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    大陆伸展构造综述

    张进江 黄天立

    张进江, 黄天立, 2019. 大陆伸展构造综述. 地球科学, 44(5): 1705-1715. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.009
    引用本文: 张进江, 黄天立, 2019. 大陆伸展构造综述. 地球科学, 44(5): 1705-1715. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.009
    Zhang Jinjiang, Huang Tianli, 2019. An Overview on Continental Extensional Tectonics. Earth Science, 44(5): 1705-1715. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.009
    Citation: Zhang Jinjiang, Huang Tianli, 2019. An Overview on Continental Extensional Tectonics. Earth Science, 44(5): 1705-1715. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.009

    大陆伸展构造综述

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.009
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41730210

    国家重点研发计划"深地资源勘查开采"重点专项 2016YFC0600303

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      张进江(1964-), 男, 博士, 教授, 主要从事构造地质学研究

    • 中图分类号: P54

    An Overview on Continental Extensional Tectonics

    • 摘要: 简述了大陆伸展构造的研究历史,并从基本概念、构造样式、变形机制和动力背景等方面对大陆伸展构造进行了综述.伸展是大陆构造一种主要类型,并以正断层为主形成多种构造样式,如地堑、裂谷、拆离断层和变质核杂岩等.大陆伸展的变形机制包括纯剪切、简单剪切及分层剪切模式,并由此产生对称与非对称构造.大陆伸展构造的地表表现形式主要为裂谷或变质核杂岩,两者的形成主要取决于岩石圈的流变学结构.大陆伸展的动力学背景主要包括地幔柱上涌、俯冲板片反转与俯冲带后撤、增厚地壳的重力垮塌以及走滑体系的派生拉张等.

       

    • 图  1  平面状(a)和铲式(b)正断层形成岩石单元的伸展

      Lo.原始长度;Lp.变形后长度;Le.伸展量

      Fig.  1.  Extensions of a lithological unit by planar (a) and listric (b) normal faulting

      图  2  现今发育的大陆裂谷(东非裂谷)、陆间裂谷(红海)和洋中脊裂谷(大西洋)

      Fig.  2.  Modern continental rift (East African rift), intercontinental rift (Red Sea) and mid-oceanic ridge rift (Atlantic)

      图  3  典型拆离断层构造岩组合(a)和拆离断层不同构造部位形成的不同构造岩(b)以及下盘形成的构造岩随时间抬升并叠加的情况(c)

      图b, c修改自Lister and Davis(1989)

      Fig.  3.  Typical tectonite association of a detachment fault (a), tectonite produced at different structural levels (b) and uplifting and superposing of tectonite of lower-plate during extension (c)

      图  4  典型的科迪勒拉型变质核杂岩及其形成过程

      a.美国科迪勒拉变质核杂岩典型实例——Wipple Mountain变质核杂岩;b.深部初始近水平韧性剪切带将韧性的中-下地壳与脆性的上地壳解耦;c.由拆离剥蚀导致的均衡调节以及岩浆侵位形成的底劈作用引起了下盘隆升形成变质核杂岩的穹窿构造.图a修改于Davis and Lister(1988);图b, c修改于Lister and Davis(1989)

      Fig.  4.  Typical Cordilleran metamorphic core complex and its formation

      图  5  大陆伸展变形的3种基本变形机制

      Lister et al.(1986).a.纯剪切模型; b.简单剪切模型; c.分层剪切模型

      Fig.  5.  Three models of continental extension

      图  6  大陆伸展的窄裂谷(a)、宽裂谷(b)和变质核杂岩模型(c)

      Benes and Davy(1996)

      Fig.  6.  Continental extensional models of narrow rifting (a), wide rifting (b) and metamorphic core complex (c)

      图  7  低角度正断层的最大有效力矩模型

      Fig.  7.  A model with maximum effective moment criterion for the formation of a low-angle normal fault

      图  8  上升地幔柱与大陆裂解的关系示意

      Fig.  8.  Schematic diagram for the upwelling plume and continental break-up

      图  9  亚洲大陆东部伸展的板片反卷与俯冲带后撤模式

      Fig.  9.  Model of continental extension of eastern Asia caused by slab rollback and subduction retreat

      图  10  增厚地壳的重力驱动伸展的示意

      Rey et al.(2001)

      Fig.  10.  Simplified diagram showing extension driven by gravity of thickened crust

      图  11  走滑断层体系中的伸展

      Fig.  11.  Extensions in strike-slip fault system

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    • 收稿日期:  2018-11-29
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