势一致.中三叠世时的化学风化作用与早三叠世相比,并未降低,反而稍有增加,这可能代表了地区性事件.早三叠世化学风化作用显著增强的原因可能在于全球变暖、植被破坏及季节性降雨增加等.此外,上二叠统乌尔禾组至中三叠统克拉玛依组的物源岩性主要为长英质火成岩,源岩形成时的构造背景可能为大洋岛弧环境.

       

    • 图  1  新疆准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷地理位置(a)、早三叠世准噶尔盆地古地理图(b)、下三叠统百口泉组一段沉积相划分及取样井位分布(c)与玛18井地层柱状图(d)

      Fig.  1.  Locality of Mahu sag, Junggar basin, Xinjiang (a), Early Triassic palaeogeography of Jungar basin (b), palaeogeography of the first member of Lower Triassic Baikouquan Formation (c), and Lithostratigraphy of MA 18 well (d)

      图  2  准噶尔盆地玛湖凹陷泥岩样品经钾校正前后A-CN-K图解

      A.Al2O3;CN.CaO+Na2O;K.K2O;Pl.斜长石;Ksp.钾长石;Sm.蒙脱石;Ⅱ.伊利石;Ka.高岭石;Gi.三水铝矿;Chl.绿泥石;虚线代表预测的风化趋势线

      Fig.  2.  The A-CN-K ternary diagram for the Upper Permian to the Middle Triassic samples from Mahu sag, Junggar basin

      图  3  玛湖凹陷上二叠统至中三叠统样品化学风化指标

      a.平均值的变化;b.最大值、最小值和中间值的变化

      Fig.  3.  Various chemical weathering indices of samples from the Upper Permian to the Middle Triassic in Mahu sag

      图  4  物源判断图解

      Fig.  4.  The discrimination diagram of provenance

      图  5  源岩构造背景判断图解

      A.大洋岛弧;B.大陆岛弧;C.活动大陆边缘;D.被动大陆边缘

      Fig.  5.  The discrimination diagrams of tectonic setting

      图  6  玛湖凹陷晚二叠世至中三叠世化学风化作用与全球表层海水温度、锶同位素曲线对比

      SST.表层海水温度;牙形石δ18O,FR/FM87Sr/86Sr曲线引自Song et al.(2015)

      Fig.  6.  Comparison of the chemical weathering of Mahu sag with global sea surface temperatures and Strontium isotope curves from the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic

      表  1  玛湖凹陷上二叠统至中三叠统泥岩样品全岩主量元素含量(%)及常用化学风化指标数值

      Table  1.   Major element contents (%) of mudstone and their chemical weathering indices values from the Upper Permian to the Middle Triassic in Mahu sag, Junggar basin

      序号 井位 层位 岩性 SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 Fe2O3 FeO CaO MgO K2O Na2O MnO P2O5 灼失量 总量 CIA CIW WIP PIA
      1 玛18 T2k 灰白色泥岩 51.89 20.45 0.96 1.82 8.85 0.49 1.36 2.18 0.50 0.31 0.12 10.94 99.88 85 93 26 93
      2 玛18 T1b3 紫红色泥岩 63.86 17.13 0.82 4.88 1.85 0.54 1.47 3.22 2.10 0.10 0.09 3.81 99.87 70 80 49 76
      3 玛18 T1b2 灰绿色泥岩 61.13 18.32 0.91 5.15 2.55 0.46 1.52 4.10 1.39 0.10 0.03 4.21 99.86 73 86 48 82
      4 玛18 T1b1 灰绿色泥岩 61.47 19.85 1.00 2.38 2.31 0.63 1.71 4.43 1.23 0.09 0.03 4.68 99.83 73 86 50 83
      5 玛18 T1b1 灰白色泥岩 64.53 18.64 0.91 1.87 1.78 1.04 1.25 3.70 1.63 0.09 0.14 4.29 99.87 71 81 48 78
      6 风南401 T1b3 紫红色泥岩 55.12 19.99 0.98 9.15 1.78 0.81 2.27 1.33 1.99 0.18 0.03 6.22 99.86 77 81 37 80
      7 风南401 T1b3 紫红色泥岩 60.03 18.87 0.99 6.80 1.02 0.90 1.53 2.48 1.92 0.09 0.17 5.05 99.85 73 81 43 79
      8 风南401 T1b2 紫红色泥岩 57.07 19.43 1.02 8.48 1.44 0.67 1.57 2.51 1.49 0.08 0.10 5.99 99.84 77 85 39 83
      9 风南10 T2k 灰色泥岩 59.05 20.12 0.87 3.91 3.39 0.41 1.41 3.19 1.05 0.06 0.05 6.32 99.84 79 89 38 88
      10 风南10 T2k 紫红色泥岩 57.59 22.10 0.93 4.46 1.93 0.46 1.26 3.08 1.29 0.06 0.07 6.60 99.84 79 89 40 87
      11 风南10 T1b3 紫红色泥岩 62.22 17.37 1.03 7.13 1.20 0.53 1.01 2.65 2.12 0.07 0.10 4.41 99.85 72 80 44 77
      12 风南10 T1b3 紫红色泥岩 56.20 19.67 1.07 9.72 1.19 0.61 1.19 2.55 1.83 0.08 0.08 5.65 99.83 75 83 41 81
      13 玛001 P3w 灰黑色泥岩 64.08 15.29 0.71 1.84 3.74 1.22 2.69 2.50 2.04 0.11 0.14 5.41 99.76 66 74 48 71
      14 玛001 P3w 灰黑色泥岩 58.04 14.76 0.75 2.66 3.57 4.36 2.98 2.80 1.29 0.12 0.17 8.35 99.85 54 60 53 55
      15 玛6 T2k 灰色泥岩 63.93 15.89 0.76 3.76 2.22 1.14 2.10 3.25 1.95 0.11 0.05 4.67 99.83 66 75 51 71
      16 玛604 T1b2 紫红色泥岩 60.39 21.10 0.96 3.57 1.66 0.46 1.07 4.13 0.91 0.05 0.02 5.49 99.81 78 90 42 88
      17 玛604 T1b2 紫红色泥岩 58.60 20.72 0.98 5.28 1.50 0.55 1.50 5.26 0.47 0.09 0.02 4.82 99.81 76 92 46 90
      18 玛604 T1b1 紫红色泥岩 60.83 18.64 0.89 6.12 1.95 0.71 1.06 4.21 0.80 0.08 0.06 4.46 99.82 75 88 42 85
      19 玛604 T1b1 紫红色泥岩 63.98 16.94 0.84 5.92 0.86 0.82 1.67 3.64 0.75 0.07 0.09 4.21 99.80 74 87 40 84
      20 玛6 P3w 灰黑色泥岩 63.20 17.16 0.78 2.66 1.75 1.47 2.11 3.49 1.91 0.12 0.14 5.00 99.80 66 76 53 71
      21 玛6 P3w 灰黑色泥岩 63.76 15.81 0.71 3.34 2.68 1.30 2.24 3.07 1.90 0.14 0.12 4.74 99.81 66 75 50 70
      22 玛152 T2k 灰色泥岩 63.89 18.25 0.96 2.90 2.75 0.38 1.09 2.75 1.44 0.05 0.07 5.31 99.85 77 86 38 84
      23 玛152 T2k 灰色泥岩 57.79 20.00 0.89 2.17 3.22 0.38 1.11 2.91 1.14 0.07 0.04 10.14 99.84 79 89 36 87
      24 玛134 T1b2 紫红色泥岩 57.25 19.52 0.99 8.05 1.22 0.95 1.22 3.61 1.73 0.09 0.25 4.99 99.85 72 83 48 80
      25 玛134 T1b2 紫红色泥岩 60.36 19.06 0.97 7.63 0.82 0.64 0.93 3.10 1.63 0.06 0.03 4.63 99.86 74 83 43 81
      26 玛004 T1b1 紫红色泥岩 63.50 15.41 0.75 6.97 1.02 1.03 2.02 3.97 0.64 0.08 0.14 4.33 99.85 73 88 41 84
      27 玛004 P3w 灰黑色泥岩 52.75 13.23 0.64 2.63 2.79 9.26 2.48 2.32 1.18 0.12 0.24 12.28 99.92 68 77 38 73
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  常用化学风化指标及其计算公式

      Table  2.   Various chemical weathering indices and their computational formulas

      风化指标及简称 计算公式 资料来源
      Parker风化指数 WIP WIP=100×[(2Na2O/0.35)+(MgO/0.9)+(2K2O/0.25)+(CaO*/0.7)] Parker, 1970
      化学蚀变指数 CIA CIA=100×[Al2O3/(Al2O3+CaO*+Na2O+K2O)] Nesbitt and Young, 1982
      化学风化指数 CIW CIW=100×[Al2O3/(Al2O3+CaO*+Na2O)] Harnois, 1988
      斜长石蚀变指数 PIA PIA=100×[(Al2O3-K2O)/(Al2O3+CaO*+Na2O-K2O)] Fedo et al., 1995
        注:各元素含量均指摩尔分数,CaO*指硅酸盐中的CaO,即全岩中的CaO扣除化学沉积的CaO的摩尔分数,采用公式(CaO*=CaO-10/3×P2O5)计算,比较校正后的CaO与Na2O的摩尔分数大小,摩尔分数值小的作为CaO*的摩尔分数(McLennan, 1993).
      下载: 导出CSV
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