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    震旦系灯影组核形石白云岩成因机制及其意义:以柳湾剖面为例

    田腾振 李泽奇 鲁鹏达 张航 吴娟 孙玮 刘树根 何若玮 张洁伟 邓宾

    田腾振, 李泽奇, 鲁鹏达, 张航, 吴娟, 孙玮, 刘树根, 何若玮, 张洁伟, 邓宾, 2023. 震旦系灯影组核形石白云岩成因机制及其意义:以柳湾剖面为例. 地球科学, 48(4): 1568-1586. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.358
    引用本文: 田腾振, 李泽奇, 鲁鹏达, 张航, 吴娟, 孙玮, 刘树根, 何若玮, 张洁伟, 邓宾, 2023. 震旦系灯影组核形石白云岩成因机制及其意义:以柳湾剖面为例. 地球科学, 48(4): 1568-1586. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.358
    Tian Tengzhen, Li Zeqi, Lu Pengda, Zhang Hang, Wu Juan, Sun Wei, Liu Shugen, He Ruowei, Zhang Jiewei, Deng Bin, 2023. Genetic Mechanism and Significance of Oncoidal Dolostone in Sinian Dengying Formation: A Case Study of Liuwan Section. Earth Science, 48(4): 1568-1586. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.358
    Citation: Tian Tengzhen, Li Zeqi, Lu Pengda, Zhang Hang, Wu Juan, Sun Wei, Liu Shugen, He Ruowei, Zhang Jiewei, Deng Bin, 2023. Genetic Mechanism and Significance of Oncoidal Dolostone in Sinian Dengying Formation: A Case Study of Liuwan Section. Earth Science, 48(4): 1568-1586. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.358

    震旦系灯影组核形石白云岩成因机制及其意义:以柳湾剖面为例

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.358
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 U19B6003

    四川省科技计划重点研发项目 2018JZ0078

    四川省科技创新人才项目 2022JDRC0001

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      田腾振(1996—),男,硕士研究生,主要从事沉积岩石学研究. ORCID:0000-0003-3197-4791. E-mail:315164494@qq.com

      通讯作者:

      邓宾, E-mail: dengbin13@mail.cdut.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P581

    Genetic Mechanism and Significance of Oncoidal Dolostone in Sinian Dengying Formation: A Case Study of Liuwan Section

    • 摘要: 震旦系灯影组核形石白云岩作为典型的前寒武纪微生物碳酸盐岩,是我国古老深层油气勘探的岩石类型之一.核形石成因模式的研究,对研究古水体、恢复古环境及其成储模式有重要指导意义.根据核形石结构特征和成因机制将灯影组核形石分为6类,结合岩石学、沉积学和地球化学等研究手段,开展了四川盆地北缘核形石分布特征和沉积过程的综合研究.结果显示:灯影组二段核形石发育于潮下带-潮间坪环境下,水动力和微生物条件的差异影响着微生物生长、自身钙化作用、微生物膜粘结和捕获作用、化学沉淀作用4种核形石纹层形成机理;进一步体现在水动力条件控制着核形石纹层发育厚度、形态特征和伴生岩石类型,而微生物活动习性控制影响着核形石主微量、稀土元素分异特征:贫藻纹层较富藻纹层有较高的Fe/Mn比、实体藻较非实体藻有较高Cu/Zn比,纹层稀土元素富集度一般低于核心.综上所述,灯二段核形石的形成存在4种机理,且它们被海平面变化下的微生物和水动力条件联合控制.

       

    • 图  1  四川盆地北部米仓山地区灯影组震旦系柳湾剖面区域地质特征及其位置

      据四川省地质局第二区域地质小队, 1966, 1∶200 000南江幅地质图修改

      Fig.  1.  Regional geological features and location of Dengying Formation Sinian Liuwan Section in Micangshan area, northern Sichuan basin

      图  2  川北柳湾震旦系灯影组二段剖面综合柱状特征图(亚相-微相)

      Fig.  2.  Comprehensive columnar characteristic map of the second member of the Sinian Dengying Formation in Liuwan, northern Sichuan (subfacies-microfacies)

      图  3  柳湾剖面震旦系灯影组核形石主要纹层类型

      a.丛状藻体纹层核形石(2.5-);b.丛状藻体纹层核形石(5-),图a局部放大;c.波状泥晶纹层核形石(1.25-);d.波状泥晶纹层核形石(2.5-),图c局部放大;e.凝块纹层核形石(5-);f.波状泥晶纹层核形石(5-)

      Fig.  3.  Main types of oncoids of Sinian Dengying Formation oncoids in Liuwan Section

      图  4  核形石纹层类型阴极发光特征

      a.凝块纹层和波状泥晶纹层(2.5倍);b.波状泥晶纹层(2.5倍);c.致密暗色纹层和波状泥晶纹层(2.5倍);d.波状亮晶纹层和波状泥晶纹层(2.5倍);e.丛状藻体纹层和致密暗色纹层(2.5倍);f.丛状藻体纹层(2.5倍)

      Fig.  4.  Cathodoluminescence characteristics of oncoids stone laminae

      图  5  核形石野外和镜下沉积序列

      a.野外核形石层位剖面(四级旋回特征);b.手标本核形石旋回特征(藻纹层白云岩-凝块石白云岩-核形石白云岩);c.偏光显微镜性核形石发育特征(藻纹层-凝块石-核形石)(2-)

      Fig.  5.  Oncoid field and microscopic sedimentary sequences

      图  6  核形石扫描电镜特征

      a.波状泥晶纹层:晶间孔内丝状菌(Ba)和晶体表面粘液状胞外聚合物(EPS);b.波状亮晶纹层晶体表面丝状菌(Ba)和粘液状胞外聚合物(EPS);c.凝块纹层:晶体表面粘液状胞外聚合物(EPS);d.致密暗色纹层:晶体表面丝状胞外聚合物(EPS);e.致密暗色纹层:晶粒表面网状聚合物(EPS);f.丛状藻体纹层:实体藻结构(Sa)

      Fig.  6.  Scanning electron microscope characteristics of oncoids

      图  7  稀土元素配分式和Al-Fe-Mn三角图

      Fig.  7.  Partition formula of rare earth elements and Al-Fe-Mn triangular diagrams

      图  8  柳湾剖面灯二段核形石Fe/Mn、Cu/Zn比值投图特征

      Fig.  8.  Consonance plot characteristics of Fe/Mn and Cu/Zn ratios of oncoids in Deng 2 Member, Liuwan Township Section

      图  9  核形石类型与水动力、生物活动关系(据李熙哲等,2000修改)

      Fig.  9.  The relationship between oncoid types and hydrodynamic and biological activities(modified from Li et al., 2000)

      图  10  灯影组核形石纹层形成模式

      Fig.  10.  Formation pattern of oncoidal laminae in Dengying Formation

      图  11  柳湾剖面核形石成因模式

      Fig.  11.  Genesis model of oncoidal dolostone in Liuwan Section

      表  1  典型核形石分类依据及分类方式

      Table  1.   Classification basis and classification method of typical oncoids

      主要依据 具体依据 参考文献 分类内容
      几何形态特征 整体形态 李熙哲等(2000) 似球状、棒状、帽状、不规则状
      纹层形态 Kapila(1977) Ⅰ: Lm, Lo、Ⅱ: Lm, Lo, Lg、Ⅲ: Lm, Lo、Ⅳ-C: 缺少纹层,藻网孔包含其他生物壳、Ⅳ-S: 缺少纹层,藻网孔包含其他核形石(Lm:微晶纹层;Lo:含生物碎屑纹层;Lg:凝块纹层)
      核心形态 李熙哲等(2000) 简单核形石、复合核形石
      水动力成因特征 水动力 贺自爱(1982) 动态型、静态型、动静交替型
      微生物成因(组分)特征 微生物种属 Flügel(2010) 泥晶核形石、绵层类核形石、孔层类核形石、有孔虫核形石、复合核形石
      代表性组分 边立曾和黄志诚(1988) 骨骼核形石、非骨骼核形石
      结构、成因和形态等多因素结合 形态大小+内外部构造 杜汝霖(1992) 同心纹层构造的核形石、具放射状构造的核形石、具同心纹层和放射状构造的核形石
      结构特征+成因 杨仁超等(2011) 泥晶纹层核形石、富屑纹层核形石、藻(菌)核形石、复合纹层核形石、放射状核形石、凝块核形石
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  柳湾剖面灯影组核形石分类方案(据Kapila, 1977李熙哲等, 2000修改)

      Table  2.   The classification scheme of the Dengying Formation oncoids in Liuwan Section (modified after Kapila, 1977; Li et al., 2000)

      纹层内组分类型 组分具体特征 纹层形成机制 生物环境 水体能量
      凝块纹层 / 捕获和粘结作用 富藻 低能环境
      微生物纹层 生物碎屑纹层
      丛状藻体纹层 微生物和藻类生长作用
      微晶纹层 波状泥晶纹层 略高能环境
      致密暗线纹层 强烈而持续高能环境
      致密亮晶纹层 化学沉淀作用 贫藻
      波状亮晶纹层 低能环境
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  柳湾剖面部分核形石样品数据处理结果

      Table  3.   Data processing results of some oncoidal samples in Liuwan section

      类型 Fe含量
      (10-6)
      Mn含量
      (10-6)
      Sr含量(10-6) Cu/Zn Fe/Mn Eu/Eu* Dy异常
      指数
      Yb异常
      指数
      丛状藻体纹层 79.45 28.23 45.97 1.48 2.81 2.23
      174.03 69.20 49.93 2.70 2.51 0.81 1.21
      185.15 93.53 55.43 1.12 1.98 1.30 0.85 1.31
      99.54 32.17 46.47 0.80 3.09 1.87
      凝块纹层 283.32 44.40 47.93 0.27 6.38 0.97 0.60
      178.76 62.91 47.04 0.48 2.84 2.41
      240.70 59.40 56.71 0.17 4.05 1.27 0.33
      267.36 113.74 43.48 0.72 2.35 0.41
      波状泥晶纹层(泥晶) 203.85 42.81 48.28 0.67 4.76 1.60 0.37
      315.86 65.12 47.25 1.49 4.85 2.52 0.83
      256.95 57.49 42.84 0.14 4.38 0.79
      致密暗色纹层 129.20 80.75 34.64 0.22 1.60 0.51 0.37 0.87
      158.71 75.68 36.63 0.29 2.10 2.22
      131.70 102.83 38.55 0.39 1.28 0.82 0.65
      148.09 100.93 39.68 0.32 1.47 1.70 0.16
      107.75 45.77 28.85 0.08 3.73 0.80
      230.33 102.94 47.95 0.07 2.24 0.62 1.11
      259.46 68.72 40.80 0.29 3.78 0.58
      182.80 100.21 41.62 0.23 1.82 0.80
      波状或致密亮晶纹层(亮晶) 475.80 70.03 42.21 1.17 6.79 0.81 0.72
      302.48 75.87 48.44 0.77 3.99 1.41 0.36 2.31
      144.01 43.51 31.79 0.33 3.31 0.33
      凝块核心 82.27 81.33 39.38 0.46 4.84 1.75 0.47 1.32
      525.77 190.99 37.19 0.13 2.75 0.88
      后期流体 29.58 232.23 25.74 0.13 0.13 2.56 0.10
      17.78 154.80 26.40 0.07 0.11 2.44 0.64 1.53
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2022-03-05
    • 刊出日期:  2023-04-25

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