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    喜马拉雅造山带的部分熔融与淡色花岗岩成因机制

    张泽明 康东艳 丁慧霞 田作林 董昕 秦圣凯 穆虹辰 李梦梅

    张泽明, 康东艳, 丁慧霞, 田作林, 董昕, 秦圣凯, 穆虹辰, 李梦梅, 2018. 喜马拉雅造山带的部分熔融与淡色花岗岩成因机制. 地球科学, 43(1): 82-98. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.005
    引用本文: 张泽明, 康东艳, 丁慧霞, 田作林, 董昕, 秦圣凯, 穆虹辰, 李梦梅, 2018. 喜马拉雅造山带的部分熔融与淡色花岗岩成因机制. 地球科学, 43(1): 82-98. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.005
    Zhang Zeming, Kang Dongyan, Ding Huixia, Tian Zuolin, Dong Xin, Qin Shengkai, Mu Hongchen, Li Mengmei, 2018. Partial Melting of Himalayan Orogen and Formation Mechanism of Leucogranites. Earth Science, 43(1): 82-98. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.005
    Citation: Zhang Zeming, Kang Dongyan, Ding Huixia, Tian Zuolin, Dong Xin, Qin Shengkai, Mu Hongchen, Li Mengmei, 2018. Partial Melting of Himalayan Orogen and Formation Mechanism of Leucogranites. Earth Science, 43(1): 82-98. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.005

    喜马拉雅造山带的部分熔融与淡色花岗岩成因机制

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.005
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41230205

    国家科技重点研究发项目 2016YFC060310

    国家自然科学基金项目 41602062

    国家自然科学基金项目 41472056

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      张泽明(1961-), 男, 研究员, 主要从事造山带变质作用与构造演化研究

    • 中图分类号: P581

    Partial Melting of Himalayan Orogen and Formation Mechanism of Leucogranites

    • 摘要: 喜马拉雅造山带核部由高级变质岩和淡色花岗岩组成,是研究大陆碰撞造山带部分熔融与花岗岩成因的天然实验室.基于最新研究成果,探讨了喜马拉雅造山带核部变质作用的条件、类型以及P-T轨迹、部分熔融的方式与程度及熔体成分以及变质作用与部分熔融的时间和持续过程.相关证据表明,造山带核部经历了高压麻粒岩相至榴辉岩相变质作用,具有以增温增压进变质和近等温降压退变质为特征的顺时针型P-T轨迹.这些高压变质岩石发生了长期持续的高温变质与部分熔融.在泥质岩石的进变质过程中白云母和黑云母脱水熔融可以形成不同成分的熔体.同时,总结了淡色花岗岩的形成时间、地球化学特征和源区熔融方式,结果表明碰撞造山过程中加厚下地壳的脱水熔融形成了喜马拉雅造山带的淡色花岗岩.

       

    • 图  1  喜马拉雅造山带地质简图

      Yin and Harrison(2000)Guillot et al.(2008)Kohn(2014)Ding et al.(2016a)修改;MFT.主前缘逆冲断裂;MBT.主边界逆冲断裂;MCT.主中央逆冲断裂;STD.藏南拆离系.图中标注了较深入研究的中、高级变质岩的地点与变质年龄,资料来源:ADM(Ama Drime Massif, Kellett et al., 2014), Annapurna(Kohn and Corrie, 2011), Everest(Cottle et al., 2009b), Gianbul(Horton et al., 2015), Jomolhari(Regis et al., 2014), Kaghan(Kaneko et al., 2003), Kali Gandaki(Iaccarino et al., 2015), Mabja dome(Lee and Whitehouse, 2007), Namche Barwa Syntaxis(Zhang et al., 2015), Nyalam(Wang et al., 2015a, 2015b), Sikkim(Rubatto et al., 2013), Tso Morari(Donaldson et al., 2013), Yadong(Zhang et al., 2017a)和Yardoi dome(Ding et al., 2016a, 2016b).变质作用类型:MP.中压;HP.高压;UHP.超高压

      Fig.  1.  Simplified geologic map of the Himalayan orogen

      图  2  高喜马拉雅岩系变质作用P-T轨迹

      变质相:AM.角闪岩相;BS.蓝片岩相;EA.绿帘角闪岩相;Ec.榴辉岩相;G.麻粒岩相;HPG.高压麻粒岩相;PS.泥质岩固相线;MS.基性岩固相线;本文矿物代号:Am.角闪石;And.红柱石;Bt.黑云母;Cpx.单斜辉石;Crd.堇青石;Gt.石榴石;Kf.钾长石;Ilm.钛铁矿;Ky.蓝晶石;L.熔体;Ms.白云母;Pl.斜长石;Qz.石英;Rt.金红石;Sil.夕线石

      Fig.  2.  Metamorphic P-T paths of the Greater Himalayan sequence

      图  3  高喜马拉雅岩系的变质作用P-T-t轨迹以及白云母与黑云母脱水熔融和熔体结晶的时间与持续过程

      Gou et al.(2016)张泽明等(2017)修改

      Fig.  3.  Metamorphic P-T-t path of the Greater Himalayan sequence, showing the timing and duration of muscovite-and biotite-dehydration, and melt crystallization

      图  4  泥质麻粒岩的P-T视剖图

      a.矿物组合及稳定条件;b.熔体体积;c~f.分别为石榴石、斜长石、黑云母和白云母的体积.暖色代表含量高,冷色代表含量低,具体含量见图中数字(%)

      Fig.  4.  P-T pseudosections of the pelitic granulite

      图  5  泥质麻粒岩进变质过程中矿物和熔体体积变化

      Fig.  5.  Calculated changes of model proportions of minerals and melt during the increasing temperature (600-900 ℃) and pressure (0.7-1.6 GPa) prograde metamorphism of the pelitic granulite

      图  6  泥质麻粒岩进变质部分熔融过程中熔体成分变化

      图中箭头指示熔融程度增加.喜马拉雅淡色花岗岩的成分范围据吴褔元等(2015).GHL.高喜马拉雅淡色花岗岩;THL.特提斯喜马拉雅淡色花岗岩

      Fig.  6.  Calculated changes of melt compositions during the increasing temperature (600-900 ℃) and pressure (0.7-1.6 GPa) prograde metamorphism of the pelitic granulite

      表  1  泥质麻粒岩进变质过程中所形成的熔体体积与成分计算结果

      Table  1.   Calculated mode and composition of melt of the pelitic granulites during the prograde metamorphism

      计算条件 P(GPa) 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60
      T(℃) 700 717 733 750 767 783 800 817 833 850 867 883 900 825 828
      熔体体积 体积含量(%) 1.64 2.57 3.44 4.17 5.08 6.24 8.33 10.69 21.71 24.20 26.36 27.47 28.79 14.99 21.30
      熔体成分(%) SiO2 74.58 74.17 73.88 73.49 73.12 72.76 72.37 72.02 71.76 71.63 71.53 71.32 71.05 70.84 70.61
      Al2O3 15.29 15.44 15.53 15.68 15.76 15.81 15.82 15.87 15.92 15.98 16.03 16.11 16.23 16.30 16.38
      FeO 0.33 0.37 0.41 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.57 0.60 0.60 0.58 0.59 0.65 0.69 0.76 0.84
      MgO 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15
      CaO 0.41 0.46 0.51 0.56 0.64 0.73 0.85 0.96 1.06 1.14 1.17 1.26 1.35 1.43 1.51
      Na2O 6.70 6.46 6.23 6.10 5.66 5.14 4.25 3.69 3.30 3.13 3.12 2.98 2.87 2.73 2.58
      K2O 2.65 3.04 3.38 3.65 4.23 4.92 6.06 6.78 7.27 7.44 7.47 7.56 7.68 7.79 7.92
      H2O 14.01 13.33 12.77 12.31 11.60 10.91 9.93 9.40 9.07 8.97 8.93 8.43 8.07 7.70 7.30
      标准矿物 Or 15.64 17.94 19.96 21.59 25.02 29.09 35.81 40.05 42.96 43.96 44.12 44.68 45.37 46.05 46.78
      Ab 56.67 54.70 52.74 51.57 47.90 43.46 35.92 31.22 27.90 26.46 26.37 25.24 24.24 23.08 21.87
      An 2.03 2.30 2.52 2.79 3.20 3.64 4.22 4.77 5.26 5.67 5.82 6.25 6.72 7.11 7.51
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