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    再谈古生物学向地球生物学的发展:服务领域的拓展与创新

    谢树成 殷鸿福 刘邓 邱轩

    谢树成, 殷鸿福, 刘邓, 邱轩, 2018. 再谈古生物学向地球生物学的发展:服务领域的拓展与创新. 地球科学, 43(11): 3823-3836. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.169
    引用本文: 谢树成, 殷鸿福, 刘邓, 邱轩, 2018. 再谈古生物学向地球生物学的发展:服务领域的拓展与创新. 地球科学, 43(11): 3823-3836. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.169
    Xie Shucheng, Yin Hongfu, Liu Deng, Qiu Xuan, 2018. On Development from Paleontology to Geobiology: Overview of Innovation and Expansion of Application Fields. Earth Science, 43(11): 3823-3836. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.169
    Citation: Xie Shucheng, Yin Hongfu, Liu Deng, Qiu Xuan, 2018. On Development from Paleontology to Geobiology: Overview of Innovation and Expansion of Application Fields. Earth Science, 43(11): 3823-3836. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.169

    再谈古生物学向地球生物学的发展:服务领域的拓展与创新

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2018.169
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41330103

    国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFA0601100

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      谢树成(1967-), 男, 教授, 博士, 主要从事地球生物学研究和地质学相关教学工作

    • 中图分类号: P52

    On Development from Paleontology to Geobiology: Overview of Innovation and Expansion of Application Fields

    • 摘要: 地球科学前沿研究为社会服务是一个永恒的主题,这在当前全球化背景下尤其迫切.古生物学作为一个受人瞩目的精品学科,在向地球生物学发展过程中,其服务领域正不断地拓展和创新.系统地总结了当前地球生物学在全球变化和油气资源两大领域的应用与拓展,以及在关键带和深地两大领域的创新性发展.在全球变化领域,藻类、古菌、细菌等地质微生物的脂类不仅能够用于估算古温度,还可以记录干旱等极端古气候事件,从而实现古温度与古降水信号的分离.地球生物学已经从探索生物对环境的响应深入到生物对环境的作用.地球生物学也在评价烃源岩、储层等常规油气资源领域得到广泛的应用,但当前其更重要的应用表现在页岩气等非常规油气资源领域,包括地质微生物形成页岩中的纳米孔隙,形成易于压裂的长石、石英等矿物.在关键带研究领域,地球生物学可以解剖碳循环与水循环之间的内在联系.聚焦于地质微生物功能群的关键带地质微生物调查,不仅可以查明污染物的分布和污染程度,还可以为环境修复提供技术方法.而在深地研究领域,为拓展对地下空间的利用,需要充分利用地下工程对地下微生物开展调查和研究,以查明地下环境中有害或者有益的微生物功能群分布及其地质作用.

       

    • 图  1  微生物通过调整细胞膜脂类分子的甲基、五元环和不饱和键的数量来响应外界环境变化(如升温)的示意

      Fig.  1.  Schematic diagram of microbial response to the outside environmental condition (i.e., rising temperature) via methylation, cyclization and unsaturated bond changes of cell membrane lipids

      图  2  微生物作用前后黏土矿物的形貌差异所揭示的孔隙变化

      a.对照组;b.异化铁还原菌反应组;c.硫酸盐还原菌反应组;d.产甲烷菌反应组

      Fig.  2.  SEM images showing the variations of the morphology and the pores of clay minerals impacted by different microbes

      图  3  厌氧微生物与含铁黏土矿物反应后生成的无定形SiO2(a)、长石(b)和滑石(c)的扫描电镜照片和X-射线能谱图

      X-射线能谱图里的Au和Pt信号来源于样品表面喷涂的导电层

      Fig.  3.  SEM images and the X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy of amorphous silica (a), feldspar (b) and talc (c) formed from clay minerals induced by anoxic microbes

      图  4  深地气体维持的与碳循环有关的地下微生物系统

      修改自Pedersen(1997)

      Fig.  4.  The subsurface microbial communities involved in deep carbon cycle and supported by the deep geological gases

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    • 收稿日期:  2018-04-17
    • 刊出日期:  2018-11-15

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