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    河套灌区西部浅层地下水咸化机制

    曾邯斌 苏春利 谢先军 潘洪捷 纪倩楠 陶彦臻

    曾邯斌, 苏春利, 谢先军, 潘洪捷, 纪倩楠, 陶彦臻, 2021. 河套灌区西部浅层地下水咸化机制. 地球科学, 46(6): 2267-2277. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.259
    引用本文: 曾邯斌, 苏春利, 谢先军, 潘洪捷, 纪倩楠, 陶彦臻, 2021. 河套灌区西部浅层地下水咸化机制. 地球科学, 46(6): 2267-2277. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.259
    Zeng Hanbin, Su Chunli, Xie Xianjun, Pan Hongjie, Ji Qiannan, Tao Yanzhen, 2021. Mechanism of Salinization of Shallow Groundwater in Western Hetao Irrigation Area. Earth Science, 46(6): 2267-2277. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.259
    Citation: Zeng Hanbin, Su Chunli, Xie Xianjun, Pan Hongjie, Ji Qiannan, Tao Yanzhen, 2021. Mechanism of Salinization of Shallow Groundwater in Western Hetao Irrigation Area. Earth Science, 46(6): 2267-2277. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.259

    河套灌区西部浅层地下水咸化机制

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.259
    基金项目: 

    内蒙古自治区河套灌区盐碱地生物修复与综合开发研究 2019046338

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      曾邯斌(1996-), 男, 硕士, 主要研究方向为水文地球化学与水文地质学.ORCID: 0000-0002-2867-5144.E-mail: 694639624@qq.com

      通讯作者:

      苏春利, E-mail: chl.su@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P641

    Mechanism of Salinization of Shallow Groundwater in Western Hetao Irrigation Area

    • 摘要: 浅层地下水水位埋深浅、含盐量高,是导致河套灌区土壤次生盐渍化的重要原因.以河套灌区西部地区为研究区,通过对浅层地下水的水化学和氢氧同位素特征分析以及水文地球化学模拟,探讨了灌区浅层地下水的补给来源和主控水-岩作用过程,并定量估算了蒸发作用对浅层地下水含盐量的影响.研究区内浅层地下水为弱碱性咸水,pH为7.23~8.45,总溶解性固体(total dissolved solids,TDS)变化范围为371~7 599 mg/L;随着地下水咸化程度增大,水化学类型由HCO3-Na·Mg·Ca型向Cl-Na型过渡.引黄灌溉和大气降水是浅层地下水的主要补给来源,径流过程中浅层地下水受蒸发作用和植物蒸腾作用影响,地下水化学组分主要来源于蒸发盐溶解和硅酸盐风化水解,并受强烈的蒸发作用和离子交换作用影响.水文地球化学模拟和主成分分析结果显示,蒸发作用和岩盐溶解作用对区内浅层地下水咸化贡献最大,石膏和白云石等矿物的溶解、硅酸盐的水解、Na-Ca离子交换以及局部地形起伏对地下水咸化过程也有较大贡献.

       

    • 图  1  研究区位置、采样点分布以及浅层地下水TDS分布

      Fig.  1.  Location of the study area, distribution of sampling sites and TDS distribution of shallow groundwater in the study area

      图  2  研究区浅层地下水Durov图

      Fig.  2.  Durov diagram of shallow groundwater in the study area

      图  3  研究区浅层地下水δD、δ18O组成与TDS关系

      Fig.  3.  Relationship between δD, δ18O compositions and TDS of shallow groundwater in the study area

      图  4  研究区浅层地下水Cl-、δ18O和K+、δ18O与TDS关系

      Fig.  4.  Relationship between Cl- concentrations and δ18O values, K+ concentrations, δ18O values and TDS

      图  5  研究区浅层地下水主要离子与TDS关系

      Fig.  5.  Relationship between main ions and TDS of shallow groundwater in the study area

      图  6  研究区浅层地下水Ca2+/Na+与HCO3-/Na+(a)、HCO3-+SO42--Ca2+-Mg2+与Na+-Cl-(b)的关系

      Fig.  6.  Relationship between Ca2+/Na+ and HCO3-/Na+ (a), HCO3-+SO42--Ca2+-Mg2+ and Na+-Cl- (b) of shallow groundwater in the study area

      图  7  研究区浅层地下水TDS与SI关系

      Fig.  7.  Relationship between TDS and SI of shallow groundwater in the study area

      表  1  研究区浅层地下水主要水化学指标统计

      Table  1.   Statistics for the hydrochemical indexes of shallow groundwater from the study area

      项目 A组 B组 C组 D组
      300 mg/L < TDS < 500 mg/L(n=3) 500 mg/L < TDS < 1 000 mg/L(n=13) 1 000 mg/L < TDS < 2 000 mg/L(n=31) 2 000 mg/L < TDS(n=27)
      最小值 最大值 平均值 最小值 最大值 平均值 最小值 最大值 平均值 最小值 最大值 平均值
      pH 7.40 7.93 7.75 7.75 8.45 7.88 7.23 8.37 7.81 7.36 8.08 7.67
      EC(mS/cm) 0.69 0.72 0.70 0.92 1.60 1.26 1.66 2.98 2.14 3.07 10.32 5.03
      TDS(mg/L) 371 434 404 503 953 766 1 019 1 817 1 287 2 061 7 599 3 356
      K+(mg/L) 1.74 3.15 2.21 2.21 3.96 3.16 0.91 6.14 3.49 2.47 13.74 6.05
      Na+(mg/L) 44.9 99.8 71.0 89.7 227.9 140.9 176.8 521.2 325.7 316.8 2 308.1 959.7
      Ca2+(mg/L) 16.3 67.1 44.9 24.3 123.6 81.2 6.9 182.5 74.8 17.5 205.5 104.6
      Mg2+(mg/L) 21.8 36.3 29.6 36.9 72.4 53.0 11.1 123.1 66.5 39.5 553.4 174.2
      HCO3-(mg/L) 357 455 395 269 519 411 283 1 026 627 368 1 407 875
      SO42-(mg/L) 15.6 29.3 20.9 80.9 224.9 159.6 109.9 451.9 255.6 162.9 2 262.0 581.5
      NO3-(mg/L) 0.60 2.43 1.52 0.53 3.77 1.84 0.84 31.08 4.36 2.22 67.46 7.48
      Cl-(mg/L) 30.3 46.9 36.4 75.0 167.4 120.7 138.7 446.9 243.3 401.1 3 808.7 1 180.4
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  研究区浅层地下水氢氧同位素数据

      Table  2.   Hydrogen and oxygen isotope data of shallow groundwater in the study area

      样品 δD(‰) δ18O(‰) TDS (mg/L) 高程(m) 井深(m) 样品 δD(‰) δ18O(‰) TDS (mg/L) 高程(m) 井深(m)
      LH-2 -50.7 -5.6 1 035.1 1030.8 13.5 H-47 -70.6 -8.5 1 293.2 1 039.9 -
      H-15 -78.9 -10.4 2 662.3 1 027.4 11.4 H-48 -75.6 -9.4 4 115.4 1 030.7 -
      H-17 -77.4 -10.5 1 426.6 1 031.9 2.6 H-53 -77.9 -9.7 6 406.1 1 030.8 -
      H-18 -82.4 -11.2 2 863.7 1033.1 2.5 H-54 -76.7 -9.0 7 598.6 1 026.4 2.4
      H-19 -83.4 -10.6 4 083.6 1 036.1 1.7 LH-56 -78.2 -10.1 1 136.7 1 037.4 -
      H-20 -78.9 -10.0 7 029.4 1 025.6 2.5 LH-57 -75.3 -10.0 1 019.4 1 033.9 5.1
      H-21 -72.7 -8.9 3 999.5 1 027.9 - LH-60 -67.9 -8.0 794.1 1 036.1 -
      H-22 -79.9 -9.8 4 601.6 1 031.2 - LH-61 -76.8 -10.1 1 278.2 1 031.0 2.2
      H-25 -65.9 -7.8 3 680.5 1 028.3 8.0 H-63 -74.2 -10.0 1 261.2 1 027.8 -
      H-26 -71.7 -9.8 1 035.4 1 029.1 2.1 LH-65 -78.6 -10.3 2 266.5 1 031.8 -
      H-28 -78.0 -10.5 1 330.2 1 030.9 - LH-66 -73.8 -10.1 1 170.3 1 034.7 -
      LH-34 -78.5 -9.9 2 358.4 1 033.1 2.9 LH-69 -79.7 -11.0 1 179.8 1 030.1 2.2
      H-40 -65.6 -7.6 1 143.3 1 034.3 1.1 LH-70 -78.9 -11.1 872.9 1 026.5 2.7
      H-41 -71.8 -8.8 1 221.7 1 031.2 2.2 LH-71 -81.3 -11.0 665.5 1 034.3 3.0
      H-42 -66.2 -7.5 1 553.1 1 030.4 - LH-72 -71.0 -9.7 1 089.7 1 034.1 -
      H-46 -68.2 -8.2 2 193.8 1 031.8 1.2 LH-73 -70.9 -9.4 2 225.8 1 030.6 -
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  旋转成分矩阵

      Table  3.   Rotated component matrix

      指标 F1 F2 F3
      Na+ 0.947 0.057 -0.086
      K+ 0.772 0.356 -0.126
      Ca2+ 0.190 0.865 -0.033
      Mg2+ 0.795 0.528 -0.002
      Cl- 0.918 0.129 -0.025
      SO42- 0.504 0.596 -0.113
      HCO3- 0.734 0.032 0.021
      Si -0.010 0.732 0.032
      采水井地面高程 -0.495 0.167 0.645
      采水井水位 0.128 -0.128 0.912
      方差贡献率(%) 47.332 15.159 12.033
      累计方差贡献率(%) 47.332 62.529 74.562
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  逆向模拟水样数据

      Table  4.   Sample data used in inverse simulation

      水样编号 pH Cl- SO42- K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ HCO3- 水化学类型 高程(m) 水位(m)
      LH-5 8.02 78 113 3.05 103 41.8 39.2 280 HCO3-Na·Mg 1 037.2 5.3
      LH-35 7.83 111 150 3.24 109 81.2 36.9 382 HCO3-Na·Ca·Mg 1 035.9 4.8
      H-14 8.06 196 198 2.9 400 27.9 37.3 611 HCO3·Cl-Na 1 029.9 3.7
      H-38 7.78 447 234 5.4 521 63.5 66.6 911 HCO3·Cl-Na 1 030.0 3.5
      注:*.除指明外,单位为mg/L.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  5  逆向模拟结果

      Table  5.   The results of inverse simulation

      组分 LH-5→LH-35 H-14→H-38
      H2O(mol·L-1) - -4.67
      NaCl(mol·L-1) 0.000 701 0 0.006 119 0
      CaSO4(mol·L-1) 0.000 377 7 -
      CO2(g) 0.001 048 0 0.001 887 0
      CaCO3(mol·L-1) 0.000 592 9 -
      CaMg(CO3)2(mol·L-1) - 0.000 106 2
      NaX(mol·L-1) - 0.000 484 3
      CaX2(mol·L-1) - -0.000 242 1
      MgX2(mol·L-1) - -
      浓缩倍数 - 1.084
      注:*.正值表示溶解,负值表示沉淀,“-”表示未参与反应.
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2020-07-09
    • 刊出日期:  2021-06-15

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