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    高速远程冰-岩碎屑流研究进展

    杨情情 郑欣玉 苏志满 程谦恭 任雨豪 侯本勇

    杨情情, 郑欣玉, 苏志满, 程谦恭, 任雨豪, 侯本勇, 2022. 高速远程冰-岩碎屑流研究进展. 地球科学, 47(3): 935-949. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.158
    引用本文: 杨情情, 郑欣玉, 苏志满, 程谦恭, 任雨豪, 侯本勇, 2022. 高速远程冰-岩碎屑流研究进展. 地球科学, 47(3): 935-949. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.158
    Yang Qingqing, Zheng Xinyu, Su Zhiman, Cheng Qiangong, Ren Yuhao, Hou Benyong, 2022. Review on Rock-Ice Avalanches. Earth Science, 47(3): 935-949. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.158
    Citation: Yang Qingqing, Zheng Xinyu, Su Zhiman, Cheng Qiangong, Ren Yuhao, Hou Benyong, 2022. Review on Rock-Ice Avalanches. Earth Science, 47(3): 935-949. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.158

    高速远程冰-岩碎屑流研究进展

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2021.158
    基金项目: 

    第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目 2019QZKK0905

    国家自然科学基金项目 41402244

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      杨情情(1984-),女,副教授,博士,主要从事高速远程滑坡物理模型实验与数值模拟的教学与研究工作.ORCID: 0000-0001-7775-0844. E-mail: yangqq@swjtu.edu.cn

      通讯作者:

      程谦恭,E-mail: chengqiangong@home.swjtu.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P642

    Review on Rock-Ice Avalanches

    • 摘要:

      冰-岩碎屑流是高寒山区陡峭山体斜坡区冰崩、岩崩或滑坡解体后形成的冰屑、岩块和土颗粒混合体高速流动现象.由于裹挟了冰屑,冰-岩碎屑流具有超强的运动性,屡屡引发震惊世人的灾难性事件,是全球气候变暖大背景下地质灾害研究的热点与前沿问题.通过对近40余年来的研究进展进行梳理和评述,指出了冰-岩碎屑流的概念由来和主流定义方法,阐述了其成因机制的气候敏感性,结合典型实例论述了区域发育特征,重点分析了运动特征、减阻机理和冰屑影响机制.冰-岩碎屑流的超强运动性被认为与低摩擦冰减阻机理、摩擦热融减阻机理、侧限约束减阻机理密切相关.冰屑作为材料组分和融水来源,能够降低界面摩擦、改变冰-水-岩相互作用,进而形成复杂的热-水-力耦合作用.今后应加强研究冰-岩碎屑流事件的成因机制和时空分布规律、运动特性和冰屑影响机制、过程演化观测与预警评估技术,以期揭示冰-岩碎屑流运动机理,为冰-岩碎屑流及链生灾害的科学减灾提供有力支撑.

       

    • 图  1  冰-岩碎屑流与普通(不含冰)高速远程滑坡的视摩擦系数对比

      Siebert(1984)Evans and Clague(1988)Hampton et al.(1996)Legros(2002)黄润秋(2007)Schneider et al.(2011a)Zhang and Yin(2013)

      Fig.  1.  The comparison chart of apparent friction coefficient of rock-ice avalanches and rock avalanches

      图  2  全球冰-岩碎屑流灾害分布

      Shreve(1966)Evans and Clague(1988)Van der Woerd et al.(2004)Fischer et al.(2006)Weidinger(2006)Huggel et al.(2008)Petrakov et al.(2008)Evans et al.(2009b); Schneider et al.(2011a)胡文涛等(2018)

      Fig.  2.  The distribution of rock-ice avalanches in the world

      图  3  典型冰-岩碎屑流实例

      a. 中国易贡冰-岩碎屑流,笔者摄; b. 中国色东普冰-岩碎屑流,据赵永辉(2020); c. 尼泊尔Langtang冰-岩碎屑流,据Kargel et al.(2016); d. 俄罗斯Kolka冰-岩碎屑流,据Evans et al.(2009b); e. 加拿大Mt. Meager冰-岩碎屑流,据Evans and Delaney(2015); f. 秘鲁Huascarán冰-岩碎屑流,据Mergili et al.(2018)

      Fig.  3.  Typical examples of rock-ice avalanches

      图  4  沿下伏冰川运动的冰-岩碎屑流的减阻机制模型(De Blasio,2014)

      Fig.  4.  Mechanical model of rock-ice avalanche over glacier (De Blasio, 2014)

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