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    片麻岩穹窿与伟晶岩型锂矿的成矿规律探讨

    许志琴 付小方 赵中宝 李广伟 郑艺龙 马泽良

    许志琴, 付小方, 赵中宝, 李广伟, 郑艺龙, 马泽良, 2019. 片麻岩穹窿与伟晶岩型锂矿的成矿规律探讨. 地球科学, 44(5): 1452-1463. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.042
    引用本文: 许志琴, 付小方, 赵中宝, 李广伟, 郑艺龙, 马泽良, 2019. 片麻岩穹窿与伟晶岩型锂矿的成矿规律探讨. 地球科学, 44(5): 1452-1463. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.042
    Xu Zhiqin, Fu Xiaofang, Zhao Zhongbao, Li Guangwei, Zheng Yilong, Ma Zeliang, 2019. Discussion on Relationships of Gneiss Dome and Metallogenic Regularity of Pegmatite-Type Lithium Deposits. Earth Science, 44(5): 1452-1463. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.042
    Citation: Xu Zhiqin, Fu Xiaofang, Zhao Zhongbao, Li Guangwei, Zheng Yilong, Ma Zeliang, 2019. Discussion on Relationships of Gneiss Dome and Metallogenic Regularity of Pegmatite-Type Lithium Deposits. Earth Science, 44(5): 1452-1463. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.042

    片麻岩穹窿与伟晶岩型锂矿的成矿规律探讨

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2019.042
    基金项目: 

    中国地质调查局项目 1212010818094

    国家自然基金重点项目 40921001

    南京大学人才基金项目 020614912202

    国土资源部行业基金项目 41430212

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      许志琴(1941-), 女, 中国科学院院士, 南京大学教授, 长期从事构造地质学和大陆动力学研究工作

    • 中图分类号: P54

    Discussion on Relationships of Gneiss Dome and Metallogenic Regularity of Pegmatite-Type Lithium Deposits

    • 摘要: “片麻岩穹窿”是指中下地壳热动力过程产生的与岩浆作用(或混合岩化作用)密切相关的穹状构造,是折返造山的产物.片麻岩穹窿的形成经历了从垂直上升的地壳流导致的岩浆上涌的挤压收缩到岩体侵位的顶部伸展机制的转化过程,这一过程有利于富含锂-铯-钽型(LCT)型伟晶岩的生成和锂族元素的富集.研究表明,位于青藏高原北部的中国松潘-甘孜-甜水海印支造山带是中国大型"伟晶岩型"锂矿资源赋存的基地,松潘-甘孜东南部的超大型甲基卡型伟晶岩型锂矿带,产于具有巴罗式"低/中压-高温"变质组合的三叠纪复理石围岩中,早中生代花岗岩以及衍生的大量含锂稀土矿物的伟晶岩脉侵位有成因关系.研究认为,探究片麻岩穹窿的形成过程和构造成因机制;识别花岗岩-含矿伟晶岩的地球化学属性,揭示花岗岩浆分异作用与含矿伟晶岩相演变的成因联系,以及锂元素迁移、富集熔浆的过程;圈定三叠纪地层中巴罗式变质相带的展布,探明富锂伟晶岩矿带赋存的有利变质相带及形成的P-T条件;揭示"变形-变质-岩浆深熔-成矿"的时空耦合、制约与相互作用,再造造山过程中锂资源富集和保存的规律,以及建立成矿动力学模式;是揭示片麻岩穹窿与伟晶岩型锂矿的成矿规律的重要科学途径.

       

    • 图  1  片麻岩穹窿的结构示意

      Whitney et al.(2004);核部为混合岩化的花岗岩,边部为花岗片麻岩,幔部为变质岩和层叠褶皱;箭头代表剪切指向

      Fig.  1.  Schematic diagram of the structure of gneiss dome

      图  2  北-中帕米尔片麻岩穹窿群示意

      Schmidt et al.(2011);A.空喀山穹窿;B.慕孜塔格穹窿;C.Yazgulom穹窿;D.Muskol穹窿

      Fig.  2.  Schematic diagram of the North-Central Pamir gneiss dome group

      图  3  松潘-甘孜造山带雅江片麻岩穹窿群分布

      许志琴等(1992);1.矽线石带;2.十字石带;3.红柱石带;4.石榴石带;5.黑云母带;6.花岗岩

      Fig.  3.  Distribution of the Yajiang gneiss dome group in the Songpan-Ganzi orogenic belt

      图  4  位于青藏高原北部的松潘-甘孜-甜水海地体位置

      1.松潘-甘孜-甜水海造山带的三叠系;2.松潘-甘孜造山带中新元古代-古生代地层;3.锂矿带位置;4.周围地体;5.缝合带;6.逆冲断裂;7.走滑断裂;TRMB.塔里木盆地;WKL.西昆仑;KKF.喀喇昆仑断裂;NCB.北中国陆块;NQLT.北祁连逆冲断裂;EKL-QDM-QL.东昆仑-柴达木-祁连地体;EKL-ANMQS.东昆仑-阿尼玛卿缝合带;JSJ-ALSS.金沙江-哀牢山缝合带;QT.羌塘地体;LMST.龙门山逆冲断裂;YZB.扬子陆块

      Fig.  4.  Location of the Songpan-Ganzi-Tianshuihai terrane in the northern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

      图  5  甲基卡锂矿床的矿田地质简图

      梁斌等(2016);1.马颈子二云母花岗岩;2.微斜长石型伟晶岩;3.微斜长石钠长石型伟晶岩;4.钠长石型伟晶岩;5.钠长石锂辉石型伟晶岩;6.钠长锂云母型伟晶岩脉及编号;7.伟晶岩脉类型分带线;8.核部花岗岩基;9.伟晶岩脉类型分带线;X03.巨型伟晶岩脉

      Fig.  5.  Schematic diagram of the ore field of the Jiajika lithium deposit

      图  6  雅江甲基卡片麻岩穹窿的E-W向构造示意剖面

      付小方等(2017);1.上三叠统变质含碳泥质粉砂岩与粉砂岩互层;2.印支期二云母花岗岩;3.花岗伟晶岩脉及编号;4.十字石变质带;5.十字石、红柱石变质带;6.电气石、堇青石接触变质带

      Fig.  6.  E-W cross-section of the Jiajika gneiss dome

      图  7  甲基卡X03伟晶岩脉15号勘探线和邻区No.309孔连接剖面

      付小方等(2017);1.第四系;2.十字石-红柱石二云母片岩;3.堇青石化十字石-红柱石二云母片岩;4.花岗岩细晶岩;5.钠长锂辉石伟晶岩;6.电气石化角岩带

      Fig.  7.  Cross-section view of the Jiajika X03 pegmatite vein and adjacent No. 309 drilling hole

      图  8  马尔康片麻岩穹窿地质图

      de Sigoyer et al.(2014);该穹窿包括可尔因二云母花岗岩(粉红色)片麻岩穹窿和太阳河黑云母二长花岗岩(蓝色和绿色)片麻岩穹窿

      Fig.  8.  Geological map of the Markam gneiss dome

      图  9  马尔康穹窿群的变质相带图

      Zhao et al.(2019);自花岗岩体的幔部变质岩自内向外分别为矽线石-蓝晶石带、石榴石-十字石带、黑云母-红柱石带和白云母-绿泥石带

      Fig.  9.  Metamorphic phase diagram of the Markam gneiss dome

      图  10  造山过程中变形-变质-岩浆深熔之间关系示意

      Fig.  10.  Schematic diagram of the relationship among deformation-metamorphism-anatexis during orogenic process

      图  11  伟晶岩分类的铝硅酸盐相图

      London(2008);根据结晶温度估算显示,在含锂辉石-透锂辉石的伟晶岩和晶洞型伟晶岩均可在低温低压区形成

      Fig.  11.  Aluminum silicate phase diagram showing pegmatite classes

      图  12  形成在花岗岩体上部的锂-铯-钽(LCT)伟晶岩分带

      London(2018);显示花岗岩相边部及其上部依次出现含铯榴石伟晶岩(Ceramic pegmatite)、含绿柱石伟晶岩(Beryl pegmatite)、含锂辉石伟晶岩(Spondumene pegmatite)、含透锂辉石伟晶岩(petalite pegmatite)和含锂-铯-钽的晶洞型伟晶岩(Li-Cs-Tamiarolitic pegmatite)形成的等温线、压力和深度区间

      Fig.  12.  Regional zonation within a pegmatite group of the LCT family

      图  13  可尔因花岗-伟晶岩的岩浆分异记录

      李建康(2006)

      Fig.  13.  Magmatic differentiation of the Keeryin granite-pegmatite

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