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    喜马拉雅造山带两种不同类型榴辉岩与印度大陆差异性俯冲

    张泽明 丁慧霞 董昕 田作林

    张泽明, 丁慧霞, 董昕, 田作林, 2019. 喜马拉雅造山带两种不同类型榴辉岩与印度大陆差异性俯冲. 地球科学, 44(5): 1602-1619. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.040
    引用本文: 张泽明, 丁慧霞, 董昕, 田作林, 2019. 喜马拉雅造山带两种不同类型榴辉岩与印度大陆差异性俯冲. 地球科学, 44(5): 1602-1619. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.040
    Zhang Zeming, Ding Huixia, Dong Xin, Tian Zuolin, 2019. Two Contrasting Eclogite Types in the Himalayan Orogen and Differential Subduction of Indian Continent. Earth Science, 44(5): 1602-1619. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.040
    Citation: Zhang Zeming, Ding Huixia, Dong Xin, Tian Zuolin, 2019. Two Contrasting Eclogite Types in the Himalayan Orogen and Differential Subduction of Indian Continent. Earth Science, 44(5): 1602-1619. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.040

    喜马拉雅造山带两种不同类型榴辉岩与印度大陆差异性俯冲

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.040
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41872064

    国家自然科学基金项目 91855210

    国家重点科技研发项目 2016YFC0600310

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      张泽明(1961-), 男, 研究员, 博士, 主要从事造山带变质作用与构造演化研究

    • 中图分类号: P588

    Two Contrasting Eclogite Types in the Himalayan Orogen and Differential Subduction of Indian Continent

    • 摘要: 印度与亚洲大陆新生代碰撞-俯冲形成的喜马拉雅造山带核部由高压和超高压变质岩组成.超高压榴辉岩分布在喜马拉雅造山带西段,由石榴石、绿辉石、柯石英、多硅白云母、帘石、蓝晶石和金红石组成.超高压榴辉岩的峰期变质条件为2.6~2.8 GPa和600~620℃,其经历了角闪岩相退变质作用和低程度熔融.超高压榴辉岩的进变质、峰期和退变质年龄分别为~50 Ma、45~47 Ma和35~40 Ma,指示一个快速俯冲与快速折返过程.高压榴辉岩产出在喜马拉雅造山带中-东段,由石榴石、绿辉石、多硅白云母、石英和金红石组成.高压榴辉岩的峰期变质条件为> 2.1 GPa和> 750℃,叠加了高温麻粒岩相退变质作用与强烈部分熔融.高压榴辉岩的峰期和退变质年龄可能分别是~38 Ma和14~17 Ma,很可能经历了一个缓慢俯冲与缓慢折返过程.喜马拉雅造山带两种不同类型榴辉岩的存在表明,印度与亚洲大陆约在51~53 Ma碰撞后,印度大陆地壳的西北缘陡俯冲到了地幔深度,导致表壳岩石经历了超高压变质作用,而印度大陆地壳的东北缘平缓俯冲到亚洲大陆之下,导致表壳岩石经历了高压变质作用.

       

    • 图  1  高压和超高榴辉岩形成条件与深度

      Gilotti(2013)修改

      Fig.  1.  Metamorphic conditions and related depths of high- and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites

      图  2  喜马拉雅造山带与高压和超高压变质岩分布

      Ding et al.(2016a)张泽明等(2017, 2018)修改.MFT.主前缘逆冲断裂;MBT.主边界逆冲断裂;MCT.主中央逆冲断裂;STD.藏南拆离系.图中标注了较深入研究的中压、高压和超高压变质岩的地点与变质年龄,资料来源:Ama Drime (Kellett et al., 2014), Annapurna (Kohn and Corrie, 2011), Everest (Cottle et al., 2009), Gianbul (Horton et al., 2014), Jomolhari (Regis et al., 2014), Kaghan (Kaneko et al., 2003), Kali Gandaki (Iaccarino et al., 2015), Mabja dome (Lee and Whitehouse, 2007), Namche Barwa Syntaxis (Zhang et al., 2015), Nyalam (Wang et al., 2015), Sikkim (Rubatto et al., 2012), Tso Morari (Donaldson et al., 2013), Yadong (Zhang et al., 2017)和Yardoi dome (Ding et al., 2016b).变质作用类型:MP.中压;HP.高压;UHP.超高压

      Fig.  2.  Geological map of the Himalayan orogen, showing distributions of representative medium-, high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks

      图  3  喜马拉雅造山带西段Kaghan超高压榴辉岩显微照片

      Rehman et al.(2007, 2013).a.超高压榴辉岩由石榴石、绿辉石和绿帘石组成,部分绿辉石边缘被角闪石,或由单斜辉石+角闪石+石英组成的合晶替代;b.超高压榴辉岩由石榴石、绿辉石、绿帘石、金红石、钛铁矿和柯石英组成.柯石英呈包裹体产于绿辉石中,发育放射状裂纹.部分石榴石和绿辉石被单斜辉石+角闪石+石英合晶替代;c.超高压榴辉岩,由石榴石、绿辉石和榍石组成,部分绿辉石被单斜辉石+角闪石+石英合晶冠状体替代;d.超高压榴辉岩绿辉石中的柯石英包体以及沿包体向外发育的放射状裂纹.注意绿辉石中含有出溶的石英棒或页片.矿物代号:Amp.角闪石;Coe.柯石英;Ep.绿帘石;Grt.石榴石;Ilm.钛铁矿;Omp.绿辉石;Qtz.石英;Rt.金红石;Sym.后成合晶;Tt.榍石;Zo.黝帘石

      Fig.  3.  Photomicrographs of ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from the Kaghan Valley, the western Himalaya

      图  4  喜马拉雅造山带高压和超高压榴辉岩变质作用P-T-t轨迹

      图中的数字为年龄(Ma),其中Groppo et al.(2007)P-T轨迹上的38 Ma峰压力年龄和15 Ma退变质年龄分别为Kellett et al.(2014)获得的石榴石Lu-Hf等时线年龄和锆石U-Pb年龄.变质相:AM.角闪岩相;Amp-Ec.角闪石榴辉岩相;BS.蓝片岩相;Dry-Ec.干榴辉岩相;EA.绿帘角闪岩相;Ep-Ec.绿帘石榴辉岩相;G.麻粒岩相;GS.绿片岩相;HG.高压麻粒岩相;Lw-Ec.硬柱石榴辉岩相;WGS.湿的花岗岩固相线.Coe.柯石英;Qtz.石英

      Fig.  4.  Metamorphic P-T-t paths of the high- and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites in the Himalayan orogen

      图  5  喜马拉雅造山带西段Tso Morari地块超高压榴辉岩显微照片

      Jonnalagadda et al.(2017).a.超高压榴辉岩由石榴石、绿辉石、多硅白云母和石英组成.注意,石榴石核部含石英和多硅白云母包体,而石榴石边缘含柯石英包体.部分绿辉石边缘被由极细的角闪石+斜长石合晶组合的冠状体替代;b.超高压榴辉岩石榴石变斑晶中的角闪石包体定向分布;c.超高压榴辉岩由石榴石、绿辉石、多硅白云母、绿帘石和方解石组成;d.超高压榴辉岩中的绿辉石含有近平行分布的出溶页片.矿物代号:Amp.角闪石;Cc.方解石;Coe.柯石英;Grt.石榴石;Omp.绿辉石;Phe.多硅白云母;Qtz.石英

      Fig.  5.  Photomicrographs of ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from the Tso Morari massif of the western Himalaya

      图  6  喜马拉雅造山带中东段Ama Drime麻粒岩化高压榴辉岩显微照片

      Kellett et al.(2014).a.麻粒岩化榴辉岩由石榴石、单斜辉石、角闪石、黑云母、斜长石和石英组成.绿辉石全部被由细粒斜长石+单斜辉石组成的合晶替代;b.榴辉岩石榴石核部含细小的矿物包体,其边缘被由斜长石+角闪石+斜方辉石+黑云母组成的合晶冠状体替代;c.榴辉岩中的绿辉石被由斜长石+角闪石+单斜辉石+斜方辉石组成的合晶替代.矿物代号:Amp.角闪石;Bt.黑云母;Grt.石榴石;Pl.斜长石;Sym.后成合晶

      Fig.  6.  Photomicrographs of granulitized high-pressure eclogites from the Ama Drime massif of the eastern Himalaya

      图  7  喜马拉雅造山带中东段Thongmön高压榴辉岩显微照片

      Li et al.(2018).a.高压榴辉岩由石榴石和包含的单斜辉石(绿辉石)、角闪石和石英组成,石榴石被由单斜辉石、斜长石和斜方辉石,或角闪石和斜长石组成的合晶冠状体替代;b.高压榴辉岩的单斜辉石(绿辉石)发育由单斜辉石和斜长石组成的冠状体,或被角闪石部分替代;c.高压榴辉岩中残余的单斜辉石(绿辉石)被单斜辉石和斜长石合晶部分替代;d.高压榴辉岩中的多硅白云母被黑云母+斜长石合晶替代,单斜辉石+斜长石替代绿辉石,角闪石+斜长石合晶替代石榴石.矿物代号:Amp.角闪石;Bt.黑云母;Cpx.单斜辉石;Grt.石榴石;Ilm.钛铁矿;Omp.绿辉石;Opx.斜方辉石;Pl.斜长石;Qtz.石英

      Fig.  7.  Photomicrographs of granulitized high-pressure eclogites from the Thongmön of the eastern Himalaya

      图  8  喜马拉雅造山带中始新世(~47 Ma)构造模式

      a.在喜马拉雅造山带中东段,印度岩石圈平缓俯冲到亚洲大陆地壳之下,导致地壳加厚和高压榴辉岩相变质作用;b.在喜马拉雅造山带中东段,印度地壳平缓俯冲到亚洲大陆地壳之下,导致地壳加厚和高压榴辉岩相变质作用,而印度岩石圈地幔与地壳分离,并发生陡俯冲;c.在喜马拉雅造山带西段,印度岩石圈陡俯冲到地幔之中,导致地壳岩石发生超高压榴辉岩相变质作用

      Fig.  8.  Middle Eocene (~47 Ma) tectonic model of the Himalayan orogen

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