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    湄公河三角洲第四系沉积物地球化学特征及其地质意义

    杨允柳 何云龙 解习农 裴健翔 HoangDinh Tuan 张道军

    杨允柳, 何云龙, 解习农, 裴健翔, HoangDinh Tuan, 张道军, 2022. 湄公河三角洲第四系沉积物地球化学特征及其地质意义. 地球科学, 47(3): 1107-1121. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.110
    引用本文: 杨允柳, 何云龙, 解习农, 裴健翔, HoangDinh Tuan, 张道军, 2022. 湄公河三角洲第四系沉积物地球化学特征及其地质意义. 地球科学, 47(3): 1107-1121. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.110
    Yang Yunliu, He Yunlong, Xie Xinong, Pei Jianxiang, Hoang Dinh Tuan, Zhang Daojun, 2022. Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Significance of Quaternary Sediments in the Mekong Delta. Earth Science, 47(3): 1107-1121. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.110
    Citation: Yang Yunliu, He Yunlong, Xie Xinong, Pei Jianxiang, Hoang Dinh Tuan, Zhang Daojun, 2022. Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Significance of Quaternary Sediments in the Mekong Delta. Earth Science, 47(3): 1107-1121. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.110

    湄公河三角洲第四系沉积物地球化学特征及其地质意义

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.110
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 42130408

    国家自然科学基金项目 42172125

    国家自然科学基金项目 41502102

    中国‒东盟海上合作基金项目 12120100500017001

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      杨允柳(1995-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事海洋地质学研究. ORCID:0000-0003-0720-878X. E-mail:1079245799@qq.com

      通讯作者:

      何云龙,ORCID: 0000-0003-1925-5356. E-mail: ylhe@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P736

    Geochemical Characteristics and Geological Significance of Quaternary Sediments in the Mekong Delta

    • 摘要:

      湄公河三角洲是由发源于青藏高原的世界第7长河——湄公河于南海西南部入海口处沉积而成.由于缺少可靠的地球化学资料和系统研究,湄公河三角洲地区第四系沉积物源性质尚不明确,制约了对湄公河三角洲源汇系统的进一步认识.本文对湄公河三角洲第四系沉积物进行了重矿物、主量元素和微量元素的地球化学特征分析,结果表明:所有样品稀土元素球粒陨石标准化分布均表现为负Eu异常,为典型的陆源沉积.全新统样品ZTR指数为2~13,更新统样品ZTR指数为21~69;相关图解表明全新统样品主要受分选影响,更新统样品主要受旋回影响.更新统样品最远物源可能为青藏高原东部,经过多次沉积旋回,由古湄公河搬运并再次沉积于湄公河三角洲,而全新统样品成分成熟度较低,为近源沉积,可能为大叻区基岩产物.湄公河三角洲不同时期沉积物源区变化,可能与湄公河和湄公河三角洲在第四系的沉积过程和演化有关.

       

    • 图  1  东南亚及研究区地质背景(a)、采样位置(b)(据Liu et al., 2007; Hennig et al., 2018修改)以及A-B地层剖面(c)

      图b中粉色虚线为古湄公河,据Hennig et al.2018)修改;现湄公河三角洲(灰色)和大叻区(绿色)范围合为古湄公河三角洲范围,据Hennig et al.2018)修改;A-B剖面据内部未发表资料

      Fig.  1.  Geological map and bathymetry of SE Asia (a); sampling location in the study area (b) (modified after Liu et al., 2007; Hennig et al., 2018), and the profile of A-B shown in figure b (c)

      图  2  湄公河三角洲第四系沉积物重矿物组合特征

      图中数据单位为%;VDLZ52.1和VDLZ52.1据Hennig et al.2018

      Fig.  2.  Characteristics of heavy mineral assemblages of sediments in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      图  3  湄公河三角洲第四系不同样品主量元素含量百分比对比

      Fig.  3.  Comparison of content percentage of major elements in different samples in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      图  4  湄公河三角洲第四系不同样品主量元素平均上地壳标准化蛛网图

      上地壳标准值据Hu and Gao(2008);MR01-MR17数据据Liu et al.2007

      Fig.  4.  Major elements spider-diagram normalized to average UCC in different samples in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      图  5  湄公河三角洲第四系稀土元素球粒陨石标准化分布

      球粒陨石标准化值据Boynton and Wark(1984

      Fig.  5.  REE distribution map normalized to chondrite of samples in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      图  6  碱性金属和碱土金属迁移性对比(Garzanti et al., 2013

      αAlE值根据平均上地壳数据(UCC)标准化,据Hu and Gao(2008);MR01-MR17据Liu et al.2007

      Fig.  6.  Comparison of migration of alkaline metals and alkaline earth metals (Garzanti et al., 2013)

      图  7  湄公河三角洲第四系样品CIA-SiO2/Al2O3相关关系

      MR01-MR17数据据Liu et al.2007

      Fig.  7.  The relationship of CIA-SiO2/Al2O3

      图  8  湄公河三角洲第四系样品成分及分选与再旋回变化

      a. WIP-CIA图,据Guo et al.2018);b. LaN/YN-SiO2/Al2O3图,据Roser and Korsch(1999);N表示平均上地壳标准化;平均上地壳标准值据Hu and Gao(2008);MR01-MR17数据据Liu et al.2007

      Fig.  8.  Variations of composition, sorting and recyling in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      图  9  湄公河三角洲第四系母岩性质判别图

      a.判别函数图,据Roser and Korsch(1988),判别函数因子1=‒1.773TiO2+0.607Al2O3+0.76Fe2O3‒1.5MgO+0.616CaO+0.509Na2O‒1.224K2O‒9.09;判别函数因子2=0.445TiO2+0.07Al2O3‒0.25Fe2O3‒1.142MgO+0.438CaO+0.475Na2O+1.426K2O‒6.861.b.Co/Th-La/Sc图解,据Gu et al.2002). c.La/Yb-∑REE母岩性质判别图,其中:A. 沉积岩;B. 大洋拉斑玄武岩;C. 玄武岩区域;D. 大陆拉斑玄武岩;E. 碱性玄武岩;F. 花岗岩;G. 金伯利岩;H. 碳酸盐岩区

      Fig.  9.  Discrimination map of source rock properties in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      表  1  湄公河三角洲第四系样品主量元素(%)分析结果

      Table  1.   Analysis of major elements (%) of samples in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      样号 SM01 SM02 SM03 SM04 SM05 SM06 SM07
      层位 全新统 全新统 全新统 上更新统 中‒上更新统 下‒中更新统 下‒中更新统
      SiO2 83.86 89.32 86.67 89.03 90.37 92.04 94.03
      TiO2 0.65 0.23 0.28 0.76 0.43 0.20 0.10
      Al2O3 5.70 4.92 6.09 5.85 5.47 4.43 3.16
      Fe2O3T 4.35 1.96 2.16 0.83 0.76 0.88 1.11
      MnO 0.08 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01
      MgO 0.89 0.36 0.50 0.08 0.04 0.09 0.04
      CaO 0.42 0.28 0.29 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.04
      Na2O 0.61 0.58 0.75 0.06 0.03 0.05 0.03
      K2O 1.15 1.53 1.65 0.15 0.03 0.37 0.17
      P2O5 0.08 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03
      LOI 1.81 1.02 1.33 2.65 2.68 1.60 1.21
      SiO2/Al2O3 24.97 30.84 24.17 25.82 28.06 35.30 50.45
      K2O/Na2O 1.23 1.74 1.45 1.72 0.66 5.24 3.45
      Al2O3/TiO2 6.92 16.81 17.03 6.03 10.03 17.25 24.53
      K2O/Al2O3 0.22 0.34 0.29 0.03 0.01 0.09 0.06
      CIA 65.35 61.18 63.21 94.42 97.35 88.78 91.45
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  湄公河三角洲第四系样品微量元素(10-6)分析结果

      Table  2.   Analysis of rare elements (10-6) of samples in Quaternary, Mekong Delta

      样号 SM01 SM02 SM03 SM04 SM05 SM06 SM07
      层位 全新统 全新统 全新统 上更新统 中‒上更新统 下‒中更新统 下‒中更新统
      Li 20.50 13.60 17.40 7.91 4.88 8.32 7.70
      Be 1.20 0.81 1.13 0.21 0.16 0.37 0.39
      Sc 6.72 3.22 3.99 4.69 3.16 2.68 2.11
      V 49.7 25.6 31.7 27.3 26.6 20.9 19.8
      Cr 62.00 20.20 23.40 34.40 34.60 16.60 7.09
      Co 13.0 5.44 6.76 0.70 0.39 0.35 0.51
      Ni 17.40 9.76 12.70 4.62 5.04 2.34 2.57
      Cu 7.48 4.14 5.31 8.19 3.70 3.41 5.29
      Zn 49.90 23.20 29.10 9.02 6.07 4.85 5.14
      Ga 7.68 5.48 7.08 7.10 6.73 4.63 2.77
      Rb 50.50 60.00 67.30 13.50 2.66 18.70 8.99
      Sr 65.30 55.20 61.70 15.60 6.25 10.60 6.07
      Y 34.00 10.80 11.60 18.40 8.41 6.78 5.02
      Zr 1 106.0 117.0 102.0 444.0 377.0 98.2 55.6
      Nb 12.80 5.06 5.95 5.47 8.69 4.41 2.37
      Sn 1.77 1.03 1.28 1.67 1.33 0.90 0.60
      Cs 2.72 2.27 2.89 3.14 1.16 1.40 0.58
      Ba 174.0 289.0 297.0 70.7 16.2 59.1 36.6
      La 43.00 14.40 15.80 15.50 5.48 10.70 9.99
      Ce 87.8 29.7 33.0 28.7 10.0 23.1 17.3
      Pr 9.85 3.34 3.63 3.10 1.11 2.26 1.80
      Nd 37.30 12.60 14.10 10.70 4.02 8.08 6.11
      Sm 6.88 2.38 2.69 1.98 0.73 1.37 1.01
      Eu 1.00 0.49 0.52 0.41 0.13 0.21 0.19
      Gd 5.92 2.04 2.23 2.08 0.77 1.13 0.87
      Tb 0.93 0.33 0.34 0.40 0.16 0.17 0.15
      Dy 5.33 1.91 2.02 2.88 1.17 1.13 0.85
      Ho 1.03 0.38 0.44 0.61 0.27 0.25 0.18
      Er 3.42 1.05 1.15 1.84 0.92 0.64 0.54
      Tm 0.490 0.160 0.170 0.300 0.160 0.110 0.084
      Yb 3.58 1.10 1.16 2.02 1.13 0.74 0.55
      Lu 0.540 0.140 0.170 0.310 0.200 0.110 0.085
      Hf 26.90 2.98 2.57 11.20 9.34 2.45 1.45
      Ta 0.95 0.45 0.44 0.11 0.65 0.36 0.22
      Tl 0.280 0.370 0.410 0.160 0.050 0.130 0.066
      Pb 16.00 12.90 14.10 11.90 4.19 7.47 11.60
      Th 17.50 5.19 5.74 8.16 6.81 4.96 3.34
      U 4.23 1.32 1.37 2.59 1.33 0.89 0.76
      ∑REE 577.50 195.79 215.75 215.41 85.71 133.02 108.27
      LREE/HREE 3.17 3.30 3.34 2.04 1.49 3.74 3.92
      δEu 0.47 0.66 0.64 0.61 0.52 0.49 0.59
      (La/Yb)N 8.10 8.84 9.20 5.16 3.26 9.75 12.26
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2021-07-28
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