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    地史时期生物对冰室气候形成的作用

    殷鸿福 喻建新 罗根明 宋海军 徐珍

    殷鸿福, 喻建新, 罗根明, 宋海军, 徐珍, 2018. 地史时期生物对冰室气候形成的作用. 地球科学, 43(11): 3809-3822. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.117
    引用本文: 殷鸿福, 喻建新, 罗根明, 宋海军, 徐珍, 2018. 地史时期生物对冰室气候形成的作用. 地球科学, 43(11): 3809-3822. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.117
    Yin Hongfu, Yu Jianxin, Luo Genming, Song Haijun, Xu Zhen, 2018. Biotic Influence on the Formation of Icehouse Climates in Geologic History. Earth Science, 43(11): 3809-3822. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.117
    Citation: Yin Hongfu, Yu Jianxin, Luo Genming, Song Haijun, Xu Zhen, 2018. Biotic Influence on the Formation of Icehouse Climates in Geologic History. Earth Science, 43(11): 3809-3822. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.117

    地史时期生物对冰室气候形成的作用

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.117
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目 41661134047

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      殷鸿福(1935-), 男, 教授, 博士, 中国科学院院士, 主要从事古生物学与地层学和地球生物学方面的研究

    • 中图分类号: P52

    Biotic Influence on the Formation of Icehouse Climates in Geologic History

    • 摘要: 在地质历史时期的碳循环中,生物的作用很大.生物产氧光合作用消耗CO2而产生有机质与O2;有机质及生物成因碳酸盐岩埋藏又进一步固定CO2并减少O2消耗,所以生物产氧光合事件与冰期、成(增)氧期应存在因果关系.论述了5次事件,分别是:与产氧光合蓝细菌有关的古元古代初期大氧化事件(Early Proterozoic great oxygenation event,GOE)、与真核生物辐射事件有关的新元古代大成氧事件(Neoproterozoic oxidation event,NOE)、与早期陆生植物繁盛事件有关的晚奥陶世增氧和冰期事件、与维管植物繁盛事件有关的石炭纪-二叠纪增氧和冰期事件及与被子植物和浮游微植物繁盛有关的第四纪冰期事件.结果表明,5次成氧事件和冰期与生物事件有因果关系,主要表现为,都有冰期和成氧事件共存或相继出现的证据,反映大气CO2降低和O2增加同时或相继发生,而这只能由生物的光合作用及其产物的埋藏造成.这说明生物不仅仅是适应于环境,它也对环境产生重大影响,生物与环境的这种相互作用在漫长的地质历史中表现为协同演化.但是早期生物事件并不立刻产生成氧或冰期等环境效应,这种效应开始是微量的,逐渐积累,达到阈值后才发生质变,所以在时间上是滞后的.随着生物多样性和丰度的增加,这种效应越来越大,速率越来越快,滞后性逐渐减弱,耦合性日渐明显.生物与地球环境之间的相互作用构成了生物与地球系统的自我调节,使地球与其他星球不同,其表层始终保持在生命宜居的环境范围内.今天人类更要理智地、科学地善待地球,避免对地球造成重大的负面影响.

       

    • 图  1  地质历史时期碳循环简图

      Fig.  1.  Schematic map of carbon cycle in earth history

      图  2  地史时期大气O2和CO2浓度、冰期与生物演化事件的关系

      4次成氧事件:GOE.大成氧事件(2 450~2 320 Ma);NOE.新元古成氧事件(800~550 Ma);OS.奥陶纪末成氧事件(445~400? Ma);CP.石炭纪-二叠纪成氧事件(340~240 Ma)(Kirschvink et al., 2000; Canfield, 2005; Och and Shields-Zhou, 2012; Lenton et al., 2012; 梅冥相,2016).PAL%.与当代大气水平之比; 蓝色线元古宙部分据Och and Shields-Zhou(2012),转录自Canfield(2005),显生宙部分据Berner(2006);绿线据Campbell and Allen(2008);CO2浓度:红色据Kasting(1987);紫线据Berner(2006);其纵坐标均转化为对数坐标,故与原图有异;5次冰期:太古宙及古元古代据Evans(2003); Kirschvink et al.(2000),与GOE对应的为Makganyene/Huronian冰期,其时代尚不确定,在其前后各有一次有疑问(带?号)的冰期;新元古代的冰期依次为Sturtian冰期(ca.720~660 Ma),Marinoan冰期(655~635 Ma),Gaskiers冰期(580 Ma),时代据Gradstein et al.(2012);显生宙冰期为奥陶纪-志留纪之交(OS),石炭纪-二叠纪(CP)及第四纪(Q),时代据Veizer et al.(2000); Isbell et al.(2003); Montanez et al.(2007);生物事件:元古宙生物据Knoll(2014); Maloof et al.(2010); Ye et al.(2015); Yuan et al.(2011);隐孢植物据Lenton et al.(2012, 2014);维管束植物据Cleal and Thomas(2005); Chaloner(2003).虚线表示不确定

      Fig.  2.  elationships among atmospheric pO2, pCO2, glaciations and biotic evolution events

      图  3  显生宙O2、CO2、冰期与生物的关系

      大气O2%据Berner(2006)(图 17);RCO2指某地质时期与近百万年(平均值)大气中CO2质量之比,据Berner(2006)(图 18);CO2曲线还可参阅IPCC(2007);碳埋藏量据Berner(2003);冰期与冰碛物频率据Gastaldo et al.(1996);植物据Lenton et al.(2012, 2016),Cleal and Thomas(2005);浮游微植物据Martin and Quigg(2013).其黑线代表丰度,红、绿色代表多样性

      Fig.  3.  Relationships among atmospheric pO2, pCO2, glaciations and evolution of organisms

      图  4  石炭纪-二叠纪植物盛衰与冰期间冰期的耦合

      气候、植物盛衰与冰期的耦合关系据Cleal and Thomas(2005);维管植物分布及冰碛物频率据Gastaldo et al.(1996);中国相应的海退、地层间断与海洋动物群转换据Wang et al.(2013);维-密期指维吉尔期-密苏里期

      Fig.  4.  The coupling relationships between the wax-wane of terrestrial plants and glacial-interglacial transitions in Carboniferous and Permian

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