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    库车坳陷西段阿瓦特构造转换带盐构造演化特征及影响因素

    吴珍云 杨秀磊 尹宏伟 董少春 李长圣 汪伟 贾东

    吴珍云, 杨秀磊, 尹宏伟, 董少春, 李长圣, 汪伟, 贾东, 2023. 库车坳陷西段阿瓦特构造转换带盐构造演化特征及影响因素. 地球科学, 48(4): 1271-1287. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.312
    引用本文: 吴珍云, 杨秀磊, 尹宏伟, 董少春, 李长圣, 汪伟, 贾东, 2023. 库车坳陷西段阿瓦特构造转换带盐构造演化特征及影响因素. 地球科学, 48(4): 1271-1287. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.312
    Wu Zhenyun, Yang Xiulei, Yin Hongwei, Dong Shaochun, Li Changsheng, Wang Wei, Jia Dong, 2023. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Salt Structure Evolution in Awate Transfer Zone, Western Kuqa Depression. Earth Science, 48(4): 1271-1287. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.312
    Citation: Wu Zhenyun, Yang Xiulei, Yin Hongwei, Dong Shaochun, Li Changsheng, Wang Wei, Jia Dong, 2023. Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Salt Structure Evolution in Awate Transfer Zone, Western Kuqa Depression. Earth Science, 48(4): 1271-1287. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.312

    库车坳陷西段阿瓦特构造转换带盐构造演化特征及影响因素

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.312
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金 41602208

    国家自然科学基金 41602208

    国家自然科学基金 41602208

    国家自然科学基金 41572187

    东华理工大学博士启动基金 DHBK2019053

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      吴珍云(1986-),男,博士,副教授,主要从事盐构造,构造解译及实验构造模拟研究. ORCID:0000-0003-2896-4736. E-mail:zhenyun_wu@ecut.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P548

    Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Salt Structure Evolution in Awate Transfer Zone, Western Kuqa Depression

    • 摘要: 为厘定库车坳陷西段盐岩沉积边界盐构造演化特征及影响因素,利用野外地质调查、工业地震剖面解析和三维沙箱物理模拟实验对阿瓦特构造带进行了综合分析.结果表明:(1)阿瓦特构造带是库车坳陷西段典型挤压构造转换带,由乌什凹陷至阿瓦特凹陷,形成了由叠瓦逆冲断层向盐相关褶皱过渡的构造转换特征;(2)塔拉克走滑断层发育于乌什凹陷和阿瓦特凹陷交界处,是一条发育于盐上覆层的滑脱形成调节性横断层.受该断层影响,在盐上覆地层中形成塔拉克向斜、塔拉克背斜等拖曳式盐相关构造.越靠近塔拉克走滑断层,褶皱拖曳揉皱作用越强,甚至容易发育褶皱相关断层,促使盐岩出露地表;(3)阿瓦特构造转换带新生代变形主要受区域挤压作用、盐层分布及基底断裂活动共同控制.

       

    • 图  1  库车坳陷西段阿瓦特研究区构造位置(a)及区域地质图(b)

      Fig.  1.  Tectonic location map of Awate area in western Kuqa depression (a) and geologic map of this study area (b)

      图  2  阿瓦特断层野外考察照片(照片位置见图 1b

      a. 阿瓦特西段,阿瓦特断层逆冲至第四系地层之上;b. 阿瓦特东段,阿瓦特前缘褶皱带沿着阿瓦特断层分布

      Fig.  2.  Field photos of Awate fault (see Fig.1b for locations)

      图  3  阿瓦特构造转换带新生代褶皱地层出露野外考察照片(照片位置见图 1b

      a,b.塔拉克向斜核部及两翼照片;c.塔拉克背斜核部及北翼照片;d,e.塔拉克向斜东边界库木格列木群盐岩及其周缘地层接触关系

      Fig.  3.  Field investigation photos of Cenozoic folds and strata exposed in Awate structural transfer zone (see Fig.1b for locations)

      图  4  阿瓦特构造转换带东侧地震反射剖面(a)及其剖面构造解析(b)(剖面位置见图 1b)(修改自Wu et al., 2014

      Fig.  4.  Uninterpreted (a) and interpreted (b) seismic sections (see Fig.1b for location) showing salt structures of the eastern Awate area data revised from (Wu et al., 2014)

      图  5  阿瓦特构造转换带西侧地震反射剖面(a)及其剖面构造解析(b)(剖面位置见图 1b)(修改自Wu et al., 2014

      阿瓦特凹陷被北部盐下基底断裂系统抬升,盐岩层厚度大于 5 km. 整个凹陷受西边界塔拉克走滑断层影响,在挤压过程中被断层切穿而形 成由北往南向斜-背斜-向斜形态 .E2-3s-N1k 为前构造沉积地层,N2k-Q 为同构造沉积地层

      Fig.  5.  Uninterpreted (a) and interpreted (b) seismic sections (see Fig.1b for location) showing salt structures of the western Awate area data revised from (Wu et al., 2014)

      图  6  乌什凹陷地震反射剖面(a)及其剖面构造解析(b)(剖面位置见图 1b

      Fig.  6.  Uninterpreted (a) and interpreted (b) seismic sections (see Fig.1b for location) showing thrust structures in the Wushi sag

      图  7  阿瓦特西段切过塔拉克走滑断层地震剖面(a)及其剖面构造解析(b)(剖面位置见图 1b

      基底断层控制了东部的阿瓦特和西部的乌什凹陷之间的地层沉积厚度的差异.盐边界的走滑断层拖曳作用形成而塔拉克背斜与塔拉克向斜.图中塔拉克背斜和塔拉克向斜之间的盐岩在断层作用下逆冲到了N1k康村组之上

      Fig.  7.  Uninterpreted (a) and interpreted (b) seismic sections cutting across the Talake strike-slip fault in the western Awate area (see Fig.1b for location)

      图  8  实验模型设计图

      Fig.  8.  Schematic illustrations of the analog model in this paper

      图  9  模型平面构造演化及粒子成像测速(PIV)分析

      Fig.  9.  Model structural evolution and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) analysis in the plane view

      图  10  模型变形前缘(a)及走滑断层滑移量(b)统计

      Fig.  10.  Statistical charts of distance of deformation front (a) and the slip distance of strike-slip fault (b) in analog model

      图  11  模型平面三维扫描图

      Fig.  11.  3D scanning of analog model in plane view

      图  12  模型平行挤压方向典型纵切剖面特征

      图中①(黄色虚线段)表示硅胶下伏基底变形前缘位置,②(红色虚线段)表示硅胶上覆地层变形前缘位置

      Fig.  12.  The typical sections cutting from the 3D analogue model along the shortening direction

      图  13  模型垂直挤压方向典型横切剖面特征

      Fig.  13.  The typical sections cutting from the 3D reconstruction model cross the shortening direction

      图  14  含盐褶皱-冲断带盐岩沉积边界构造转换带平面解析

      Fig.  14.  Analytical view of tectonic transfer zone caused by salt pinch-out in salt-related fold-thrust belt

      表  1  阿瓦特构造转换带实验模型设计参数

      Table  1.   The initial configuration of analog model in the Awate structural transfer zone

      模型大小(cm)
      (长×宽×高)
      盐盆地宽度
      (cm)
      同构造沉积平均速率(mm/h) 挤压量
      (mm)
      挤压速率
      (mm/s)
      无硅胶区域 硅胶区域
      38×30×30 20 0.65 0.4 125 0.002
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  实验模型材料参数和比例化

      Table  2.   Material properties and scaling parameters between model and nature

      参数 自然界(n) 模型(m) 比率(m/n)
      重力加速度g(m/s2) 9.81 9.81 1.00
      长度l(m) 2 000.00 0.01 5.00×10-6
      速度v(m/s) 1.38×10-10 2.00×10-6 1.45×104
      密度ρo (上覆层) (kg/m3) 2 400.00 1 297.00 0.54
      密度ρs (盐岩) (kg/m3) 2 200.00 987.00 0.45
      上覆层摩擦系数 0.60 0.40 0.67
      粘度ηs (盐岩) (Pa·s) 1.0×1019 0.6×104 0.6×10-15
      应力σ(Pa) 4.3×107~4.7×107 90~127 2.5×10-6
      应变ε(s-1) 4.3×10-12~4.7×10-12 0.015~0.021 4.2×109
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2022-06-06
    • 刊出日期:  2023-04-25

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