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    高位高能岩崩研究现状与发展趋势

    罗刚 程谦恭 沈位刚 凌斯祥 张晓宇 邹鹏 赵永杰

    罗刚, 程谦恭, 沈位刚, 凌斯祥, 张晓宇, 邹鹏, 赵永杰, 2022. 高位高能岩崩研究现状与发展趋势. 地球科学, 47(3): 913-934. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.133
    引用本文: 罗刚, 程谦恭, 沈位刚, 凌斯祥, 张晓宇, 邹鹏, 赵永杰, 2022. 高位高能岩崩研究现状与发展趋势. 地球科学, 47(3): 913-934. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.133
    Luo Gang, Cheng Qiangong, Shen Weigang, Ling Sixiang, Zhang Xiaoyu, Zou Peng, Zhao Yongjie, 2022. Research Status and Development Trend of the High-Altitude Extremely-Energetic Rockfalls. Earth Science, 47(3): 913-934. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.133
    Citation: Luo Gang, Cheng Qiangong, Shen Weigang, Ling Sixiang, Zhang Xiaoyu, Zou Peng, Zhao Yongjie, 2022. Research Status and Development Trend of the High-Altitude Extremely-Energetic Rockfalls. Earth Science, 47(3): 913-934. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.133

    高位高能岩崩研究现状与发展趋势

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.133
    基金项目: 

    国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFC1505404

    国家自然科学基金川藏铁路重大基础科学问题专项 41941017

    国家自然科学基金重点项目 41530639

    四川省科技厅科技计划项目 2021YJ0033

    国家自然科学基金青年基金项目 42107155

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      罗刚(1984),男,副教授,主要从事高位高能岩崩研究.ORCID:0000-0002-8583-2927. E-mail:luogang@home.swjtu.edu.cn

      通讯作者:

      程谦恭, E-mail:chenqiangong@swjtu.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P642.2

    Research Status and Development Trend of the High-Altitude Extremely-Energetic Rockfalls

    • 摘要:

      高位岩崩作为高山峡谷区、海岸、交通廊道、露天矿山常见的地质灾害类型之一,具有泛生性、突发性、隐蔽性及致灾严重性等基本特性.近年来,伴随全球地震频发和气候急剧变化,高位高能岩崩事件显著增多,造成严重的生命财产损失.目前,高位高能岩崩识别和预警技术、失稳和运动机理、灾害链效应成为国际地球科学领域的研究热点之一.本文从岩崩早期识别、失稳和运动机理、综合防护技术措施等方面归纳总结了目前的主要研究成果,并提出了岩桥损伤识别方法、动态监测技术、稳定性动态评价方法、早期预警模型、运动机理和综合防控技术是亟待解决的科学问题和技术难题.这些问题的解决将有助于高位高能岩崩综合防治.

       

    • 图  1  国内外高位高能崩塌灾害

      a. 中国九寨沟熊猫海岩崩;b. 中国成兰铁路某工区岩崩;c. 瑞士Cengalo岩崩,据De Blasio et al.(2018);d. 法国Dru岩崩,据De Blasio et al.(2018);e. 瑞士艾格尔峰岩崩,据De Blasio et al.(2018);f. 美国Yosemite谷崩塌,据Wieczorek and Snyder(1999);g. 意大利Cima Una Fiscalina崩塌,据De Blasio et al.(2018);h. 意大利Monte Civetta崩塌,据De Blasio et al.(2018);i. 意大利Croda Rossa崩塌,据De Blasio et al.(2018);j. 意大利Monte Pelmo崩塌,据De Blasio et al.(2018);k. 意大利Gran Sasso崩塌,据De Blasio et al.(2018);l. 美国Yosemite国家公园崩塌,据Herb(2006)

      Fig.  1.  High-altitude extremely-energetic rockfalls in the world

      图  2  高位高能岩崩地形特征及撞击碎裂过程示意图(据De Blasio et al., 2018修改)

      Fig.  2.  Schematic diagram of topographic features and impact fragmentation process of high-altitude extremely-energetic rockfalls (modified after De Blasio et al., 2018)

      图  3  岩崩的影响因素(据Volkwein et al., 2011修改)

      Fig.  3.  Influencing factors of rockfalls (modified after Volkwein et al., 2011)

      图  4  岩桥位置与危岩体失稳模式

      a. 直立岩层孕育拉裂式或错断式危岩体;b. 反倾岩层孕育倾倒式危岩体;c. 缓倾岩层孕育滑移式危岩体;d. 拉裂式危岩体岩桥位置;e. 倾倒式危岩体岩桥位置;f. 滑移式危岩体岩桥位置

      Fig.  4.  Location of rock bridge and failure modes unstable rock masses

      图  5  三峡水库链子崖危岩体加固工程

      Fig.  5.  Reinforcement project of Lianziya unstable rock masses in the Three Gorges Reservoir

      图  6  渝怀铁路白马1号隧道进口危岩体加固工程(肖福燕,2020

      Fig.  6.  Reinforcement project of unstable rock masses at the entrance of Baima No. 1 tunnel along the Yu-Huai Railway (Xiao, 2020)

      图  7  四川孔玉乡桩板拦石墙

      Fig.  7.  Pile-plate rock retaining wall in Kongyu Village, Sichuan Province

      表  1  国内高位高能岩崩事件

      Table  1.   High-altitude extremely-energetic rockfall events in China

      序号 出处 名称 时间 地点 触发因素 体积
      (104 m3
      高差(m) 运动距离(m)
      1 柴宗新,1989 普福河支沟崩塌 1965.11.22-23 云南省禄劝县普福河 卸荷+降雨 30 900 360 8 000
      2 刘传正和肖锐铧,2021 盐池河山体崩塌 1980.06.03 湖北省安远县 矿产开采 100 400 560
      3 胡显明等,2011 南门湾龙头山岩崩 1987.09.01 重庆市万县地区巫溪县南门湾 卸荷 30.24 218 /
      4 李玉生等,1994 乌江鸡冠岭岩崩 1994.04.30 四川省武隆县 采矿 400 325 /
      5 刘传正等,2001 318国道镜山山体崩塌 2001.04.25 西藏昌都地区芒康县 卸荷 100 500 150
      6 邬海艳和詹丹志,2001 贵州兴义崩塌 2001.06.02 贵州省兴义市雄武乡木咱村 降雨 60 320 /
      7 冯振等,2016 甄子岩崩塌 2004.08.12 重庆市南川区 岩溶+采矿 50 240 300
      8 靳亚峰,2014 汶川G213线路K87+300处崩滑 2007.05.26 四川省汶川县 降雨 30 302 /
      9 赵升等,2009 老虎嘴山体崩塌 2008.05.12 四川省汶川县 地震 200 450 /
      10 王全才等,2009 豆芽坪崩塌 2008.05.12 四川省汶川县 地震 500 570 1 000
      11 赵艳华,2014 宝成铁路K400+000~170崩塌 2008.05.12 宝成铁路K400+000~170段 地震 12 205 /
      12 何思明等,2013 都汶公路彻底关大桥崩塌 2009.07.25 四川省汶川县 降雨 1 500 /
      13 周小军等,2010 大渡河猴子岩滑坡 2009.08.06 四川省雅安市 地震 90 400 /
      14 陈红旗,2013 贵州凯里崩塌 2013.02.18 贵州省凯里市 岩溶+采矿 30 200 180
      15 刘传正等,2016 红石崖崩塌 2014.08.03 云南省昭通市鲁甸县 地震 1 200 760 600
      16 梁靖等,2020 九寨沟芦苇海崩塌 2017.08.08 四川省九寨沟县 地震 2.7 400 500
      17 王毅等,2020 九寨沟则查哇沟震后崩塌 2017.08.08 四川省阿坝州九寨沟县 地震 17.8 340 /
      18 盛豪等,2020 九寨沟景区五花海震后崩塌 2017.08.08 四川省阿坝州九寨沟县 地震+暴雨 31.2 500 /
      19 肖锐铧,2018 贵州“8.28”纳雍山体崩塌 2017.08.28 贵州省纳雍县 采矿+降雨 60 305 840
      20 唐尧等,2019 “8.14”成昆铁路山体崩塌 2019.08.14 成昆铁路四川甘洛段埃岱2号至3号隧洞附近 降雨 4.8 220 316
      21 陈健,2021 洪雅山体崩塌 2021.04.05 四川省眉山市洪雅县 降雨 15 / /
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  落石冲击力计算方法(据蔡向阳和铁永波,2016修改)

      Table  2.   Calculation methods of the impact force of falling rock (modified after Cai and Tie, 2016)

      算法 原理 特点
      弹性理论法
      杨其新和关宝树,1996
      牛顿定律和落石冲击试验 ①考虑缓冲层厚度的影响以及冲击过程落石加速度的变化;②是一种半经验半理论算法,存在求解最大加速度的困难;③结果为平均力,值比实际值偏小,对结构不安全
      路基规范法
      (JTGD30-2004)
      功能守恒原理 ①落石动能损失与冲击力所做的功相等;②冲击力的大小与落石陷入土层深度成正比;③无法反映缓冲层厚度变化对落石冲击力的影响;④计算结果为平均力,值比实际值偏小,对结构不安全
      隧道手册法
      铁道第二勘测设计院,1991
      冲量定理 ①考虑缓冲层厚度的影响;②落石冲击缓冲层后速度衰减为零,不发生反弹;③计算结果为平均力,值比实际值偏小,对结构不安全
      日本方法和瑞士方法
      叶四桥等,2010
      落石冲击试验 ①考虑正碰冲击,不涉及斜碰问题;②无法反映缓冲层厚度变化对落石冲击力的影响;③计算方法简单,但计算结果偏大
      修正杨其新算法
      叶四桥等,2010
      牛顿定律和冲量定理 ①杨其新算法的修正;②引入放大系数和法向恢复系数, 建立了平均冲击力和最大冲击力之间的关系
      修正隧道手册法
      袁进科等,2014
      冲量定理 ①隧道手册法的修正;②引入放大系数和恢复系数得到最大冲击力
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  落石挡墙类型汇总(据Ronco et al., 2009; Lambert and Bourrier, 2013修改)

      Table  3.   Summary of rockfall retaining wall types (modified after Ronco et al., 2009; Lambert and Bourrier, 2013)

      地点 示意图 挡墙材料
      瓦雷泽(意大利) 夯实士
      瓦莱达 奥斯塔(意大利) 石块
      乌迪内(意大利) 夯实士
      法国 石笼
      瑞士 木材、钢筋加固的夯实土
      日本 土工布或土工格室加筋的夯实土
      瓦莱达 奥斯塔(意大利) 土工布、土工格栅或金属网加筋的夯实土
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2021-06-27
    • 刊出日期:  2022-03-25

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