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    陆地植物的起源、早期演化及地球环境效应

    薛进庄 王嘉树 李炳鑫 黄璞 刘乐

    薛进庄, 王嘉树, 李炳鑫, 黄璞, 刘乐, 2022. 陆地植物的起源、早期演化及地球环境效应. 地球科学, 47(10): 3648-3664. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.332
    引用本文: 薛进庄, 王嘉树, 李炳鑫, 黄璞, 刘乐, 2022. 陆地植物的起源、早期演化及地球环境效应. 地球科学, 47(10): 3648-3664. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.332
    Xue Jinzhuang, Wang Jiashu, Li Bingxin, Huang Pu, Liu Le, 2022. Origin and Early Evolution of Land Plants and the Effects on Earth's Environments. Earth Science, 47(10): 3648-3664. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.332
    Citation: Xue Jinzhuang, Wang Jiashu, Li Bingxin, Huang Pu, Liu Le, 2022. Origin and Early Evolution of Land Plants and the Effects on Earth's Environments. Earth Science, 47(10): 3648-3664. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.332

    陆地植物的起源、早期演化及地球环境效应

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.332
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金 v

    国家自然科学基金 41722201

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      薛进庄(1981—),男,副教授,博士,主要从事陆地植物起源与早期演化的研究.ORCID:0000-0003-4397-4641. E-mail:pkuxue@pku.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P52

    Origin and Early Evolution of Land Plants and the Effects on Earth's Environments

    • 摘要: 研究陆地植物在古生代的起源和早期演化(简称“植物登陆”)及它们对地表环境的塑造作用,对于理解地球系统的演化规律具有重要意义.证据表明,泥盆纪是维管植物辐射演化的关键时期,现代支系如石松类、真蕨类、楔叶类、种子植物等在该时期奠基,根系、大型叶、次生木质部、种子等性状快速演化出现并复杂化,森林在中泥盆世以来成为陆地植被的重要组分.近年来,在古生代植被控制河流沉积体系的转变、陆地植物的化学风化增强效应、古生代陆地有机碳埋藏等的研究方面取得了重要进展.未来需要通过从基因到陆地生态系统等多个层次的研究,进一步揭示植物登陆的过程与机制,从微观、生境、区域到全球多个空间尺度,进一步研究植物登陆对地球环境的影响.

       

    • 图  1  古生代陆地植物与地球环境

      a. 4个植被阶段及若干典型植物的形态;b. 陆地植物主要支系的谱系关系、延限及关键演化事件;c. 华南及世界其他地区维管植物多样性;d. 模型估算的大气CO2浓度(据Berner and Kothavala,2001)、中国代表性含煤地层、北美陆地有机沉积物累计量(据Nelsen et al.,2016)、低纬度地区成煤森林面积(仅包括宾夕法尼亚亚纪之后的数据;据Cleal and Thomas,2005)以及古生代冰期延限.除注明外,数据来自各种资料的综合.地质年代缩写:Ll. 兰多维列世;W. 温洛克世;Lu. 罗德洛世;P. 普里道利世;Miss. 密西西比亚纪;Penn. 宾夕法尼亚亚纪;Gu. 瓜德鲁普世;Lo. 乐平世

      Fig.  1.  Paleozoic land plants and Earth's environments

      图  2  地史时期的河流景观演化

      a. 前寒武纪至石炭纪的河流形态演化(据Gibling and Davies,2012);b.辫状河、曲流河及网状河形态的对比(据Davies and Gibling,2013);c.典型的辫状河卫星图(沱沱河与通天河交汇处);d. 典型的曲流河卫星图(辽河,铁岭市北)

      Fig.  2.  Evolution of fluvial landscapes during geological time

      图  3  研究植物登陆的层次和空间尺度示意图

      a. 陆地生态系统、植物群落、物种及其组织结构、发育基因等多个层次;植物登陆促进陆地有机碳积累,改变了陆地向海洋输入的矿物质和有机碳的通量;b. 早泥盆世全球古地理图(据Boucot et al.,2013);全球尺度的研究有利于揭示早期植被的古地理格局;c. 云南曲靖下泥盆统徐家冲组古土壤剖面,示原位的植物根系;d. 美国纽约中泥盆世剖面,虚线标示原位埋藏的Eospermatopteris树干(地球上最古老的原位森林产地;William E. Stein提供图片);生境(剖面)尺度的研究有利于揭示植物的个体特征与群落生态、以及植物如何影响沉积过程和成土作用

      Fig.  3.  Diagram showing the hierarchies and spatial scales in studying the colonization of land by plants

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