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    热液矿床超大比例尺构造-蚀变-矿化填图:基本原理与注意事项

    郑义

    郑义, 2022. 热液矿床超大比例尺构造-蚀变-矿化填图:基本原理与注意事项. 地球科学, 47(10): 3603-3615. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.295
    引用本文: 郑义, 2022. 热液矿床超大比例尺构造-蚀变-矿化填图:基本原理与注意事项. 地球科学, 47(10): 3603-3615. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.295
    Zheng Yi, 2022. Large-Scaled Structure-Alteration-Mineralization Mapping of the Hydrothermal Deposits: Basic Principle and Precautions. Earth Science, 47(10): 3603-3615. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.295
    Citation: Zheng Yi, 2022. Large-Scaled Structure-Alteration-Mineralization Mapping of the Hydrothermal Deposits: Basic Principle and Precautions. Earth Science, 47(10): 3603-3615. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.295

    热液矿床超大比例尺构造-蚀变-矿化填图:基本原理与注意事项

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.295
    基金项目: 

    国家重点研发计划青年科学家项目 2021YFC2900300

    国家自然科学基金委优秀青年基金项目 42022020

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      郑义(1984-),男,教授,博导,主要从事成矿与资源勘查研究.ORCID:0000-0002-7570-0146. E-mail:zhengy43@mail.sysu.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P613

    Large-Scaled Structure-Alteration-Mineralization Mapping of the Hydrothermal Deposits: Basic Principle and Precautions

    • 摘要: 热液矿床超大比例尺填图是指1∶1 000以及更大比例尺的填图,主要用来记录矿区内露头、平硐、钻孔和手标本上等肉眼可直接观察到的各类地质现象.热液矿床超大比例尺填图的目的是查明成矿作用的地质特征、空间分布和时间演化,对于准确判断热液矿床的成因类型和成矿过程,以及圈定矿体和布置勘探工程等实践活动具有重要意义.在实际工作中,初学者由于对热液矿床的复杂现象不知如何下手,对于“填什么”和“如何填”等问题不甚清楚.鉴于此,(1)从基本原理出发,重点阐述了热液矿床构造、流体、蚀变和矿化形成过程,提出“成矿流体+新鲜围岩→围岩蚀变+矿石”这一热液矿床形成的通用性公式,并提出“构造→骨骼”和“蚀变→血肉”的类比;(2)重点介绍了热液矿床超大比例尺填图过程中一些长期被忽略的问题,如,成矿环境判别、成矿流体通道与圈闭、热液充填与交代成矿作用以及脉体穿插与成矿期次判别等.同时,对这些地质现象背后隐藏的成因启示做了重点阐释.

       

    • 图  1  热液矿床研究中的空间尺度问题

      Fig.  1.  Spatial scales in the research of hydrothermal deposits

      图  2  热液矿床形成的基本原理(A+B→C+D)

      Fig.  2.  Basic principle for formation of the hydrothermal deposits(A+B→C+D)

      图  3  热液矿床形成的构造条件

      a~c. 3种拉开成矿空间的构造,分别是伸展、水平剪切和垂向剪切;d. 同一应力场形成的挤压和伸展构造;e.断层脉;f.伸展脉

      Fig.  3.  Structural condition for formation of the hydrothermal deposits

      图  4  热液矿床常见的围岩蚀变组合及指示的成矿条件(据Corbett and Leach, 1998修改)

      Fig.  4.  Mineral assemblages and their forming condition of alteration in the hydrothermal deposits (modified after Corbett and Leach, 1998)

      图  5  热液矿床主要矿物沉淀的控制因素

      a.脉石矿物石英溶解度与深度和温度的相图(据Barnes,2015修改);b.不同pH和Eh条件下,热液中硫的稳定区间(据Barnes,2015修改);c.铜、金和锌的溶解度与温度的关系(据Corbett and Leach, 1998修改);d.铜、金和锌的溶解度与酸碱度的关系(据Corbett and Leach, 1998修改)

      Fig.  5.  Controls on mineral precipitation in the hydrothermal deposits

      图  6  热液矿床中流体通道与流体圈闭的示意图

      Fig.  6.  Schematic diagram of fluid channels and traps in the hydrothermal deposits

      图  7  热液矿床中充填成矿作用和交代成矿作用的示意

      Fig.  7.  Schematic diagram of infilling and replacement mineralization in the hydrothermal deposits

      图  8  热液矿床中脉体的形成过程与先后顺序判别

      a~c.脉体形成的三部曲,裂隙打开、形成空间→流体流经、保持张开→矿物沉淀、形成脉体;d. A、B和C脉的切穿关系;e. C脉晚于A脉和B脉;f. C脉与A脉和B脉同时形成;g. A脉、B脉和断裂的切穿关系;h. A脉和B脉通过充填交代作用同时形成

      Fig.  8.  The formation process and sequences of various veins in hydrothermal deposits

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    • 收稿日期:  2022-06-30
    • 刊出日期:  2022-10-25

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