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    论大地构造学的发展

    万天丰

    万天丰, 2019. 论大地构造学的发展. 地球科学, 44(5): 1526-1536. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.033
    引用本文: 万天丰, 2019. 论大地构造学的发展. 地球科学, 44(5): 1526-1536. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.033
    Wan Tianfeng, 2019. A Review of Geotectonics. Earth Science, 44(5): 1526-1536. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.033
    Citation: Wan Tianfeng, 2019. A Review of Geotectonics. Earth Science, 44(5): 1526-1536. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.033

    论大地构造学的发展

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.033
    详细信息
      作者简介:

      万天丰(1938-), 男, 教授, 博士生导师, 北京市教学名师, 主要从事构造地质学和大地构造学的教学与科研工作.

    • 中图分类号: P54

    A Review of Geotectonics

    • 摘要: 大地构造学是研究地球物质在时间和空间演化的学问,是构造地质学的一门重要的分支学科,是一门涉及知识面很宽的学问.大地构造学需要朝定型、定向、定时、定位和定量的研究方向前进,需要通过"行万里路,读万卷书",经过长期的知识积淀才可能进行扎实的研究,以便逐渐接近科学的真理.槽台假说是一种过时的认识.板块构造学说起源于海洋地球物理调查,它是一个仍在继续发展中的大地构造学说,强调各个岩石圈板块是以水平运移为主的,但是其动力学机制则至今尚未完全解决,仍在探索之中.

       

    • 图  1  1963年夏季马杏垣先生(左3)在北京西山的南大寨断裂带指导青年教师进行野外地质构造研究

      图 1中左1为笔者;左2为常志忠老师,当时他在北京大学地质系任教;背对着镜头的可能是谭应佳老师

      Fig.  1.  In the summer of 1963, Mr. Ma Xingyuan (left 3) instructed young teachers to conduct field geological structure research in the southern Dazhai fault zone in the West Mountain of Beijing

      图  2  1996年马杏垣先生(右)与王鸿祯先生(左)在中国地质大学(北京)构造地质教研室所举办的构造地质研讨会上握手、留影(后面为谭应佳老师)

      Fig.  2.  Mr. Ma Xingyuan (right) and Mr. Wang Hongzhen (left) shook hands and took photos at Tectonic Geology Seminar held by Department of Tectonic Geology of China University of Geosciences (Beijing) in 1996 (with Tan Yingjia at the back)

      图  3  英国加里东构造事件造成产状较平缓的下泥盆统老红砂岩盖在产状较陡立的志留系杂砂岩和页岩之上,形成角度不整合, 也称为郝顿不整合(N. H. Trewin摄制)

      Fig.  3.  Caledonian tectonic event in the UK resulted in the sandstone and shale of Silurian with relatively vertical occurrence, which was covered by the old red sandstone of Lower Devonian with relatively gentle occurrence, and formed angular unconformity, also known as Holden unconformity (by N. H. Trewin)

      表  1  槽台假说与岩石圈板块构造学说的不同点

      Table  1.   The difference between the geosynclines and platform hypothesis and lithosphere plate tectonic theory

      地槽地台假说 岩石圈板块构造学说
      以垂直运动为主,仅可派生少量的水平运动,基本上属于“固定论”的观点.因而,不相信地块可大幅度水平位移. 地球表层的水平位移量显著大于垂直位移量,可以大几倍到几十倍, 是真正的“活动论”观点.
      地槽的开合距离一般不超过200km.地球的周期性涨缩(或称垂直振荡)运动是其主要的控制作用.沉积特征的主要表现为海侵与海退.相邻的两个大陆地台之间, 为浅海,即地槽. 两个大陆板块中间可以是古大洋.两个大陆板块原来可以相距甚远,甚至可达数千千米,例如分别处在南、北半球.板块也可发生转动、大幅度的水平运移、适量的垂直位移和相当强的构造变形.
      地台运移的下界不清楚, 当时也无法讨论. 岩石圈板块主要在富含超临界流体的、塑性较强的软流圈上发生水平运移,岩石圈内部还可以形成多个局部的、近水平的构造滑脱面.
      垂直运动可派生极有限的水平位移, 使原来的浅海地槽,以后发生汇聚、褶皱、回返,隆升形成造山带(orogenic belt). 两个距离很远的大陆板块,经过水平运移,与大洋汇聚, 造成洋陆间的俯冲带(海沟-岛弧带), 以致形成强烈的构造变形(含板内变形)、岩浆活动和变质作用,也可形成陆陆碰撞带(collision zone).但是,当碰撞带内没有形成大规模的花岗岩浆侵入时,就不一定都形成山脉,也即不一定都能形成“造山带”.
      地台的构造活动性很小, 相对固定,仅以垂直升降运动为主.在我国由于发现地台内可以存在较强的构造变形,遂提出了地台活化的概念,热衷于构造单元详细的分类命名. 尽管早期曾认为板块是“刚性”的.但是,后来认识到板块可以有多种方向的水平运移量和较强的板内构造变形及较少的升降量.构造活动性比槽台假说所认为的要强烈得多.
      全球可以同时发生比较强烈的、影响广泛的构造运动,就称为造山幕. 由于构造变形是在岩石圈内部通过岩石缓慢的塑性变形而逐渐传递并减弱的,因而全球绝对不存在统一的、同时形成的“造山幕”.各地强烈构造变形时期基本上与地层划分的阶段,气候突变,生物绝灭,海平面大幅度升降等都不同时发生.
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    • 收稿日期:  2018-12-06
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