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    沉积、成岩与铀成矿:中国砂岩型铀矿研究的创新发现与认知挑战

    焦养泉 吴立群 荣辉 张帆 乐亮 宋昊 陶振鹏 彭虎 孙钰函 向尧

    焦养泉, 吴立群, 荣辉, 张帆, 乐亮, 宋昊, 陶振鹏, 彭虎, 孙钰函, 向尧, 2022. 沉积、成岩与铀成矿:中国砂岩型铀矿研究的创新发现与认知挑战. 地球科学, 47(10): 3580-3602. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.284
    引用本文: 焦养泉, 吴立群, 荣辉, 张帆, 乐亮, 宋昊, 陶振鹏, 彭虎, 孙钰函, 向尧, 2022. 沉积、成岩与铀成矿:中国砂岩型铀矿研究的创新发现与认知挑战. 地球科学, 47(10): 3580-3602. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.284
    Jiao Yangquan, Wu Liqun, Rong Hui, Zhang Fan, Yue Liang, Song Hao, Tao Zhenpeng, Peng Hu, Sun Yuhan, Xiang Yao, 2022. Sedimentation, Diagenesis and Uranium Mineralization: Innovative Discoveries and Cognitive Challenges in Study of Sandstone-Type Uranium Deposits in China. Earth Science, 47(10): 3580-3602. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.284
    Citation: Jiao Yangquan, Wu Liqun, Rong Hui, Zhang Fan, Yue Liang, Song Hao, Tao Zhenpeng, Peng Hu, Sun Yuhan, Xiang Yao, 2022. Sedimentation, Diagenesis and Uranium Mineralization: Innovative Discoveries and Cognitive Challenges in Study of Sandstone-Type Uranium Deposits in China. Earth Science, 47(10): 3580-3602. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.284

    沉积、成岩与铀成矿:中国砂岩型铀矿研究的创新发现与认知挑战

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.284
    基金项目: 

    国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFC0604202

    国家自然科学基金项目 42172128

    国家自然科学基金项目 41502105

    中央地质勘查基金专题研究项目 2008150013

    国家重点基础研究发展计划 2015CB453003

    中国地质大学(武汉)学科杰出人才基金资助项目 102-162301192664

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      焦养泉(1963-),男,教授,主要从事沉积盆地分析与能源矿产研究的教学与科研工作. ORCID:0000-0002-6634-8718. E-mail:yqjiao@cug.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P611

    Sedimentation, Diagenesis and Uranium Mineralization: Innovative Discoveries and Cognitive Challenges in Study of Sandstone-Type Uranium Deposits in China

    • 摘要: 21世纪,中国在砂岩型铀矿勘查领域获得了前所未有的辉煌成就.砂岩型铀矿产出于沉积盆地,铀矿的形成必须经历由沉积埋藏到抬升成矿两个重要的演化阶段.其中,在抬升成矿阶段,大气降水和氧化-还原作用的参与和约束是最显著的成矿特征.显然,这是一种典型的表生成岩作用的产物,是铀储层复杂成岩序列中的重要一环,隶属于“外生成矿”的范畴.虽然,砂岩型铀矿的成矿作用遵循氧化还原与铀变价的普遍机理,但是特殊的沉积背景却导致了铀成矿作用的多样性和地区的专属性.一些由沉积作用、沉积环境和古气候造就的关键控矿要素,能够从“基因”上直接影响表生成岩阶段的铀成矿作用,由沉积、成岩到铀成矿是一个具有成因联系的地质过程,而盆山耦合机制始终是其最根本的原始驱动力.随着对铀成矿作用细节行为研究的深入,一些创新发现不断地冲击着以往固有的认识,诸如碳质碎屑与铀成矿的相互作用、黄铁矿复杂而有序的演化习性、碳酸盐胶结物与铀成矿的共生叠置、敏感矿物的流体示踪、铀储层非均质性制约下的铀成矿机理、双重还原介质制矿模型、铀成矿的复合地球化学障等.还有一些研究对传统地质学理论提出了认知挑战,诸如,铀储层开放成岩环境中碳质碎屑的“碳化作用机理”、黄铁矿溶蚀或者生长界面上的铀沉淀化学动力机制、干旱沉积背景的铀成矿机理等.同时,铀成矿机理和普遍规律的研究,也为砂岩型铀矿的衰变地质效应研究和盆地铀资源的系统探索奠定了良好的地质基础.相信,针对沉积盆地整装的系统的成矿机理与成因联系研究,必将释放巨大的盆地铀资源潜力和矿床产能,在进一步丰富铀成矿理论的同时助力实现“双碳目标”.

       

    • 图  1  十红滩铀矿床不同阶段地质环境的演变对比(据焦养泉等,2004修改)

      图中铀成矿年龄据徐高中(2003)周巧生和李占游(2003);铀储层地下水矿化度据吴伯林等(2004);艾丁湖水文参数据杨发相等(1996)王亚俊和吴素芬(2003)

      Fig.  1.  Comparison of geological environment evolution in different stages of Shihongtan uranium deposit (modified by Jiao et al., 2004)

      图  2  砂岩型铀矿必须经历的两个重要演化阶段

      Fig.  2.  Two important evolution stages of sandstone-type uranium deposits

      图  3  层间氧化带型砂岩铀矿成矿模式(据Harshman,1972修改)

      Fig.  3.  Metallogenic model of interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposit (modified from Harshman, 1972)

      图  4  店头-双龙铀矿床的成岩-成矿作用演化序列

      Fig.  4.  Diagenesis-mineralization evolution sequence of Diantou-Shuanglong uranium deposit

      图  5  富铀碳质碎屑的显微组分与铀富集的关系

      a. 铀矿物(白色区域)赋存在丝质体的胞腔中,扫描电镜;b. 富铀有机基质具有由不同“灰度”显示的原子序数非均质性,白色斑点为铀矿物,扫描电镜;c. 碳质碎屑粉末中铀价态谱图,XPS;d. U4+和U6+的相对原子含量(表明有机质以吸附为主还原为辅),XPS

      Fig.  5.  Relationship between macerals of uranium-rich carbonaceous debris and uranium enrichment

      图  6  黄铁矿、黄铜矿、方铅矿和铀矿物的周期性环带生长关系

      a.黄铁矿周期性环带状生长与溶蚀现象,扫描电镜,东胜铀矿田;b~d.硫化物和铀矿物的环带状生长结构,扫描电镜,店头-双龙铀矿床;e~g.黄铁矿和超细粒铀矿物的周期性生长结构,电子探针面扫,彭阳铀矿产地.Py.黄铁矿;U.铀矿物;nU.纳米级铀矿物;Pit.沥青铀矿;Cp.黄铜矿;Gn.方铅矿;Ilt.伊利石

      Fig.  6.  Periodic ring growth relationship of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and uranium minerals

      图  7  伊犁盆地砂岩型铀矿床氢氧同位素特征(据Song et al., 2019)

      a.黏土矿物同位素;b.流体同位素

      Fig.  7.  Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposit in Yili basin (according to Song et al., 2019)

      图  8  铀储层中层间氧化带、钙质胶结物与铀矿体的空间配置关系典型实例

      a.鄂尔多斯盆地北部大营铀矿床,J2z1-1;b.鄂尔多斯盆地北部大营铀矿床,J2z1-2;c.鄂尔多斯盆地东北部皂火壕铀矿床神山沟露头区(由Ca1到Ca2铀丰度降低),J2z1-1;d.美国怀俄明Shirley盆地陆相砂岩铀矿床(据Harshman,1974Dahlkamp,1993)

      Fig.  8.  Typical example of spatial configuration relationship between interlayer oxidation zone, calcareous cement and uranium ore body in uranium reservoir

      图  9  砂岩型铀矿的衰变地质效应

      a.铀储层不同部位碳质碎屑Ro的均值变化规律,大营铀矿;b.碎屑石英中的裂变径迹,单偏光,十红滩铀矿床;c.碎屑石英中的裂变径迹,铸体薄片单偏光,东胜铀矿田;d.碎屑石英裂变径迹密度与铀矿体空间距离统计关系,东胜铀矿田;e.碎屑锆石振荡环带的局部蚀变现象,扫描电镜,东胜铀矿田;f~g.分别为图e能谱面扫的Fe和Pb元素分布规律;h. 碎屑锆石外围蚀变现象,扫描电镜,东胜铀矿田;i~j.分别为图h能谱面扫的Y和U元素分布规律

      Fig.  9.  Geological effect of sandstone-type uranium deposit decay

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    出版历程
    • 收稿日期:  2022-04-23
    • 刊出日期:  2022-10-25

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