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    盆山耦合机制驱动下的库车坳陷铀成矿作用响应

    吴立群 焦养泉 王国荣 王强强 荣辉 阿种明 张帆 鲁克改 陶振鹏 孙潇 向尧

    吴立群, 焦养泉, 王国荣, 王强强, 荣辉, 阿种明, 张帆, 鲁克改, 陶振鹏, 孙潇, 向尧, 2022. 盆山耦合机制驱动下的库车坳陷铀成矿作用响应. 地球科学, 47(9): 3174-3191. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.100
    引用本文: 吴立群, 焦养泉, 王国荣, 王强强, 荣辉, 阿种明, 张帆, 鲁克改, 陶振鹏, 孙潇, 向尧, 2022. 盆山耦合机制驱动下的库车坳陷铀成矿作用响应. 地球科学, 47(9): 3174-3191. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.100
    Wu Liqun, Jiao Yangquan, Wang Guorong, Wang Qiangqiang, Rong Hui, A Zhongming, Zhang Fan, Lu Kegai, Tao Zhenpeng, Sun Xiao, Xiang Yao, 2022. Response of Uranium Mineralization in Kuqa Depression Driven by Basin⁃Mountain Coupling Mechanism. Earth Science, 47(9): 3174-3191. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.100
    Citation: Wu Liqun, Jiao Yangquan, Wang Guorong, Wang Qiangqiang, Rong Hui, A Zhongming, Zhang Fan, Lu Kegai, Tao Zhenpeng, Sun Xiao, Xiang Yao, 2022. Response of Uranium Mineralization in Kuqa Depression Driven by Basin⁃Mountain Coupling Mechanism. Earth Science, 47(9): 3174-3191. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.100

    盆山耦合机制驱动下的库车坳陷铀成矿作用响应

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.100
    基金项目: 

    核工业二一六大队地勘费项目 201907

    核工业二一六大队地勘费项目 201907⁃4

    国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFC0604202

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      吴立群(1979-),女,副教授,博士,从事沉积盆地分析与能源矿产研究及相关教学工作,主要从事盆地铀资源、煤‒铀‒油成因研究.ORCID:0000⁃0002⁃0840⁃2157. E⁃mail:lqwu@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P619.14

    Response of Uranium Mineralization in Kuqa Depression Driven by Basin⁃Mountain Coupling Mechanism

    • 摘要: 库车坳陷周缘的铀矿化非常活跃,蕴藏于上新统库车组下段的砂岩型铀矿的控矿要素、成矿机理、成矿规律,特别是远景选区是近年来铀矿地质学家关注的重点.笔者充分依据区域地质资料、野外地质调查和勘查钻孔资料,通过综合分析,试图在构造‒沉积‒地形地貌的盆山耦合机制中,遵循砂岩型铀矿的普遍成矿机理、按照由源到汇的研究思路,剖析砂岩型铀矿形成发育的关键控矿要素、时空配置关系,从铀成矿系统分析的角度揭示库车组关键控矿要素的协同控矿机理,以期为铀矿勘查提供战略服务.主要认识有:新生代南天山造山带的大规模陆内逆冲推覆作用既控制了库车组含铀岩系的充填演化过程,也制约了库车组下段铀成矿的基本格局和成矿作用过程,盆山耦合机制是驱动砂岩型铀矿形成发育的原始驱动力.南天山造山带岩浆岩分布规模虽然有限,但在托木尔峰一带存在富铀花岗岩.充分发育的地表水流域系统,一方面能够携带造山带的碎屑物堆积于库车坳陷,从而分阶段形成系列的大型物源‒沉积朵体,造就了潜在的含铀岩系和优质的铀储层.另一方面,穿越造山带富铀花岗岩的流域系统,不仅通过物理搬运为铀储层提供了原始微量铀的积累,而且通过衍生的地下含矿流体系统促进了区域层间氧化带的发育以及成矿所需的溶解铀质.在库车坳陷,近东西向展布的构造行迹限定了含矿流场和层间氧化带的发育空间(拜城凹陷),铀矿化集中发育于区域层间氧化带前锋线附近(特别是南部“阻水面”一侧).在拜城凹陷南部边缘,随着具有同沉积生长性质的秋里塔格构造带的不断隆升,区域的含矿流场和层间氧化带被迫向北迁移并发生“左旋”,从而造就了包括日达里克铀矿床在内的“新”“老”两个铀成矿系统.

       

    • 图  1  库车坳陷中西部库车组下段扇三角洲沉积体系基本特征

      a.韵律结构清晰,喀拉玉尔衮剖面;b.三角洲前缘的倒粒序,阿特博依纳克剖面;c.具丰富动物潜穴和波痕(变形)的远端河口坝沉积,日达里克铀矿床露头剖面;d.具有泥灰岩和泥岩互层的滨浅湖泊沉积,ZKY3033;e.三角洲前缘的水下泥石流沉积(青白色块状结构),ZKY1519;f.扇三角洲中砾岩,ZKY804;g.扇三角洲中铀储层砂体,ZKY3033

      Fig.  1.  Basic characteristics of fan delta sedimentary system in the lower member of Kuqa Formation in the central and western part of Kuqa depression

      图  2  库车坳陷库车组的大型物源‒沉积朵体恢复与重建

      a.库车组下段;b.库车组中段;c.库车组上段

      Fig.  2.  Restoration and reconstruction of large provenance-sedimentary lobes of Kuqa Formation in Kuqa depression

      图  3  库车组下段铀储层中典型的层间氧化作用

      a.具有渐变特征的紫红色后生氧化蚀变砂岩,日达里克铀矿床;b.沿裂缝和纹层发生的不均匀后生氧化蚀变砂岩,由紫红色向红色的演变指示氧化作用减弱,日达里克铀矿床;c.沿粗粒高渗透层发育的后生层间氧化作用(楔状紫红色砂岩),喀拉玉尔滚露头剖面;d.由压性断层封堵的层间氧化带(紫红色砂岩),帕克勒克剖面

      Fig.  3.  Typical interlayer oxidation in the uranium reservoir of the lower member of Kuqa Formation.

      图  4  白垩纪以来南天山差异隆升及其对库车坳陷物源供给的改变模式(据李双建等,2007

      a.白垩纪‒古近纪的隆升模式;b.新近纪以来的隆升模式

      Fig.  4.  Differential uplifting of South Tianshan since Cretaceous and its change model on provenance supply in Kuqa depression (after Li et al., 2007)

      图  5  帕克勒克剖面库车组下段富铀花岗质碎屑沉积

      a.富含花岗质砾屑的铀储层砂体;b.似斑状钾长花岗岩砾屑滚石(γ > 600×10‒6);c.具钾长石化的花岗岩砾屑滚石;d.富含花岗质砾屑的铀储层砂体,花岗岩砾石风化严重

      Fig.  5.  U-rich granitic clastic deposits in the lower member of Kuqa Formation, Pakelek section.

      图  6  库车坳陷构造格架、流域系统及其沉积朵体对库车组下段铀成矿系统的制约

      a.库车坳陷盐上层断裂与褶皱叠合图,据邬光辉等(2007)、余海波等(2015)修改;b.库车组下段区域铀成矿系统及其变迁预测

      Fig.  6.  Constraints of structural framework, drainage system and sedimentary lobes on uranium metallogenic system in the lower member of Kuqa Formation in Kuqa depression.

      图  7  库车坳陷西部构造演化及其对铀成矿流体系统的调整与控制(据余一欣和王鹏万,2009修改)

      a.库车组沉积末期构造‒地层结构及其“老的”铀成矿流体系统;b.现今的构造‒地层结构及其“新的”铀成矿流体系统;平衡剖面位置见图 6a

      Fig.  7.  Tectonic evolution in the west of Kuqa depression and its adjustment and control over uranium metallogenic fluid system (modified by Yu and Wang, 2009)

      表  1  南天山造山带花岗岩类和火山岩的微量Th、U含量统计结果

      Table  1.   Statistical table of trace Th and U contents of granitoids and volcanic rocks in South Tianshan orogenic belt

      岩体 岩性 样品号 U (10‒6) Th (10‒6) Th/U 资料来演
      琼台兰岩体 二长花岗岩 77-3 6 12 2.0 中国科学院登山科学考察队,1985
      钾长花岗岩 77-27 6 19 3.2
      平均 6 15.5 2.6
      英买来岩体 碱长花岗岩 MS-2 6 23 3.8
      MS-3 10 21 2.1
      77-13 12 34 2.8
      黑云二长花岗岩 Q01 3.42 22.40 6.5 马乐天等,2010黄河等,2011
      Q03 3.91 25.90 6.6
      Q04 2.84 29.90 10.5
      Q05 2.04 29.90 14.7
      Q06 5.49 67.50 12.3
      Q07 10.00 53.10 5.3
      Q08 2.22 34.30 15.5
      Q09 7.46 23.70 3.2
      平均 5.90 33.20 7.6
      铁列克岩体 黑云二长花岗岩 TLK-1 1.96 15.40 7.9 黄河等,2011
      TLK-2 2.26 15.98 7.1
      平均 2.11 15.69 7.5
      欧西达坂岩体 石英闪长岩 05KC142 0.78 4.95 6.35 王超等,2009
      05KC143 0.58 3.98 6.86
      05KC146 0.55 2.94 5.35
      二长花岗岩 05KC148 0.92 4.78 5.20
      05KC149 0.85 3.40 4.00
      05KC150 2.28 9.11 4.00
      黑云二长花岗岩 05KC154 1.87 24.74 13.23
      英云闪长岩 KC006 1.11 8.44 7.60 王世伟,2020
      KC007 1.31 15.7 11.98
      KC009 1.38 5.71 4.14
      KC010 0.64 3.13 4.89
      花岗闪长岩 KC012 2.57 21.0 8.17
      辉长闪长岩 KC013 0.72 3.48 4.83
      石英闪长岩 K1105-A 1.376 9.578 6.96 张斌,2016
      K1105-B 1.078 11.720 10.87
      K1105-C 1.502 4.973 3.31
      K1105-D 1.249 13.620 10.90
      K1105-E 1.270 5.613 4.42
      平均 1.22 8.71 6.84
      欧西达坂岩体南缘火山岩 流纹岩 TS11-46-2 4.40 21.6 4.91 王盟等,2014
      TS11-46-3 3.50 22.40 6.40
      TS11-46-4 3.90 21.40 5.49
      TS11-46-5 3.20 19.10 5.97
      TS11-47-1 4.60 19.00 4.13
      TS11-47-2 3.50 20.50 5.86
      TS11-47-3 3.40 18.20 5.35
      平均 3.79 20.31 5.44
      南天山花岗岩类 闪长岩 1 3.45 31.88 9.24 姜常义等,1999
      似斑状花岗岩 2 4.39 29.24 6.66
      3 4.67 39.28 8.41
      4 2.12 23.53 11.10
      5 3.73 33.18 8.90
      二云母花岗岩 6 1.81 13.02 7.19
      7 3.15 20.5 6.51
      碱长花岗岩 8 8.99 62.52 6.95
      9 5.62 61.18 10.89
      10 1.67 18.43 11.04
      11 10.61 62.5 5.89
      12 8.13 50.25 6.18
      平均 4.86 37.13 8.25
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  库车坳陷库车组大型物源‒沉积朵体基本参数和相关信息

      Table  2.   basic parameters and related information of large provenance-sedimentary lobes of Kuqa Formation in Kuqa depression

      层位 物源‒朵体 流域系统 优势古水流方向 纵深规模(km) 宽度规模(km) 分布面积(km2
      上段 木扎尔特物源‒朵体 台兰河 351°→171° 45.1 88.4 3 648.5
      老虎台物源‒朵体 木扎尔特河、喀普斯浪河、喀拉苏河 336°→156° 99.6 219.7 15 324.8
      大龙池物源‒朵体 库车河 345°→165° 56 157.3 6 811.0
      中段 木扎尔特物源‒朵体 台兰河 349°→169° 35.1 83.1 2 675.8
      老虎台物源‒朵体 老虎台物源‒朵体 木扎尔特河、喀普斯浪河、 342°→162° 61.2 172.9 7 784.0
      喀拉阔坦物源‒朵体 克孜勒河、库车河 340°→160° 39.7 105.7 4 865.0
      下段 木扎尔特物源‒朵体 台兰河 351°→171° 62.6 97.8 5 108.3
      老虎台物源‒朵体 木扎尔特河、喀普斯浪河、喀拉苏河 332°→152° 102 204.7 17 027.5
      大龙池物源‒朵体 库车河 342°→162° 19.7 119.2 2 189.3
      下载: 导出CSV
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