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    南海边缘海减薄陆壳成因剖析

    邱燕 黄文凯 杜文波 韩冰

    邱燕, 黄文凯, 杜文波, 韩冰, 2021. 南海边缘海减薄陆壳成因剖析. 地球科学, 46(3): 899-915. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.393
    引用本文: 邱燕, 黄文凯, 杜文波, 韩冰, 2021. 南海边缘海减薄陆壳成因剖析. 地球科学, 46(3): 899-915. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.393
    Qiu Yan, Huang Wenkai, Du Wenbo, Han Bing, 2021. Analysis on the Formation of the Thin Continental Crust in the South China Sea. Earth Science, 46(3): 899-915. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.393
    Citation: Qiu Yan, Huang Wenkai, Du Wenbo, Han Bing, 2021. Analysis on the Formation of the Thin Continental Crust in the South China Sea. Earth Science, 46(3): 899-915. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.393

    南海边缘海减薄陆壳成因剖析

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2020.393
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金: 南海海盆的深部结构和扩张过程的集成研究 91628301

    南海破裂不整合与各次海盆的初始扩张年代 41572083

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      邱燕(1956-), 女, 博士, 教授级高级工程师, 从事石油地质、构造地质与海洋地质工作.ORCID: 0000-0002-4290-947X.E-mail: zqiuyan60@163.com

    • 中图分类号: P736

    Analysis on the Formation of the Thin Continental Crust in the South China Sea

    • 摘要: 南海中央海盆南、北两侧陆缘分布着面积较广的减薄陆壳,正确认识海盆减薄陆壳的成因是研究南海构造演化的重要一环.通过分析基于地壳伸展因子公式计算的南海地壳拉张伸展特征和解释中生代以来的陆壳隆升特征等,证实晚中生代以来至渐新世末,该区不仅发生了地壳拉张伸展作用,还发生了较长期的地壳隆升挤压作用,致使酸性侵入岩出露地表,减薄陆壳区的上地壳厚薄分布不均.始新世南海南部发育海陆过渡相和海相沉积、北部仅为陆相沉积,暗示始新世南海古地理格局是南、北陆缘具有不同沉积环境的盆地群,二者之间应该被隆起所隔.这些地质现象说明该区地壳隆升剥蚀与地壳拉张伸展活动时间有较长的重叠.南海中央海盆两侧减薄陆壳的成因不仅仅是地壳拉张伸展所致,而是拉张伸展与隆升剥蚀共同作用的结果,因此可以认为在曾经发生了地壳隆升挤压而遭受长期剥蚀的区域,如果用全地壳伸展因子的公式来估算地壳拉张伸展程度,将得出错误的结论.

       

    • 图  1  南海地形特征与测线位置

      Fig.  1.  Topography of the South China Sea and the location of the profiles

      图  2  西南次海盆及邻区地壳结构特征

      测线位置见图 1;图中数字表示该点附近的平均P波速度,单位km/s;NCOT和SCOT所指示的区域为西南次海盆南北两侧的陆-洋过渡壳

      Fig.  2.  Crustal structure of the southwest sub-basin and its sides

      图  3  南海莫霍面埋深图与减薄陆壳分布示意

      图据杨胜雄等(2015)修改;箭头延伸区域为减薄陆壳的分布,从莫霍面埋深-32 km至-16 km,箭头所指的线条大致为减薄陆壳与陆-洋过渡带的分界,在莫霍面埋深-16 km深度左右;图中蓝色线条表示图 4的CFT剖面所在位置

      Fig.  3.  Depthisolines of Moho surface and the distribution of the thin continental crust in the South China Sea

      图  4  CFT剖面选段,示西南次海盆南缘初始扩张岩浆混染陆-洋过渡壳特征

      测线位置见图 3(蓝色短线条)

      Fig.  4.  A section of CFT profile showing the magma infecting at the southern edge to the southwest sub-basin during the initial spreading stage

      图  5  南海陆缘地壳结构与上地壳和全地壳伸展因子

      a.南海北部陆缘西侧(NHG-1-N测线); b.南海北部陆缘东侧(NHG-2-N测线); c.南海南部陆缘西侧(NHG-1-S测线); d.南海南部陆缘东侧(NHG-2-S测线); 红色线为计算的上地壳伸展因子,绿色线为计算的全地壳伸展因子

      Fig.  5.  The structure of the continental crust and the upper-crust and whole stretching factor in the South China Sea

      图  6  OBS(OBS2006-3)解释的速度和地壳结构模型

      测线位置见图 1,据卫小冬等(2010)修改;图中数字表示该点附近的平均P波速度,单位km/s;上地壳分离,对应距离坐标可知被拉断最短距离大致为110 km

      Fig.  6.  Velocity and crustal constructive model calculated by the data of OBS2006-3

      图  7  OBS 1993(a)和OBS 2003(b)测线解释的速度和地壳结构模型

      测线位置见图 1;图中数字表示该点附近的平均P波速度,单位km/s;图a据阎贫和刘海龄(2002)修改;图b据周龙泉等(2005)修改

      Fig.  7.  Velocity and crustal constructive model calculated by the data of OBS1993 (a) and OBS2003 (b)

      图  8  南海中生代酸性侵入岩(晚中生代和新生代盆地沉积基底的组成部分)分布

      Fig.  8.  Distribution of Mesozoic acid-intrusive rocks as the sedimentary basement of Late-Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the South China Sea

      图  9  OBH1996-4测线解释的西沙海槽速度和地壳结构

      测线位置见图 1,据Qiu et al.(2001)修改;图中数字表示该点附近的平均P波速度,单位km/s

      Fig.  9.  Velocity and crustal constructive model of the Xisha trough calculated by the data of OBH1996-4

      图  10  南海中部始新世至渐新世古地理格局变化与上地壳剥蚀示意

      a.早始新世古地理格局;b.始新世末至渐新世初古地理格局

      Fig.  10.  Schematic map of the evolution of the ancient geography framework and upper-crust erosion from Eocene to Oligocene in the center of the South China Sea

      图  11  中生代中、晚期至渐新世南海主要构造活动时间示意

      Fig.  11.  Schematic diagram of the times of the major tectonic activities in the South China Sea from Middle-Later Mesozoic to Oligocene

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    • 收稿日期:  2020-10-29
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