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    降雨诱发深层老滑坡复活变形的动态作用机制

    宋琨 陈伦怡 刘艺梁 易庆林 董志鸿

    宋琨, 陈伦怡, 刘艺梁, 易庆林, 董志鸿, 2022. 降雨诱发深层老滑坡复活变形的动态作用机制. 地球科学, 47(10): 3665-3676. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.184
    引用本文: 宋琨, 陈伦怡, 刘艺梁, 易庆林, 董志鸿, 2022. 降雨诱发深层老滑坡复活变形的动态作用机制. 地球科学, 47(10): 3665-3676. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.184
    Song Kun, Chen Lunyi, Liu Yiliang, Yi Qinglin, Dong Zhihong, 2022. Dynamic Mechanism of Rain Infiltration in Deep-Seated Landslide Reactivate Deformation. Earth Science, 47(10): 3665-3676. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.184
    Citation: Song Kun, Chen Lunyi, Liu Yiliang, Yi Qinglin, Dong Zhihong, 2022. Dynamic Mechanism of Rain Infiltration in Deep-Seated Landslide Reactivate Deformation. Earth Science, 47(10): 3665-3676. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.184

    降雨诱发深层老滑坡复活变形的动态作用机制

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.184
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 42077239

    国家自然科学基金项目 41702378

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      宋琨(1983-),男,教授,博导,主要从事地质灾害机理方面的研究和教学工作. ORCID:0000-0003-0068-2606. E-mail:songkun_ctgu@163.com

    • 中图分类号: P642.2

    Dynamic Mechanism of Rain Infiltration in Deep-Seated Landslide Reactivate Deformation

    • 摘要: 强降雨易引发大型深层老滑坡的复活变形,研究其作用机制对建立滑坡变形破坏的降雨阈值,实现滑坡灾害的预警预报具有重要意义.以三峡库区秭归县谭家湾大型深层老滑坡为例,在地表宏观裂缝时空分布规律的精细描述基础上,结合15年的人工监测和2年的实时监测数据,分析了老滑坡的复活变形特征和发展过程.通过滑坡阶跃阶段的位移与降雨(当前降雨和前期降雨)的相关性分析,提出了降雨对深层滑坡复活变形演化过程的动态作用机制.谭家湾滑坡的7次“阶跃”变形与强降雨相关,但累积位移增量与累积降雨量无明显正相关关系,水平位移增量基本相同时,累积降雨量明显不同.引起第一次阶跃变形的累积降雨量和最大日降雨量均明显大于后续阶段,可能受控于强降雨的作用机制由“孔隙渗流”为主,逐渐转变为“渗透性增加的孔隙渗流+裂隙优势流”的综合渗流模式.这对进一步深入研究强降雨诱发深层老滑坡阶跃变形的内在机理与灾害预警具有一定的理论意义和参考价值.

       

    • 图  1  谭家湾滑坡地质平面图

      Fig.  1.  Topographic map of Tanjiawan landslide

      图  2  谭家湾滑坡I-I’剖面图

      Fig.  2.  Geological cross section I-I' of Tanjiawan landslide

      图  3  滑坡全貌与典型地表裂缝特征

      Fig.  3.  Panoramic view of Tanjiawan landslide and characteristics of typical cracks on the ground surface

      图  4  地表累积位移随时间变化曲线

      a.人工监测曲线; b.实时监测曲线

      Fig.  4.  Curve of cumulative displacement of monitoring points over time

      图  5  监测点G6、G7、G8和G11的运动方位图

      a. 水平方向;b. 竖直方向

      Fig.  5.  Moving orientation of monitoring points G6, G7, G8 and G11

      图  6  变形速率和降雨随时间变化曲线

      a. 6个明显变形的监测点;b. 监测点G7

      Fig.  6.  Displacement velocity and daily rainfall with time series

      图  7  滑坡区日降雨量和累积降雨量

      a. 累积降雨量;b. 部分阶跃段的放大图

      Fig.  7.  Daily rainfall and accumulation precipitation in the landslide area

      图  8  降雨入渗过程示意图

      Fig.  8.  Schematic of rainfall infiltration process

      表  1  滑坡地表裂缝统计

      Table  1.   Statistical data of cracks of Tanjiawan landslide

      裂缝编号 走向(°) 裂缝特征及发展过程
      L1、L2 60~80 2020年6月L1、L2已产生,L1裂缝长1.0~1.5 m,护栏微向外倾斜;L2长10~15 m,公路下沉0.5~1.0 m
      L3~L6 290~330 2020年6月已有部分土体开裂(L3、L4),2021年9月产生新的裂缝(L5、L6),长度1~8 m不等,宽4~10 cm
      L7、L9 320~350 2020年6月公路开裂、下沉10~20 cm,2021年9月公路下沉损毁50~120 cm,护栏向前滑移约50~100 cm
      L8 10~40 2020年6月已有裂缝长10~15 m,水泥路面下错50~70 cm;2021年9月裂缝扩展,长15~20 m,下错约1 m
      L10 10~50 2021年9月已有裂缝长5~10 m,下错约2 m,局部土体垮塌
      L11 0~30 2020年6月已有裂缝,长5~10 m、宽约4~6 cm、未见明显下错;2021年9月长度延伸至10~15 m,下错70~90 cm
      L12、L13 10~70 2020年6月已有L12,长5~8 m、张开宽度0.8~1.0 m;2021年9月已有L13,为次级滑坡后缘侧壁,长约150 m、张开宽度在0.5~1.5 m、滑坡壁高0.5~4.0 m
      L15 300~340 2020年6月公路鼓起破裂,破裂段长3~5 m;2021年9月公路破裂加剧,长8~10 m、下沉70~100 cm
      L14 2021年9月新生土体鼓胀地面裂缝,长10~15 m,宽10~15 cm
      L16 2020年~2021年公路破裂段长由约30 m增至约60 m,公路持续下沉0.5~1.0 m
      L17、L18 330~360 2020年6月公路面出现长3~6 m裂缝,宽3~7 cm;2021年9月公路出现5~15 m段的破坏区域,下沉40~70 cm
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  滑坡阶跃变形阶段的降雨指标统计

      Table  2.   Statistics of rainfall characters in the landslide step deformation stage

      不同“阶跃段” 前期累积降雨量(mm)
      编号 起始时间 结束时间 水平位移增量(mm) 累积降雨a*(mm) 最大降雨b*(mm) 1 d 3 d 5 d 10 d 15 d 最大降雨c*
      2020/06/22 2020/07/10 932.73 163.2 42.0 6.0 32.4 44.2 85.0 111.8 28.8
      2020/07/22 2020/08/04 515.62 46.8 24.8 5.4 5.4 37.4 48.6 55.6 16.0
      2020/08/27 2020/09/06 108.74 3.6 2.4 0.0 28.4 28.8 72.8 73.6 28.4
      2020/10/03 2020/10/09 961.72 49.2 24.0 63.2 63.2 63.2 74.2 92.4 63.2
      2020/11/26 2020/12/05 65.71 1.6 1.0 1.6 13.6 22.0 62.4 62.4 32.2
      2021/07/15 2021/07/28 161.02 9.6 3.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4
      2021/08/25 2021/08/31 948.57 66.8 48.6 0.0 17.8 43.0 46.6 94.0 28.2
      注:累积降雨a*、最大降雨b*分别是指不同“阶跃段”时间范围内的累积降雨量和最大日降雨量;最大降雨c*是指前期15 d时间范围内的最大日降雨量.
      下载: 导出CSV
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