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    西菲律宾海硅藻席沉积中的多囊虫类放射虫记录及其环境意义

    张兰兰 胡邦琦 邱卓雅 郭建卫 丁雪 陆钧 向荣

    张兰兰, 胡邦琦, 邱卓雅, 郭建卫, 丁雪, 陆钧, 向荣, 2021. 西菲律宾海硅藻席沉积中的多囊虫类放射虫记录及其环境意义. 地球科学, 46(3): 853-865. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.341
    引用本文: 张兰兰, 胡邦琦, 邱卓雅, 郭建卫, 丁雪, 陆钧, 向荣, 2021. 西菲律宾海硅藻席沉积中的多囊虫类放射虫记录及其环境意义. 地球科学, 46(3): 853-865. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.341
    Zhang Lanlan, Hu Bangqi, Qiu Zhuoya, Guo Jianwei, Ding Xue, Lu Jun, Xiang Rong, 2021. Records of Polycystine Radiolaria in the Diatom Mats Sediments from the Western Philippine Sea and Their Environmental Significance. Earth Science, 46(3): 853-865. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.341
    Citation: Zhang Lanlan, Hu Bangqi, Qiu Zhuoya, Guo Jianwei, Ding Xue, Lu Jun, Xiang Rong, 2021. Records of Polycystine Radiolaria in the Diatom Mats Sediments from the Western Philippine Sea and Their Environmental Significance. Earth Science, 46(3): 853-865. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.341

    西菲律宾海硅藻席沉积中的多囊虫类放射虫记录及其环境意义

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.341
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41876056

    国家自然科学基金项目 41976192

    国家自然科学基金项目 41576044

    中国地质调查局项目 DD20191010

    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类) XDB40000000

    南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项 GML2019ZD0206

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      张兰兰(1978-), 女, 研究员, 从事海洋微体古生物与沉积研究, ORCID: 0000-0001-6299-0511.E-mail: llzhang@scsio.ac.cn

      通讯作者:

      胡邦琦, E-mail: bangqihu@gmail.com

    • 中图分类号: P539

    Records of Polycystine Radiolaria in the Diatom Mats Sediments from the Western Philippine Sea and Their Environmental Significance

    • 摘要: 为了多角度理解海洋纹层沉积物的形成过程,利用在西菲律宾海采集到的含纹层硅藻席的XT47孔岩心样品,进行多囊虫类放射虫的组合变化与环境意义分析.研究表明XT47孔岩心上段260 cm厚硅藻席沉积中含有丰富的放射虫、丰度高于2×104个/克;中段260~460 cm出现5次放射虫丰度高峰与红粘土的交替旋回沉积;下段460~630 cm红粘土沉积层中放射虫稀少.依据放射虫地层种的初现生物事件,470 cm以深的年龄大于0.34 Ma,表明西菲律宾海硅藻质沉积形成于中更新世以来.此外,受暖水影响控制的Tetrapyle group和Didymocyrtis tetrathalamus tetrathalamus相对丰度在末次冰盛期(LGM)呈现显著的低值期,推测在LGM期西菲律宾海北赤道暖流的影响强度是变弱的.值得注意的是,多囊虫类放射虫的丰度与生物硅含量的变化趋势出现明显的不同步现象,推测4次生物硅含量高峰是由大型硅藻(盘筛藻)的急剧增加导致的,即西菲律宾海LGM期盘筛藻的勃发呈现明显的阶段性强弱变化;进一步发现盘筛藻的4次勃发强盛期对应着胶体虫相对丰度变化的低谷期和中深层冷水种相对丰度变化的高峰期,前者指示上层水体成层化减弱、后者指示中深层水体中营养物增多.据此,认为西菲律宾海LGM期盘筛藻勃发的4次强盛期是由于上层水体成层化减弱、下层水体中丰富的营养物上涌引起.研究结果可为菲律宾海盘筛藻勃发在LGM长时间持续并最终在海底形成厚达近3 m的硅藻席沉积提供了一种可能的解释.

       

    • 图  1  研究站位XT47孔的取样位置

      蓝色框为目前西太平洋发现的硅藻席沉积区,熊志方和李铁刚(2017)Shen et al.(2017)Luo et al.(2018);粉色线箭头为海表层流,KC为黑潮, NEC为北赤道流, NECC为北赤道逆流,据Tomczak and Godfrey(2005).垂向平均地转流(0~100 m)和硅酸盐平面气候态分布(4 000 m深度)黄财京(2018);其中黄色线箭头为高溶解氧低硅酸盐的路径(3 000~4 000 m),绿色线箭头为高硅酸盐路径(3 000~4 000 m),蓝色线箭头为低温高盐路径(4 500 m以下),据黄财京(2018)

      Fig.  1.  Location of the studied core XT47

      图  2  XT47孔的多囊虫类放射虫丰度、生物硅含量、胶体虫目丰度和相对丰度、以及泡沫虫目和罩笼虫目的相对丰度随深度变化

      Fig.  2.  Variations of abundance of polycystine radiolarians, biogenic silica content, abundance and relative abundance of Collodarians, relative abundances of Spumellarians and Nassellarians with depth of core XT47

      图  3  多囊虫类放射虫三大类群在岩心XT47孔中的相对丰度堆积面积

      Fig.  3.  Accumulative area chart of the relative abundances of three orders of polycystine radiolarians in the core XT47

      图  4  典型中深层冷水种的相对丰度随岩心深度变化

      Fig.  4.  Variations of relative abundances of typical cold species dwelling in mediate-deep water with core depth

      图  5  典型浅水暖水种的相对丰度随岩心深度变化

      Fig.  5.  Variations of relative abundances of typical warm species dwelling in shallow water with core depth

      表  1  本文进行放射虫鉴定统计分析的岩心XT47深度层、放射虫总丰度和三大目(泡沫虫、罩笼虫和胶体虫)的相对丰度

      Table  1.   Sampling depth, radiolarian abundances and relative abundances of three orders (Spumellaria, Nassellaria and Collodaria) in the core XT47 analyzed in this study

      岩心孔深(cm) 放射虫总丰度(个/克) 相对丰度(%) 岩心孔深(cm) 放射虫总丰度(个/克) 相对丰度(%)
      泡沫虫(%) 罩笼虫(%) 胶体虫(%) 泡沫虫(%) 罩笼虫(%) 胶体虫(%)
      1 80 634 50.95 42.65 6.40 439 78 254 52.64 45.03 2.33
      3 66 265 44.15 53.22 2.63 443 59 538 55.62 42.71 1.67
      5 122 489 40.80 55.19 4.01 445 33 169 48.78 48.98 2.24
      9 19 580 40.16 55.17 4.68 447 18 501 48.63 48.43 2.94
      13 44 324 33.23 62.80 3.96 449 51 295 56.45 40.82 2.73
      17 77 000 32.45 65.20 2.35 451 22 997 53.44 43.51 3.05
      21 86 129 34.27 61.66 4.07 453 27 524 34.16 61.11 4.73
      25 102 132 38.12 58.20 3.68 455 21 117 36.55 60.23 3.22
      29 144 468 31.27 64.43 4.30 457 1 881 38.51 57.14 4.35
      33 31 274 39.26 55.06 5.68 459 2 101 24.14 67.82 8.05
      37 33 478 35.28 61.69 3.03 461 2 492 36.49 54.95 8.56
      41 55 070 34.10 58.86 7.05 463 2 419 35.23 58.03 6.74
      45 32 230 37.50 58.48 4.02 465 1 770 35.88 58.02 6.11
      49 112 791 37.98 55.89 6.14 467 2 330 31.35 67.03 1.62
      53 91 427 32.32 60.14 7.54 469 1 006 38.46 60.26 1.28
      57 51 170 33.04 62.83 4.13 471 2 134 40.70 54.07 5.23
      61 39 487 62.50 30.84 6.66 473 3 302 42.25 55.99 1.76
      69 27 954 49.01 46.22 4.77 475 1 194 38.46 61.54 0.00
      73 32 628 52.80 44.07 3.13 477 297 48.00 44.00 8.00
      77 51 796 67.21 29.53 3.26 479 505 37.84 59.46 2.70
      81 51 493 64.50 30.63 4.87 481 157 35.71 57.14 7.14
      85 33 380 58.94 38.69 2.37 483 567 23.91 71.74 4.35
      89 44 163 63.88 34.36 1.76 485 173 23.08 76.92 0.00
      93 28 211 62.35 34.15 3.50 487 801 47.62 52.38 0.00
      97 40 760 57.27 40.91 1.82 489 846 56.92 41.54 1.54
      101 69 304 69.10 28.92 1.98 491 220 35.29 64.71 0.00
      105 86 413 59.75 36.48 3.77 493 35 33.33 66.67 0.00
      109 28 000 55.59 40.10 4.31 497 253 60.00 40.00 0.00
      113 36 970 54.83 42.44 2.73 499 89 57.14 42.86 0.00
      117 70 790 58.45 36.89 4.66 501 18 50.00 50.00 0.00
      121 70 204 60.27 33.72 6.01 503 238 42.11 52.63 5.26
      125 73 846 61.71 35.12 3.17 505 12 100.00 0.00 0.00
      129 77 951 52.56 39.64 7.80 507 27 50.00 50.00 0.00
      133 78 869 58.24 35.48 6.27 509 299 45.83 54.17 0.00
      137 74 074 51.58 45.26 3.16 511 145 66.67 33.33 0.00
      141 37 761 45.25 46.80 7.94 513 13 100.00 0.00 0.00
      145 52 364 57.41 36.34 6.25 515 473 47.50 50.00 2.50
      149 45 960 46.62 46.87 6.52 517 51 50.00 50.00 0.00
      153 65 529 57.64 37.73 4.63 519 12 100.00 0.00 0.00
      157 70 833 51.76 42.12 6.12 521 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      161 69 008 59.29 33.41 7.30 523 77 66.67 33.33 0.00
      163 58 542 57.35 38.98 3.67 525 12 100.00 0.00 0.00
      165 67 839 54.21 42.98 2.81 527 11 100.00 0.00 0.00
      167 59 197 58.81 38.33 2.86 529 13 100.00 0.00 0.00
      169 38 621 49.60 48.41 1.98 531 23 0.00 100.00 0.00
      171 62 446 51.84 45.62 2.53 533 85 57.14 42.86 0.00
      173 54 093 59.10 38.76 2.14 535 24 0.00 100.00 0.00
      177 51 941 57.14 39.78 3.08 537 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      179 119 041 60.37 37.27 2.36 539 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      185 86 162 48.18 49.46 2.36 541 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      187 116 117 60.65 37.04 2.31 543 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      191 47 450 51.07 46.08 2.85 545 34 33.33 66.67 0.00
      195 81 380 54.44 41.59 3.97 547 26 100.00 0.00 0.00
      203 145 814 52.87 43.06 4.07 549 231 66.67 33.33 0.00
      211 93 857 50.91 44.29 4.79 551 38 0.00 100.00 0.00
      219 80 203 50.10 43.89 6.00 553 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      227 101 007 48.65 44.04 7.31 555 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      235 102 464 51.42 45.26 3.32 557 23 100.00 0.00 0.00
      243 78 310 57.25 38.17 4.58 559 37 66.67 33.33 0.00
      251 87 423 52.83 44.58 2.59 561 25 50.00 50.00 0.00
      259 136 774 57.78 40.09 2.12 563 36 33.33 33.33 33.33
      265 141 608 53.56 41.33 5.11 565 62 40.00 60.00 0.00
      273 83 643 55.76 38.83 5.42 567 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      279 15 838 41.16 54.26 4.57 569 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      283 7 182 44.85 53.53 1.63 571 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      287 4 952 45.72 52.08 2.20 573 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      291 2 214 44.77 51.74 3.49 575 11 0.00 100.00 0.00
      295 4 148 48.21 46.73 5.06 577 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      299 7 133 49.76 49.51 0.73 579 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      303 6 782 44.29 53.15 2.56 581 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      307 5 539 33.97 62.95 3.09 583 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      311 31 118 47.15 48.97 3.87 585 25 0.00 100.00 0.00
      323 57 605 50.98 44.42 4.60 587 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      327 113 304 49.93 45.67 4.40 589 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      335 29 490 45.33 49.60 5.07 591 11 0.00 100.00 0.00
      339 22 028 54.60 42.05 3.35 593 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      343 2 746 34.40 63.30 2.29 595 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      351 11 266 48.13 50.47 1.40 597 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      355 55 870 55.06 41.83 3.11 599 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      359 76 111 55.08 38.98 5.93 601 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      371 150 934 52.49 43.70 3.81 603 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      375 130 891 56.53 42.16 1.31 605 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      379 25 908 53.76 44.33 1.91 607 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      387 5 535 58.28 38.69 3.03 609 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      391 17 064 50.36 47.22 2.42 611 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      395 78 242 58.43 40.64 0.94 613 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      401 114 955 46.44 49.47 4.09 615 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      403 67 473 54.72 42.51 2.77 617 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      407 24 497 37.15 60.53 2.32 619 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      411 23 144 58.78 40.05 1.17 621 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      415 7 300 56.59 41.48 1.93 623 12 100.00 0.00 0.00
      419 8 728 57.77 40.87 1.36 625 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      423 17 693 58.88 38.69 2.43 627 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      427 19 104 62.86 34.29 2.86 629 13 100.00 0.00 0.00
      431 35 831 56.72 40.55 2.73 631 0 0.00 0.00 0.00
      435 59 447 49.77 48.19 2.04
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  XT47孔放射虫地层种的初现面(FAD)生物事件年龄

      Table  2.   Biological event ages of the first appearance datum of radiolarian biostratigraphic species in the core XT47

      种名 生物事件 FAD年龄范围(Ma) 平均FAD年龄(Ma) XT47的FAD层深(cm) 参考文献
      Buccinosphaera invaginata Haeckel FAD 0.24~0.45 0.34 471 Haslett (1994)Nigrini et al. (2006)Sanfilippo and Nigrini (1998)
      Collosphaera tuberosa Haeckel FAD 0.42~0.58 0.51 473 Haslett (1994)Kamikuri et al. (2009)Nigrini et al. (2006); Sanfilippo and Nigrini (1998)
      Pterocanium praetextum praetextum (Ehrenberg) FAD 1.27~1.33 1.30 503 Kamikuri et al. (2009)
      Cycladophora davisiana Ehrenberg FAD 2.50~2.71 2.61 565 Haslett (1994)Kamikuri et al. (2009)Nigrini et al. (2006); Sanfilippo and Nigrini (1998)
      下载: 导出CSV
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