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    湖南水口山多金属矿区废石堆重金属污染评价及赋存形态分析

    陈佳木 吴志华 刘文浩 张晓军 张晓平 王琳玲 周淼 齐宇彤 吴云辉

    陈佳木, 吴志华, 刘文浩, 张晓军, 张晓平, 王琳玲, 周淼, 齐宇彤, 吴云辉, 2021. 湖南水口山多金属矿区废石堆重金属污染评价及赋存形态分析. 地球科学, 46(11): 4127-4139. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.019
    引用本文: 陈佳木, 吴志华, 刘文浩, 张晓军, 张晓平, 王琳玲, 周淼, 齐宇彤, 吴云辉, 2021. 湖南水口山多金属矿区废石堆重金属污染评价及赋存形态分析. 地球科学, 46(11): 4127-4139. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.019
    Chen Jiamu, Wu Zhihua, Liu Wenhao, Zhang Xiaojun, Zhang Xiaoping, Wang Linling, Zhou Miao, Qi Yutong, Wu Yunhui, 2021. Heavy Metal Pollution Evaluation and Species Analysis of Waste Rock Piles in Shuikoushan, Hunan Province. Earth Science, 46(11): 4127-4139. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.019
    Citation: Chen Jiamu, Wu Zhihua, Liu Wenhao, Zhang Xiaojun, Zhang Xiaoping, Wang Linling, Zhou Miao, Qi Yutong, Wu Yunhui, 2021. Heavy Metal Pollution Evaluation and Species Analysis of Waste Rock Piles in Shuikoushan, Hunan Province. Earth Science, 46(11): 4127-4139. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.019

    湖南水口山多金属矿区废石堆重金属污染评价及赋存形态分析

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.019
    基金项目: 

    湖南省自然资源厅科技计划项目 2019-06

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      陈佳木(1997-), 男, 硕士研究生, 主要研究方向为矿物学、岩石学、矿床学.ORCID: 0000-0002-4745-9586.E-mail: jibibi123@163.com

      通讯作者:

      张晓军, ORCID: 0000-0002-2808-4352.E-mail: xjzhang01@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P69

    Heavy Metal Pollution Evaluation and Species Analysis of Waste Rock Piles in Shuikoushan, Hunan Province

    • 摘要: 湖南水口山及周边是湖南省重金属污染较为严重的地区之一,龙王山金矿床是该区中部的一个重要金矿床.为调查该矿床废石堆污染状况、是否为周边环境的污染源、污染途径、重金属迁移能力和潜在的危害,对矿区FS17废石堆进行了自然淋滤水和24 m浅钻系统取样,开展重金属元素总量分析,利用单因子指数法和内梅罗综合污染指数法对其重金属污染程度进行污染评价,采用四步改良BCR提取法分析废石堆中8种重(类)金属元素(Pb、Zn、Cd、Cu、Cr、Ni、As和Fe)的赋存形态,并利用迁移指数量化废石堆重金属元素迁移能力;发现废石堆中Cd、Cu、Pb、As、Zn、Ni重金属元素严重超标,且在垂向上分布极不均匀;其自然淋滤水样中重金属元素Cd、Ni、Zn、Cu也严重超标;废石堆浅层重金属元素潜在迁移能力顺序为:Cd>Ni≈Zn>Cu>Pb>As>Cr>Fe,深层重金属元素迁移能力顺序为:Cd>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>As>Fe,浅层重金属元素的迁移性大于深层;说明该废石堆重金属元素含量高,是周围环境重要污染源,酸性废水排放为其释放污染元素的主要途径;Cd、Cu、Zn、Ni迁移能力强,是周围环境的主要污染元素;Pb、Ni、As的迁移性在深层明显降低,可以通过埋深来削弱其迁移性,而Cr不会对周边环境产生污染.

       

    • 图  1  FS17废石堆、钻孔取样位置及钻孔FS17岩性柱状图

      a.FS17废石堆位置及外围水系分布;b.FS17废石堆卫星图(钻孔和淋滤水取样位置);c.ZK3岩性柱状图

      Fig.  1.  Location of drilling sample

      图  2  FS17废石堆ZK3钻孔重金属含量随深度变化图

      图中灰色水平粗线为深层和浅层的分界线,图a~g中红线代表(GB15618‒2018)农用地土壤风险筛选值,图h中红线为中国南方U元素土壤背景值

      Fig.  2.  The heavy metal varying patterns of waste rock pile

      图  3  废石堆垂向上不同相态重金属元素分布及变化趋势特征

      Fig.  3.  Distributions and variation trends of heavy metals in different phases in vertical direction of waste rock pile

      表  1  FS17废石堆重金属元素含量

      Table  1.   Heavy metal contents of waste rock pile FS17

      样品编号 深度(m) pH 重金属元素含量(10‒6)
      Zn Pb Cu Cd As Cr Ni U Co Mo Sb Th Tl
      ZK3‒1 0 543 2 020 330 3.02 101 31 12.4 4.6 50.0 6.49 75.1 10.15 1.41
      ZK3‒2 ‒0.2 315 800 802 7.50 112 28 16.8 3.9 43.5 4.35 183 6.81 1.20
      ZK3‒3 ‒0.4 989 1 345 380 11.7 498 59 54.8 6.8 36.3 6.98 257 14.90 3.08
      ZK3‒4 ‒0.6 1 240 284 536 19.85 214 34 50.3 5.6 39.1 5.12 268 16.55 2.30
      ZK3‒5 ‒0.8 682 715 275 11.3 193.5 45 28.8 5.3 40.1 6.25 106 11.40 1.51
      ZK3‒6 ‒1.0 492 1 210 241 3.35 128.5 47 69.0 8.2 96.0 10.75 63.9 8.09 0.96
      ZK3‒7 ‒1.2 391 1 005 255 6.51 128.5 39 28.4 4.9 30.5 6.57 58.1 6.67 0.86
      ZK3‒8 ‒1.7 453 1 145 244 5.24 159 44 27.9 5.1 28.5 7.24 64.7 9.26 1.25
      ZK3‒9 ‒2.7 1 240 806 435 11.3 165 36 43.0 6.1 30.3 7.15 113.5 14.70 1.90
      ZK3‒10 ‒3.7 3.95 874 767 429 11.95 173.5 38 40.3 5.8 34.1 7.59 145 13.00 1.77
      ZK3‒11 ‒4.7 490 957 313 4.60 146 42 30.7 5.4 27.1 5.61 83.3 10.55 1.21
      ZK3‒12 ‒5.7 1 740 4 010 267 8.33 1 780 160 40.1 10 28.2 22.0 408 11.60 1.77
      ZK3‒13 ‒6.7 805 1 565 328 7.52 101.5 63 22.1 5.8 33.8 6.89 71.9 13.85 1.83
      ZK3‒14 ‒7.7 713 1 245 325 5.04 121 46 23.9 6.0 37.8 12.15 53.7 15.55 1.42
      ZK3‒15 ‒8.7 1 280 1 360 392 20.0 191 53 103 15.3 41.9 8.03 76.3 9.43 1.29
      ZK3‒16 ‒9.7 1 030 728 160 10.15 114.5 64 29.9 5.5 29.6 10.9 35.2 17.00 1.31
      ZK3‒17 ‒10.7 1 240 2 200 346 10.45 907 144 118 21.5 31.0 14.65 291 11.45 1.91
      ZK3‒18 ‒11.7 162 246 88.1 2.62 40.0 172 166.5 51.8 38.8 4.11 13.35 16.05 0.73
      ZK3‒19 ‒12.7 376 382 189 9.63 56.9 137 356 51.2 140.5 5.66 37.4 9.39 1.08
      ZK3‒20 ‒13.7 404 243 127.5 3.76 130 240 374 65.6 75.5 10.65 23.9 13.25 1.41
      ZK3‒21 ‒14.7 444 338 140.5 6.99 73.2 154 250 63.7 59.0 6.76 26.1 10.75 0.67
      ZK3‒22 ‒15.7 255 240 193 7.87 76.3 145 341 46.8 40.6 16.25 12.6 23.00 1.47
      ZK3‒23 ‒16.7 4.98 231 269 89.2 3.99 74.7 297 304 61.6 28.8 11.55 12.75 12.85 0.85
      ZK3‒24 ‒17.7 355 210 86.5 6.34 64.3 288 378 51.7 53.1 9.03 17.3 10.40 0.64
      ZK3‒25 ‒18.7 273 164.5 96.1 5.42 69.0 311 330 46.4 50.0 10.8 20.3 10.20 0.72
      ZK3‒26 ‒19.7 332 366 122 4.30 77.1 290 328 49.7 30.9 9.04 19.3 13.90 0.97
      ZK3‒27 ‒20.7 261 242 98.7 4.19 53.4 195 313 44.4 30.2 8.66 18.75 10.70 0.90
      ZK3‒28 ‒21.7 211 240 123.5 4.46 53.2 170 243 95.0 44.8 5.78 20.2 12.20 0.75
      ZK3‒29 ‒22.7 1 000 248 339 19.65 216 20.0 36.5 4.6 48.6 3.07 35.7 7.87 2.87
      ZK3‒30 ‒23.7 601 204 80.5 2.74 234 281 416 72.6 34.7 28.5 27.2 6.17 0.85
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  FS17废石堆重金属元素污染超标率

      Table  2.   Pollution exceeding standard rate of heavy metals in waste rock pile FS17

      项目 Zn Pb Cu Cd As Cr Ni U Co
      堆内最大值(10‒6) 1 740 4 010 802 20 1 780 311 416 95 728
      堆内最小值(10‒6) 29.9 10.9 64.0 2.62 40.0 20.0 12.4 3.9 27.1
      平均值(10‒6) 614.06 827.91 257.85 7.99 215.07 121.29 156.85 61.80 67.72
      标准差 415.07 834.6 164.35 4.93 338.83 98.67 142.47 27.70 126.87
      变异系数 0.68 1.01 0.64 0.62 1.58 0.81 0.91 0.98 1.87
      风险筛选值(10‒6) 200 70 50 0.3 40 150 60
      超标倍数范围 0.15~8.70 0.16~57.29 1.28~16.04 8.73~66.67 1.00~44.50 0.13~2.07 0.21~6.93
      超标率(%) 93.33 96.67 100 100 96.67 36.67 53.33
      湖南省土壤背景值(魏复盛等, 1991)(10‒6) 95 27 27 0.08 14 67 33 2.72 15
      超标倍数范围 0.31~6.46 0.40~30.66 2.37~9.55 33.16~101.17 2.86~15.36 0.30~1.81 0.38~4.75 1.43~34.93 1.81~4.51
      超标率(%) 97.67 96.67 100 100 100 46.67 73.33 100 100
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  单因子污染指数评价结果

      Table  3.   Results of the single factor pollution index

      深度(m) 编号 单因子污染指数Pi 综合污染指数
      As Cd Cr Cu Ni Pb Zn
      0 ZK3‒1 2.53 10.07 0.21 6.60 0.21 28.86 2.72 21.05
      ‒0.2 ZK3‒2 2.80 25.00 0.19 16.04 0.28 11.43 1.58 18.60
      ‒0.4 ZK3‒3 12.45 39.00 0.39 7.60 0.91 19.21 4.95 28.87
      ‒0.6 ZK3‒4 5.35 66.17 0.23 10.72 0.84 4.06 6.20 47.73
      ‒0.8 ZK3‒5 4.84 37.67 0.30 5.50 0.48 10.21 3.41 27.37
      ‒1.0 ZK3‒6 3.21 11.17 0.31 4.82 1.15 17.29 2.46 12.89
      ‒1.2 ZK3‒7 3.21 21.70 0.26 5.10 0.47 14.36 1.96 16.06
      ‒1.7 ZK3‒8 3.98 17.47 0.29 4.88 0.47 16.36 2.27 13.19
      ‒2.7 ZK3‒9 4.13 37.67 0.24 8.70 0.72 11.51 6.20 27.54
      ‒3.7 ZK3‒10 4.34 39.83 0.25 8.58 0.67 10.96 4.37 29.02
      ‒4.7 ZK3‒11 3.65 15.33 0.28 6.26 0.51 13.67 2.45 11.65
      ‒5.7 ZK3‒12 44.50 27.77 1.07 5.34 0.67 57.29 8.70 43.09
      ‒6.7 ZK3‒13 2.54 25.07 0.42 6.56 0.37 22.36 4.03 18.78
      ‒7.7 ZK3‒14 3.03 16.80 0.31 6.50 0.40 17.79 3.57 13.49
      ‒8.7 ZK3‒15 4.78 66.67 0.35 7.84 1.72 19.43 6.40 48.37
      ‒9.7 ZK3‒16 2.86 33.83 0.20 1.28 2.67 0.16 0.15 24.28
      ‒10.7 ZK3‒17 22.68 34.83 0.96 6.92 1.97 31.43 6.20 26.82
      ‒11.7 ZK3‒18 1.00 8.73 1.15 1.76 2.78 3.51 0.81 6.49
      ‒12.7 ZK3‒19 1.42 32.10 0.91 3.78 5.93 5.46 1.88 23.29
      ‒13.7 ZK3‒20 3.25 12.53 1.60 2.55 6.23 3.47 2.02 9.42
      ‒14.7 ZK3‒21 1.83 23.30 1.03 2.81 4.17 4.83 2.22 16.97
      ‒15.7 ZK3‒22 1.91 26.23 0.97 3.86 5.68 3.43 1.28 19.06
      ‒16.7 ZK3‒23 1.87 13.30 1.98 1.78 5.07 3.84 1.16 9.85
      ‒17.7 ZK3‒24 1.61 21.13 1.92 1.73 6.30 3.00 1.78 15.42
      ‒18.7 ZK3‒25 1.73 18.07 2.07 1.92 5.50 2.35 1.37 13.20
      ‒19.7 ZK3‒26 1.93 14.33 1.93 2.44 5.47 5.23 1.66 10.67
      ‒20.7 ZK3‒27 1.34 13.97 1.30 1.97 5.22 3.46 1.31 10.29
      ‒21.7 ZK3‒28 1.33 14.87 1.13 2.47 4.05 3.43 1.06 10.89
      ‒22.7 ZK3‒29 5.40 65.50 0.13 6.78 0.61 3.54 5.00 47.14
      ‒23.7 ZK3‒30 5.85 9.13 1.87 1.61 6.93 2.91 3.01 7.19
      平均值 5.38 26.64 0.81 5.16 2.61 11.83 3.07 19.65
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  FS17废石堆样品BCR分级提取结果

      Table  4.   The results of BCR fractional extraction from waste rock pile

      元素 编号 深度(m) T1态 T2态 T3态 T4态 回收率(%) MI值(%)
      Pb(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 8.72 230.62 29.97 985.09 92.92 0.70
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 131.51 634.84 200.45 540.79 96.02 8.72
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 0.11 43.29 19.09 132.53 88.24 0.06
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 0.26 66.36 19.56 250.61 97.06 0.08
      Zn(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 288.29 114.99 170.78 479.71 108.08 27.36
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 248.37 174.76 108.46 388.81 106.04 26.99
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 19.90 102.32 51.47 212.04 111.16 5.16
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 22.63 62.99 41.36 227.16 112.07 6.39
      Cd(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 5.46 1.84 1.28 1.56 84.85 53.88
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 2.85 1.27 1.09 0.46 83.85 50.24
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 0.52 4.24 0.41 0.58 87.50 9.02
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 0.63 2.06 0.31 0.63 85.07 17.34
      Cu(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 54.49 35.83 133.69 102.09 91.09 16.71
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 55.90 54.94 95.03 93.80 95.74 18.65
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 3.60 27.59 17.53 30.55 92.06 4.54
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 4.79 28.23 20.91 55.68 92.10 4.37
      As(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 2.29 48.25 136.87 338.25 96.98 0.44
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 0.18 5.00 23.76 80.33 102.12 0.17
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 0.03 0.13 3.22 58.84 98.91 0.05
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 0.00 0.29 2.68 68.85 100.44 0.00
      Cr(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 0.15 1.51 4.19 69.17 127.15 0.20
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 0.15 1.02 1.98 61.79 101.47 0.24
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 1.04 2.42 17.00 316.99 116.77 0.31
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 0.67 3.84 16.58 295.53 112.27 0.21
      Ni(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 12.96 4.74 18.95 10.86 91.55 27.28
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 5.75 3.84 3.74 7.42 88.31 27.71
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 3.75 101.20 62.78 162.22 92.68 1.14
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 2.93 38.33 33.08 203.87 92.12 1.05
      Fe(10‒6) ZK3‒3 0.4~0.6 73.08 1 953.52 20 976.63 36 805.02 90.21 0.12
      ZK3‒13 6.7~7.7 11.56 1 856.99 9 756.69 31 785.99 90.25 0.03
      ZK3‒24 17.7~18.7 0.00 5 574.37 3 440.65 54 728.33 95.00 0.00
      ZK3‒26 19.7~20.7 0.00 5 741.02 3 620.16 48 843.46 94.18 0.00
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  5  FS17废石堆淋滤水分析结果

      Table  5.   Analysis results of leached water from waste rock pile

      水样编号 pH Pb Zn Cd Cu As Cr Ni Fe 等级
      地表水Ⅴ类标准 6~9 0.05 1.0 0.005 1.0 0.05 0.05 0.02 1.0
      FS17废石堆淋滤水样 2.57 0.035 251 4.29 49.4 0.04 0.06 13.15 804 不达标
      超标倍数(含量/标准) 251 858 49.4 1.2 657.5 8.42
      注:浓度单位均为mg∙L-1,pH单位为1;“‒”表示未超标.
      下载: 导出CSV
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    出版历程
    • 收稿日期:  2021-01-05
    • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-04
    • 刊出日期:  2021-11-30

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