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    宁夏卫宁北山金场子金矿床流体来源及矿床成因:来自流体包裹体和C-H-O同位素证据

    海连富 刘安璐 陶瑞 白金鹤 宋扬

    海连富, 刘安璐, 陶瑞, 白金鹤, 宋扬, 2021. 宁夏卫宁北山金场子金矿床流体来源及矿床成因:来自流体包裹体和C-H-O同位素证据. 地球科学, 46(12): 4274-4290. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.101
    引用本文: 海连富, 刘安璐, 陶瑞, 白金鹤, 宋扬, 2021. 宁夏卫宁北山金场子金矿床流体来源及矿床成因:来自流体包裹体和C-H-O同位素证据. 地球科学, 46(12): 4274-4290. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.101
    Hai Lianfu, Liu Anlu, Tao Rui, Bai Jinhe, Song Yang, 2021. Source of Fluid and Genesis of Jinchangzi Gold Deposit in Weiningbeishan, Ningxia: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions and C-H-O Isotopes. Earth Science, 46(12): 4274-4290. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.101
    Citation: Hai Lianfu, Liu Anlu, Tao Rui, Bai Jinhe, Song Yang, 2021. Source of Fluid and Genesis of Jinchangzi Gold Deposit in Weiningbeishan, Ningxia: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions and C-H-O Isotopes. Earth Science, 46(12): 4274-4290. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.101

    宁夏卫宁北山金场子金矿床流体来源及矿床成因:来自流体包裹体和C-H-O同位素证据

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.101
    基金项目: 

    宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划重大(重点)项目 2018BFG02013

    宁夏优秀人才支持计划项目 JTGC2019023

    宁夏自然科学基金项目 2021AAC03447

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      海连富(1989-), 男, 工程师, 博士研究生, 矿产普查与勘探专业.ORCID: 0000-0001-8149-4484.E-mail: hailianfu@163.com

      通讯作者:

      刘安璐, E-mail: 3515669203@qq.com

    • 中图分类号: P618

    Source of Fluid and Genesis of Jinchangzi Gold Deposit in Weiningbeishan, Ningxia: Evidence from Fluid Inclusions and C-H-O Isotopes

    • 摘要: 卫宁北山地区是宁夏境内最有望实现找矿突破的多金属矿成矿区之一,已发现众多Au、Ag、Cu、Pb、Zn、Fe、Co等矿点或矿化点.金场子金矿是该地区已发现的最大的金矿床,矿体主要赋存在前黑山组及中宁组内的层间断裂破碎带中,呈东西向带状分布,产状与地层近乎一致.区域上除少量闪长玢岩脉出露外,岩浆岩不发育.为了探讨金场子金矿成矿流体性质、来源和矿床成因,对研究区流体包裹体和C-H-O同位素进行了研究.金场子金矿床成矿热液期可划分为4个成矿阶段,从早到晚分别是绢云母-黄铁矿-石英阶段(Ⅰ)、黄铁矿-重晶石-石英阶段(Ⅱ)、多金属硫化物-碳酸盐-石英阶段(Ⅲ)和黄铁矿-碳酸盐阶段(Ⅳ),其中Ⅲ阶段为主成矿阶段.不同成矿阶段的流体包裹体有4种类型,分别是水溶液包裹体、纯CO2包裹体、CO2-H2O包裹体和含子晶多相包裹体.显微测温结果显示,成矿流体的完全均一温度介于171~396 ℃,主要集中于180~270 ℃,盐度介于1.30%~10.99% NaCl equiv,密度为0.24~0.78 g/cm3,为中低温、低盐度、低密度的CO2-H2O-NaCl体系,含有少量N2.热液期石英的δD值为-66.0‰~-32.0‰,δ18OV-SMOW值为+19.7‰~+22.6‰,指示成矿流体为变质流体.C同位素显示,晚阶段(Ⅳ)方解石和菱铁矿的δ13C介于-2.540‰~-0.736‰,表明成矿流体中的C具有混合来源的特点,奥陶系-石炭系陆源碎屑岩和碳酸盐岩的变质脱水作用形成的流体可能是金成矿流体的主要来源.成矿过程中流体发生了明显的不混溶现象,是造成金沉淀的重要因素.矿床成因类型属造山型金矿.

       

    • 图  1  研究区大地构造位置(a)与区域地质及矿床(点)空间分布图(b)

      1.第四系; 2.新近纪干河沟组; 3.新近纪红柳沟组; 4.古近纪清水营组; 5.白垩纪庙湖山组; 6.石炭纪土坡组; 7.石炭纪臭牛沟组; 8.石炭纪前黑山组; 9.泥盆纪中宁组; 10.奥陶纪狼嘴子组; 11.闪长玢岩脉; 12.断裂/断层及编号; 13.地质界线; 14.铁矿床(点); 15.铜矿床(点); 16.金矿床(点); 17.铅矿点; 18.银、铅矿点; 19.铜、铅、锌矿点; 20.铜、金矿点; 21.铜、银矿点; 22.钴矿化点; 23.铁、钴矿化点; 24.锰、钴矿化点; 25.背斜轴及编号; 26.向斜轴及编号; 27.地名; 28.金矿区位置; a据霍福臣等(1989), 郭佩等(2017)修编; b据海连富等(2020)修编

      Fig.  1.  Tectonic location (a), regional geology and spatial distribution (b) maps of mineral deposits (points) in the study area

      图  2  金场子金矿区地质简图(据艾宁, 2014修编)

      Fig.  2.  Geological sketch map of Jinchangzi gold mining area (modified from Ai, 2014)

      图  3  25号勘探线剖面示意图

      金矿化体圈定指标为0.5 g/t金品位; 金矿体为1.0 g/t金品位; 勘探线位置见图 2]

      Fig.  3.  Schematic diagram of the cross-section of the No.25 exploration line

      图  4  研究区金矿典型矿石特征及围岩蚀变

      a.氧化矿石(黄钾铁矾); b.氧化矿石中残留的绢云母集合体; c.硫化物-碳酸盐-石英脉; d.顺层石英脉; e.重晶石脉穿插早期石英脉; f.重晶石交代早期石英; g.闪长玢岩中绢云母化的斜长石斑晶; h.石英脉旁侧的黄铁矿化、硅化; i.闪长玢岩; Bar.重晶石; Carb.碳酸盐; Qz.石英; Ser.绢云母; δμ.闪长玢岩

      Fig.  4.  Typical ore characteristics and wall rock alteration of gold mines

      图  5  矿石结构及金属矿物组成

      a.黄铁矿呈自形-半自形粒状结构; b.自然金呈他形分布于赤铁矿裂隙中; c.银黝铜矿交代方铅矿; d.赤铁矿呈加大边分布在黄铁矿周围, 构成镶边结构; e.黄铁矿被赤铁矿交代后的残余; f.赤铁矿呈细脉状分布于黄铁矿中; Py.黄铁矿; Sp.闪锌矿; Gn.方铅矿; Hm.赤铁矿; Fbg.银黝铜矿

      Fig.  5.  Ore structure and metal mineral composition

      图  6  金场子金矿矿物生成顺序

      Fig.  6.  Mineral generation sequence of the Jinchangzi gold deposit

      图  7  成矿期石英中流体包裹体特征

      a.Ⅰ型: 气液两相水溶液包裹体; b.Ⅰ型: 气液两相水溶液包裹体与纯液相包裹体; c.Ⅱ型: 纯CO2包裹体; d.Ⅲ型: 富CO2三相包裹体; e.Ⅳ型含子矿物多相包裹体; f.多种类型包裹体共生; L.液相; V.气相; a为Ⅰ阶段; b为Ⅰ~Ⅱ阶段; c、e在各阶段都有; d为Ⅲ阶段; f为Ⅰ阶段

      Fig.  7.  Characteristics of fluid inclusions in quartz during mineralization

      图  8  金矿床流体包裹体显微测温结果

      a.CO2-H2O包裹体CO2初熔温度; b.CO2-H2O包裹体CO2部分均一温度; c.CO2-H2O包裹体笼形化合物消失温度; d.水溶液包裹体和CO2-H2O包裹体完全均一温度; e.水溶液包裹体冰点温度; f.水溶液包裹体和CO2-H2O包裹体盐度

      Fig.  8.  Microscopic temperature measurement results of fluid inclusions in gold deposits

      图  9  金矿床流体包裹体激光拉曼分析结果

      a.CO2-H2O包裹体; b.纯CO2-H2O包裹体

      Fig.  9.  Laser Raman analysis results of fluid inclusions in gold deposits

      图  10  研究区金矿床δD-δ18O关系图(底图据Taylor, 1974修改)

      Fig.  10.  δD-δ18O relationship diagram of gold deposits in the study area(modified from Taylor, 1974)

      表  1  金场子金矿主要金矿体特征

      Table  1.   Characteristics of main gold ore bodies in the Jinchangzi gold dopsit

      矿体号 矿体位置 矿体产状 矿体形态 矿体规模(m) 矿体厚度(m) 矿体品位(g/t)
      倾向 倾角 长度 斜深 最小 最多 平均 最低 最高 平均
      JKT1 25线 180° 82° 透镜体 80 43 - 2.55 2.55 0.64 1.05 0.69
      JKT2 25~35线 190°~234° 64°~76° 似层状 280 137~194 0.52 14.98 4.54 0.50 107.90 4.89
      JKT3 25~41线 137°~234° 60°~86° 似层状 280 20~225 0.40 9.15 2.73 0.50 29.40 5.91
      JKT4 25~41线 173°~228° 67°~84° 似层状 280 10~230 0.67 5.35 2.64 0.58 45.40 4.65
      JKT5 15~29线 185°~200° 64°~83° 脉状 300 43~146 0.71 2.43 1.59 0.50 6.39 2.04
      JKT6 17~19线 200° 72° 脉状 160 71~152 0.71 5.62 1.85 0.50 14.73 3.47
      JKT7 19线 182° 65° 脉状 80 42 - 1.84 1.84 - 0.52 0.52
      JKT8 19线 179° 61° 似层状 80 43 1.08 3.23 2.33 0.85 6.64 2.79
      JKT9 19线 182° 79° 层状 40 16 - 1.00 1.00 - 22.78 22.78
      JKT10 25~27线 265° 19° 似层状 160 195~300 1.15 25.26 11.52 0.52 3.51 1.32
      JKT11 75线 13° 85° 透镜体 40 20 1.61 1.61 0.53 6.06 2.13
      JKT12 76线 95° 66° 透镜体 - - 1.00 1.00 - 2.57 2.57
      JKT13 64线 40° 79° 脉状 - - 0.80 0.80 - 0.95 0.95
      JKT14 60线 345° 82° 脉状 45 150~155 - 1.97 1.97 - 6.21 6.21
      JKT15 60线 345° 82° 脉状 50 235~240 - 1.22 1.22 - 1.02 1.02
      JKT16 39线 165° 60° 脉状 - - - 1.00 1.00 - 0.59 0.59
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  金场子金矿不同成矿阶段流体包裹体测温结果

      Table  2.   Temperature measurement results of fluid inclusions in different metallogenic stages of Jinchangzi gold deposit

      成矿
      阶段
      岩石类型 包裹体
      类型
      Tm, ice(℃) Tm, $ {}_{\mathrm{C}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}} $(℃) Tm, clath(℃) Th, $ {}_{\mathrm{C}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}} $(℃) Th, total(℃) 盐度
      (%NaCl)
      密度
      (g/cm3)
      Ⅰ~Ⅱ 石英脉 Ⅰ型 -2.2~-7.4 - - - 171~396 3.69~10.99 0.46~0.57
      多金属硫化物
      石英脉
      Ⅲ型 - -61.5~-56.7 7.0~9.4 24.8~29.8 187~350 1.30~5.30 0.24~0.78
      注: Tm, $ {}_{\mathrm{C}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}} $为固相CO2的初熔温度; Th, $ {}_{\mathrm{C}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}} $为CO2的部分均一温度; Th, total为完全均一温度; Tm, ice为冰点温度; Tm, clath为CO2-H2O笼形化合物消失温度.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  金场子金矿床C-O同位素组成(‰)

      Table  3.   C-O isotopic composition of Jinchangzi gold deposit

      样品号 测试矿物 δ18O矿物 δ13C
      J-3-2 碳酸盐 20.90 -1.033
      J-3-4 碳酸盐 19.50 -0.736
      JCZ-19-7 碳酸盐 21.70 -1.267
      JCZ-19-20 碳酸盐 20.70 -1.077
      JCZ-19-21 碳酸盐 23.20 -1.227
      H-7 菱铁矿 15.87 -1.720
      2501-23 菱铁矿 16.18 -2.540
      2501-109 菱铁矿 18.42 -1.737
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  研究区金矿床H-O同位素组成(‰)

      Table  4.   H-O isotopic compositions of gold deposits in the study area

      样品号 测试矿物 成矿阶段 δ18O矿物(‰) 温度(℃) δ18O$ {}_{\mathrm{H}} $$ {}_{{}_{2}} $$ {}_{\mathrm{O}} $(‰) δD(‰) 来源
      JCZ-19-4 石英 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 20.7 259.8 11.2 -48.0 本文
      J-3-4 石英 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 22.6 259.8 13.3 -66.0
      J-3-2 石英 Ⅰ~Ⅱ 20.7 259.8 11.2 -48.0
      E-1-4 石英 20.1 240.2 10.7 -32.0
      B6010-3 石英 19.7 240.2 10.3 -59.0
      2502-167-8 石英 20.3 240.2 10.9 -61.0
      2502-202 石英 22.0 240.2 12.6 -66.0
      JCZ-5 石英 - 19.17 261.6 10.69 -83.136 艾宁(2014)
      JCZ-6 石英 - 17.86 240.5 8.39 -81.090
      JCZ-9 石英 - 19.02 299.9 12.07 -82.780
      JCZ-10 石英 - 19.19 242.8 9.83 -86.071
      JCZ-25-1 石英 - 19.65 282.8 12.05 -83.395
      JCZ-25-4 石英 - 18.85 281.8 11.21 -82.818
      注: δ18Ofluid由公式1 000×lnαquartz-water=3.38×106T2-3.40 (Clayton et al., 1972)计算而来.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  5  主要碳储库的δ13C组成

      Table  5.   δ13C compositions of major carbon storage

      碳储库类型 δ13CPDB(‰, 平均值或范围) 文献
      大气CO2 -8或-7~-11 Hoefs and Sywall, 1997
      淡水CO2 -20~-9 Hoefs and Sywall, 1997
      岩浆系统 -30~-3 Hoefs and Sywall, 1997
      海相碳酸盐 +0.5 Hoefs and Sywall, 1997
      地壳总碳 -7 Faure, 1986
      地幔总碳 -7~-5 Hoefs and Sywall, 1997
      下载: 导出CSV
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