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    珠江口盆地浅水陆架区拆离断陷的构造变形与沉积充填响应:以恩平凹陷为例

    蔡国富 彭光荣 吴静 白海军 李颖薇 许新明 龚文 李孔森

    蔡国富, 彭光荣, 吴静, 白海军, 李颖薇, 许新明, 龚文, 李孔森, 2022. 珠江口盆地浅水陆架区拆离断陷的构造变形与沉积充填响应:以恩平凹陷为例. 地球科学, 47(7): 2391-2409. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.215
    引用本文: 蔡国富, 彭光荣, 吴静, 白海军, 李颖薇, 许新明, 龚文, 李孔森, 2022. 珠江口盆地浅水陆架区拆离断陷的构造变形与沉积充填响应:以恩平凹陷为例. 地球科学, 47(7): 2391-2409. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.215
    Cai Guofu, Peng Guangrong, Wu Jing, Bai Haijun, Li Yingwei, Xu Xinming, Gong Wen, Li Kongsen, 2022. Sedimentary Filling Response to Detachment Structural Deformation in Shallow-Water Continental Shelf of Pearl River Mouth Basin: A Case Study of Enping Sag. Earth Science, 47(7): 2391-2409. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.215
    Citation: Cai Guofu, Peng Guangrong, Wu Jing, Bai Haijun, Li Yingwei, Xu Xinming, Gong Wen, Li Kongsen, 2022. Sedimentary Filling Response to Detachment Structural Deformation in Shallow-Water Continental Shelf of Pearl River Mouth Basin: A Case Study of Enping Sag. Earth Science, 47(7): 2391-2409. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.215

    珠江口盆地浅水陆架区拆离断陷的构造变形与沉积充填响应:以恩平凹陷为例

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.215
    基金项目: 

    中海油重大生产科研项目 KJZH-2021-0003-00

    中海油重大生产科研项目 CCL2020SZPS0168

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      蔡国富(1989-), 男, 工程师, 主要从事石油地质综合研究.ORCID: 0000-0001-5472-6227.E-mail: caigf2@cnooc.com.cn

    • 中图分类号: P618.13

    Sedimentary Filling Response to Detachment Structural Deformation in Shallow-Water Continental Shelf of Pearl River Mouth Basin: A Case Study of Enping Sag

    • 摘要: 珠江口盆地新生代发育跨越浅水区至深水区、多类型的拆离断陷,其中浅水陆架区拆离断陷是探究拆离构造变形与沉积充填响应的重要窗口.基于地震资料和钻井资料详细解析,对恩平凹陷低角度拆离断层特征进行了研究,探讨了拆离构造变形的控制因素、变形过程和沉积充填响应机制.研究表明,恩平凹陷低角度边界正断层为壳间拆离断层,长度约50 km,倾角平均17.5°,断面最深达中下地壳,裂陷期经历了中低角度到低角度的转变.拆离断层形成于中生代先存逆冲断层基础之上,与中下地壳韧性剪切穹隆和边界调节性走滑断裂相伴生,联合控制形成均衡深拆离、前展式宽拆离和迁移型复式拆离3种凹陷结构类型.垂向上可划分出三期裂陷幕,因差异构造变形而具有不同的沉积充填响应:(1)早文昌期均一裂陷幕,快速的裂陷沉降发育于先存逆冲断层弱面,形成具厚层中深湖的均一窄深箕状半地堑;(2)晚文昌期拆离伸展幕,凹陷受差异构造变形而发育成东、西沉积充填差异化的宽浅断陷,西部韧性剪切穹隆弱隆升与边界走滑断层强走滑控制了恩平17洼自迁移型中深湖和大型辫状河三角洲-重力流沉积,而东部韧性剪切穹隆强隆升控制了恩平12-18洼沉积中心跳跃式异迁移的沉积充填,过渡带发育大型走向斜坡扇三角洲;(3)恩平期拆离-断拗联控幕,构造变形由简单剪切向纯剪切转变,沉积向外流水系主导的浅水辫状河三角洲-浅湖相充填转变.低角度拆离断陷具有与高角度脆性断陷不同的构造变形和沉积充填响应,烃源岩与砂岩储层的时空分布非均质性强.研究成果对恩平凹陷的烃源岩和深部储层预测,以及南海北部陆缘同类拆离断陷的构造-沉积充填研究具有良好的指导意义.

       

    • 图  1  珠江口盆地构造区划与断陷分布(改自庞雄等(2021)李洪博等(2020)

      Fig.  1.  Distribution of tectonic units and depressions in the Pearl River Mouth Basin(modified from Pang et al. (2021), Li et al. (2020))

      图  2  恩平凹陷基底顶面构造地貌与地层柱状图

      Fig.  2.  Structural geomorphology of basement top and stratigraphic column of the Enping Sag

      图  3  恩平凹陷控洼断层基底断距(a)、现今倾角(b)以及早、晚文昌期倾角(c)

      Fig.  3.  Fault displacement (a), present dip angle (b) and dip angle of Lower and Upper Wenchang Formation depositional period (c) of the depression-controlling faults in the Enping Sag

      图  4  恩平凹陷结构剖面(剖面位置见图 2

      Fig.  4.  Seismic sections demonstrating the structure of the Enping Sag

      图  5  恩平凹陷中下地壳韧性剪切穹隆特征

      a. 韧性剪切穹隆顶面深度与T80断裂叠合图;b. 过恩平12-18洼穹隆地震剖面;c. 过恩平17洼地震剖面

      Fig.  5.  The characteristics of ductile shear dome in the middle-lower crust below Enping Sag

      图  6  F3走滑断层构造特征

      a. T80层深度构造图,平面位置见图 2;b. F3走滑断层及其派生构造样式

      Fig.  6.  The characteristics of the F3 strike-slip fault

      图  7  恩平凹陷文昌组下段与上段地层等厚图

      Fig.  7.  The stratigraphic thickness of Lower and Upper Wenchang formations in the Enping Sag

      图  8  E17井古生物与单井相综合柱状图

      Fig.  8.  Comprehensive column of paleontology and single well facies of Well E17

      图  9  恩平17洼地震剖面与沉积充填解释(剖面位置见图 2

      Fig.  9.  Seismic section and its sedimentary filling interpretation cross Enping 17 Subsag

      图  10  恩平12洼和恩平18洼地震剖面与沉积充填解释(剖面位置见图 4d

      Fig.  10.  Seismic section and its sedimentary filling interpretation cross Enping 12 and 18 subsags

      图  11  恩平凹陷文昌组-恩平组平面沉积相

      Fig.  11.  Sedimentary facies of Wenchang and Enping formations

      图  12  恩平凹陷低角度拆离的构造-沉积充填演化模式

      Fig.  12.  The tectonic-sedimentary evolution models of Enping Sag linked to low angle detachment rift

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    • 收稿日期:  2022-04-15
    • 刊出日期:  2022-07-25

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