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    被动大陆边缘张-破裂过程与岩浆活动:南海的归属

    孙珍 李付成 林间 孙龙涛 庞雄 郑金云

    孙珍, 李付成, 林间, 孙龙涛, 庞雄, 郑金云, 2021. 被动大陆边缘张-破裂过程与岩浆活动:南海的归属. 地球科学, 46(3): 770-789. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.371
    引用本文: 孙珍, 李付成, 林间, 孙龙涛, 庞雄, 郑金云, 2021. 被动大陆边缘张-破裂过程与岩浆活动:南海的归属. 地球科学, 46(3): 770-789. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.371
    Sun Zhen, Li Fucheng, Lin Jian, Sun Longtao, Pang Xiong, Zheng Jinyun, 2021. The Rifting-Breakup Process of the Passive Continental Margin and Its Relationship with Magmatism: The Attribution of the South China Sea. Earth Science, 46(3): 770-789. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.371
    Citation: Sun Zhen, Li Fucheng, Lin Jian, Sun Longtao, Pang Xiong, Zheng Jinyun, 2021. The Rifting-Breakup Process of the Passive Continental Margin and Its Relationship with Magmatism: The Attribution of the South China Sea. Earth Science, 46(3): 770-789. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.371

    被动大陆边缘张-破裂过程与岩浆活动:南海的归属

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.371
    基金项目: 

    广东省自然科学基金研究团队项目 2017A030312002

    南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项 GML2019ZD0104

    南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项 2019BT02H594

    南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室(广州)人才团队引进重大专项 GML2019ZD0205

    王宽诚教育基金项目 GJTD-2018-13

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      孙珍(1971-), 女, 研究员, 博士, 主要从事海洋地质构造与模拟研究.ORCID: 0000-0002-2991-9999.E-mail: zhensun@scsio.ac.cn

      通讯作者:

      李付成, ORCID: 0000-0001-7761-9133.E-mail: iamlifucheng@163.com

    • 中图分类号: P736

    The Rifting-Breakup Process of the Passive Continental Margin and Its Relationship with Magmatism: The Attribution of the South China Sea

    • 摘要: 岩浆在被动大陆边缘的张-破裂过程中起到决定性作用.南海东北部陆缘发育厚度达10 km的下地壳高速体,其成因机制长期存在争议,影响了对南海东北部陆缘构造归属的界定.为了分析南海共轭陆缘的张破裂机制,本文调研了国内外最新研究进展,系统分析了南海南北陆缘的地壳结构和岩浆活动特点,提出:南海陆缘和海盆中发育有大量岩浆活动,但东西陆缘存在较大差异,底侵高速体东厚西薄,推测为同张裂成因.根据地壳结构与底侵岩浆的量,将被动陆缘划分为5个子类,南海陆缘东侧为多岩浆型,向西变为少岩浆型.东西差异除与伸展速率有关,可能还与东侧陆缘发生了板缘破裂,而西侧陆缘发生了板内破裂有关.

       

    • 图  1  贫岩浆型和富岩浆型被动大陆边缘结构特征示意剖面

      Franke(2013)修改

      Fig.  1.  The diagram showing the main profile features of magma-poor and magma-rich margins

      图  2  Ⅰ型(a)和Ⅱ型(b)破裂剖面模式

      Huismans and Beaumont(2011, 2014).Ⅰ型破裂特点:断裂切割深度大,地壳断裂区域窄,隆凹结构不对称,地壳早于地幔破裂,洋陆过渡带上有地幔剥露和蛇纹石化,拉张过程中岩浆量有限,洋盆发育和正常地壳厚度出现较晚;Ⅱ型破裂特点:地壳强烈减薄区域宽,同张裂早期盆地沉积发育断裂,同张裂晚期沉积不变形,晚期沉积发育在浅水凹陷中,同张裂沉降亏损,无地幔剥露但有同张裂岩浆活动,存在岩浆底侵速度异常体,地壳破裂后很快发育正常洋壳

      Fig.  2.  Diagram of type Ⅰ (a) and type Ⅱ (b) breakup in magma-poor margin

      图  3  南海陆缘与海盆中岩浆活动与下地壳高速体分布

      岩浆分布及其活动时间据Zhang et al. (2016)Fan et al.(2017, 2019)和Deng et al. (2019); 侵入岩席和(或)岩墙等出现的范围大致在红色虚线至洋盆区域(Song et al., 2017),但南部陆缘由于地震剖面覆盖限制,其范围不准确.黑色实线为OBS(ocean bottom seismometer)测线(剖面图见图 4),红色粗实线是剖面上揭示了下地壳高速体的范围;深蓝色实线为多道地震剖面(见图 5)

      Fig.  3.  The distribution of magmatic activity and high velocity lower crust in the South China Sea

      图  4  南海陆缘地壳结构与下地壳高速体分布剖面

      图中数据单位:km/s. a. 剖面OBST3,据Lester et al. (2014);b. 剖面OBS 2001,据Wang et al. (2006);c. 剖面ESP-E,据Nissen et al.(1995);d.剖面OBS2006-3,据卫小冬等(2011);e. 剖面OBS 1993,据Yan et al.(2001);f. 剖面OBS973-2,据阮爱国等(2011);g. 剖面OBS2006-1,据Ding et al.(2012);h.剖面OBH-IV,据Qiu et al.(2001);i. 剖面OBS2011-1,据Huang et al.(2019);j. 剖面OBS973-1,据丘学林等(2011);k. 剖面,据Pichot et al.(2014)

      Fig.  4.  The crustal structure and the distribution of high velocity lower crust in the profile

      图  5  反射地震剖面上观察到的岩浆底侵、侵入岩墙和岩席特征

      Sun et al.(2019a)修改.a.原始剖面;b.构造解释线描图;c, d.局部放大图,图件c和d在剖面中的位置见图a中的矩形框

      Fig.  5.  Magmatic underplating, intruding dikes and sills observed on multi-channel reflection seismic profile

      图  6  被动大陆边缘根据张‒破裂期间的岩浆量进行的陆缘分类模式

      图a、e据Franke(2013)修改;图b~d根据南海陆缘及其他被动陆缘的特征绘制

      Fig.  6.  The suggested five types of passive continental margin according to the amount of magmatism involved in rifting and breakup

      图  7  双层和三层(含软弱中下地壳)地壳发生伸展破裂的结构(a~h)和热状态(i)特征对比

      a~d.双层地壳;e~h. 三层地壳;CTF. 地壳减薄因子;图i据Li et al.(2019)修改,其中f为强度与正常地壳相比的比例因子

      Fig.  7.  The comparison of rifting structure (a—h) and thermal situation (i) between two-layer and three-layer (with weak middle to lower crust) crust

      图  8  南海北部陆缘盆地拉张产生岩浆量与张裂时间和张裂程度关系

      底图据Bown and White(1995);珠江口盆地的拉张因子据张云帆等(2007, 2014)、Zhang et al. (2020b);琼东南盆地拉张因子据Qiu et al.(2013)

      Fig.  8.  The relationship between magmatic production and rifting period versus stretching factor in SCS.

      图  9  南海北部陆缘破裂位置及其与中生代俯冲系统关系分析

      Li et al.(2020)修改.a. 南海共轭陆缘及其与中生代火山弧和弧前盆地的关系,其中东部陆缘破裂位置发生在中生代弧前盆地区,西侧陆缘破裂发生在火山之间;b. 根据数值模拟绘制的南海东部陆缘在弧前盆发生板缘破裂模式,板缘破裂常伴有俯冲板片的断裂和拆沉;c. 根据数值模拟绘制的南海西部陆缘沿火山弧/弧间发生板内破裂模式;d. 推测中生代俯冲阶段南海北部陆缘的状态,新生代时,沿着正常厚度的岩石圈破裂为板内破裂,沿着减薄的弧前区破裂为板缘破裂

      Fig.  9.  The breakup location of SCS and its relationship to Pre-Cenozoic subduction system

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