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    铲式逆冲断层的地貌约束:以东天山尤路都斯盆地巴音背斜构造为例

    武登云 任治坤 吕红华 刘金瑞 雷惊昊 包国栋 张志亮 哈广浩

    武登云, 任治坤, 吕红华, 刘金瑞, 雷惊昊, 包国栋, 张志亮, 哈广浩, 2023. 铲式逆冲断层的地貌约束:以东天山尤路都斯盆地巴音背斜构造为例. 地球科学, 48(4): 1389-1404. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.169
    引用本文: 武登云, 任治坤, 吕红华, 刘金瑞, 雷惊昊, 包国栋, 张志亮, 哈广浩, 2023. 铲式逆冲断层的地貌约束:以东天山尤路都斯盆地巴音背斜构造为例. 地球科学, 48(4): 1389-1404. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.169
    Wu Dengyun, Ren Zhikun, Lü Honghua, Liu Jinrui, Lei Jinghao, Bao Guodong, Zhang Zhiliang, Ha Guanghao, 2023. Geomorphic Constraints on Listric Thrust Faulting: Implications for Active Deformation of Bayan Anticline in Youludusi Basin, East Tianshan, China. Earth Science, 48(4): 1389-1404. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.169
    Citation: Wu Dengyun, Ren Zhikun, Lü Honghua, Liu Jinrui, Lei Jinghao, Bao Guodong, Zhang Zhiliang, Ha Guanghao, 2023. Geomorphic Constraints on Listric Thrust Faulting: Implications for Active Deformation of Bayan Anticline in Youludusi Basin, East Tianshan, China. Earth Science, 48(4): 1389-1404. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.169

    铲式逆冲断层的地貌约束:以东天山尤路都斯盆地巴音背斜构造为例

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.169
    基金项目: 

    中国地震局地质研究所中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项 IGCEA2110

    中国地震局地质研究所中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务专项 IGCEA2113

    第二次青藏科考项目 2019QZKK0704

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      武登云(1994-),男,博士研究生,主要从事构造地貌与活动构造研究.ORCID:0000-0002-8312-8813. E-mail:wdyecnu@163.com

      通讯作者:

      任治坤,E-mail:rzk@ies.ac.cn

    • 中图分类号: P542

    Geomorphic Constraints on Listric Thrust Faulting: Implications for Active Deformation of Bayan Anticline in Youludusi Basin, East Tianshan, China

    • 摘要: 将地表河流阶地变形特征与运动学模型、地貌年代相结合,可以推测出地下断层几何形态、断层变形量与变形速率.定量限定天山山间盆地不同褶皱冲断带的几何形态、运动学和变形速率是研究天山挤压应变吸收作用的关键.在天山东部的尤路都斯盆地内,开都河横穿巴音背斜构造发育并保存了较为完整的三级河流阶地.通过详细的野外考察发现,处于巴音背斜构造后翼位置的河流阶地具有宽阔、连续和逐渐倾斜的特点,符合通过翼部旋转运动而褶皱变形的铲式逆冲断层模型,其深部根植于平面断层斜坡.基于该运动学模型并结合阶地年代,得到巴音背斜构造下伏断层晚第四纪滑动速率为(0.35-0.06)~(0.35+0.16)mm/a,地壳缩短速率为(0.23-0.04)~(0.23+0.10)mm/a.对比尤路都斯盆地北部那拉提断裂的构造应变和GPS速率揭示的东天山南北向总地壳缩短速率,认为巴音背斜构造的变形作用占尤路都斯盆地总变形作用的15%~20%,进而容纳了~2%的东天山南北向地壳应变.东天山内部的山间盆地在天山变形量分配中占据重要作用.

       

    • 图  1  天山山脉区域构造格局

      红色框线为尤路都斯盆地范围

      Fig.  1.  General geographic and structural framework of the Tianshan Range

      图  2  尤路都斯盆地地质构造图

      地层信息根据1∶20万地质图绘制.下伏地形底图来源于12.5 m ALOS(Advanced Land Observing Satellite)数字高程模型(digital elevation model,DEM)

      Fig.  2.  Geological map of theYouludusi basin

      图  3  巴音背斜区域地貌解译图

      a. 巴音背斜构造区Goole Earth影像;b.地貌解译地层信息来源于1∶20万地质图.图示位置见图 2

      Fig.  3.  Geomorphic interpretations of Bayan anticline

      图  4  巴音背斜构造区地貌图

      a. 巴音背斜构造区Goole Earth影像;b. 沿巴音背斜走向的地形剖面;c. 巴音背斜横向剖面背斜部分表面被河流/冲沟侵蚀.沿巴音背斜走向的地形剖面显示顶部隆起幅度呈弓形,且由于褶皱的生长,水流横穿背斜形成水口或风口.横穿巴音背斜的横向剖面显示背斜的扩展和延伸.背斜西部保存较为完整,东部受侵蚀严重

      Fig.  4.  Geomorphology of Bayan anticline

      图  5  阶地变形示意图

      Fig.  5.  Diagram of terrace deformation

      图  6  断层相关褶皱的翼旋转运动学简化模型(修改自Amos et al., 2007

      a.滑脱褶皱;b.简单剪切断弯褶皱;c.铲式断展褶皱.沿垂直于褶皱方向的横向河流形成连续的阶地面,并随地层缩短而变形

      Fig.  6.  Simplified kinematic models for fault-related folding involving limb rotation (modified from Amos et al., 2007)

      图  7  基于铲型逆冲断层的阶地变形几何学/运动学模型

      a.断层曲率未变化的河流阶地变形模型(修改自Amos et al.,20072010);b.断层曲率半径变大的河流阶地变形模型;c.断层曲率半径变小的河流阶地变形模型.铲型逆冲断层段上的刚性旋转导致褶皱后翼倾斜.移动路径描述变形阶地随断层滑动的运动轨迹.断层逆冲过程中曲率半径增大导致褶皱后翼的变形阶地下凹.断层逆冲过程中曲率半径减小导致褶皱后翼的变形阶地上凸

      Fig.  7.  Geometric/kinematic model for terrace deformation over a listric thrust rooted at depth into a planarramp

      图  8  断层滑动量(S)计算图解(修改自Amos et al., 2007

      Fig.  8.  Calculation diagram of fault slip momentum (S) (modified from Amos et al., 2007)

      图  9  基于下凹形变形阶地的断层滑动量(S)计算图解

      Fig.  9.  Calculation diagram of fault slip (S) based on lower concave deformed terrace

      图  10  基于蒙特卡洛模拟的断层变形速率相关计算参数与输出结果示意图

      后翼线性回归角(α)和地貌面年龄(t)符合正态概率密度分布;后翼宽度(Wm)和变形距离(I)符合均匀概率密度分布;断层倾角(θ)符合梯形概率密度分布

      Fig.  10.  Schematic illustration of inputs for Monte Carlo calculation of fault parameters and associated uncertainties (95% confidence intervals)

      图  11  开都河穿过巴音背斜中部区域的谷歌影像(a)和地貌解译(b)

      Fig.  11.  Google Earth image (a) and the geomorphic interpretation (b) of the area where the Kaidu River crosses the Bayan anticline

      图  12  开都河阶地纵剖面

      a.近似垂直于向斜轴面的原始地形纵剖面;b.去除河床高度的阶地拔河高度纵剖面.阶地纵剖面来源于野外实测差分GPS数据.河床纵剖面则是基于ALOS 12.5 m DEM数据提取.黑色直线为线性拟合线,灰色阴影部分为线性拟合的误差(95%置信区间)

      Fig.  12.  Kaidu River terrace profiles

      图  13  巴音背斜构造滑动速率与缩短速率

      Fig.  13.  Slip (up) and shortening (down) rates calculated from listric thrust model combined with geomorphic age

      图  14  巴音背斜构造区河流阶地演化过程和断层结构

      图中T3T2T1为河流阶地,依次由老到新.随着断层运动(由a~c),地壳逐渐缩短,褶皱翼渐进旋转,河流阶地倾斜程度加大

      Fig.  14.  Evolution of river terraces and fault structure in Bayan anticline

      表  1  蒙特卡洛分析输入参数

      Table  1.   Input parameters for Monte Carlo simulation

      输入参数 θ1(°) Wm(m) 距离I(m) 后翼阶地倾角α(°) 年代(a)
      T3 T2 T1 T2
      50±10 2 000±170 850±150 2.06±0.03 0.70±0.01 0.36±0.01 88±6
      注:T1T2T3为河流阶地;θ1为近地表断层倾角;Wm为测量的后翼宽度.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  蒙特卡洛分析输出结果

      Table  2.   Output results from Monte Carlo simulation

      输出参数 滑动量S(m) 膝折带迁移H (m) θ2 (°) d (m) 滑动速率(mm/a) 缩短速率(mm/a)
      T3 T2 T1 T3 T2 T1
      数值 90.78 30.26 15.60 24.39 8.11 4.26 28.81 442.93 0.35 0.19
      95%置信区间 下限 77.04 25.89 13.24 15.94 5.39 2.76 19.8 344.70 0.29 0.12
      上限 135.38 44.86 22.93 55.61 18.49 9.46 42.61 572.68 0.51 0.42
      注:T1T2T3为河流阶地;θ2为地下断层斜坡倾角;d为地下断层斜坡顶深度.
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  东天山山间盆地晚第四纪构造缩短速率

      Table  3.   Late Quaternary shortening rates of intermontane basins in the East Tianshan

      位置 构造单元 变形地貌标志 地壳缩短率(mm/a) 来源
      尤路都斯盆地 巴音背斜 河流阶地 0.19~0.33 本研究
      0.15 ±0.06 Charreau et al., 2017
      那拉提断裂 冲洪积扇 0.8~1.1 吴传勇等, 2014
      吐哈盆地 火焰山背斜 河流阶地 2.0~3.2 Yang et al., 2021
      焉耆盆地 和静逆断裂褶皱带 河流阶地、冲洪积扇 0.4~0.5 Huang et al., 2015
      开都河断裂 冲洪积扇 0.59±0.17 黄伟亮, 2015
      南缘褶皱带 河流阶地、冲洪积扇 0.13±0.1
      库米什盆地 库米什断裂 冲洪积扇 ~0.31 Wang et al., 2020b
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2022-03-09
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