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    堰塞体溃决流量与溃口形态演化数值模拟

    梅胜尧 钟启明 陈生水 单熠博

    梅胜尧, 钟启明, 陈生水, 单熠博, 2023. 堰塞体溃决流量与溃口形态演化数值模拟. 地球科学, 48(4): 1634-1648. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.360
    引用本文: 梅胜尧, 钟启明, 陈生水, 单熠博, 2023. 堰塞体溃决流量与溃口形态演化数值模拟. 地球科学, 48(4): 1634-1648. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.360
    Mei Shengyao, Zhong Qiming, Chen Shengshui, Shan Yibo, 2023. Numerical Simulation of Breach Hydrograph and Morphology Evolution during Landslide Dam Breaching. Earth Science, 48(4): 1634-1648. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.360
    Citation: Mei Shengyao, Zhong Qiming, Chen Shengshui, Shan Yibo, 2023. Numerical Simulation of Breach Hydrograph and Morphology Evolution during Landslide Dam Breaching. Earth Science, 48(4): 1634-1648. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.360

    堰塞体溃决流量与溃口形态演化数值模拟

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.360
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金联合基金重点项目 U2040221

    国家重点研发计划课题 2018YFC1508604

    中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金 Y721006

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      梅胜尧(1995—),男,博士研究生,主要从事堰塞湖溃决灾害预测理论与防控方面研究. ORCID:0000-0002-0107-4998. E-mail:symei@nhri.cn

      通讯作者:

      钟启明, E-mail: qmzhong@nhri.cn

    • 中图分类号: P694

    Numerical Simulation of Breach Hydrograph and Morphology Evolution during Landslide Dam Breaching

    • 摘要: 堰塞体是山区常见的地质灾害,一旦发生溃决,将对下游人民的生命财产安全构成严重威胁.在应急响应时需要对堰塞体溃口流量过程和溃口形态演化进行快速准确的预测,但目前的溃坝数学模型大多未充分考虑堰塞体的地貌学特征,无法合理反映复杂地形下堰塞体的溃决过程.采用雷诺平均Navier-Stokes方程和湍流重正化群k-ε模型相结合的数值方法,对复杂地形下的溃决水流进行模拟,并利用可考虑推移质和悬移质输移的冲蚀公式模拟溃口冲蚀过程,选择拥有详细勘测资料和水文数据的“11·03”白格堰塞体溃决案例进行反演分析.对比计算和实测的溃口流量过程线、溃决过程水动力学特征及最终溃口断面形态发现,模拟结果可较好地反映堰塞体的实际溃决过程,验证了模型的合理性.

       

    • 图  1  我国典型堰塞体溃决案例

      a.唐家山堰塞体;b.“11·03”白格堰塞体

      Fig.  1.  Typical failure cases of landslide dams in China

      图  2  漫顶溃决过程示意图

      Fig.  2.  Schematic diagram of overtopping breach process

      图  3  唐家山堰塞体溃口实测等高线及溃决前后纵断面形态示意图

      Fig.  3.  The measured contour line of Tangjiashan landslide dam breach and the schematic diagram of longitudinal section before and after the breach

      图  4  “11·03”白格堰塞体溃口实测等高线及溃决前后纵断面形态示意图

      Fig.  4.  The measured contour line of "11·03" Baige landslide dam breach and the schematic diagram of longitudinal section before and after the breach

      图  5  坝料冲蚀模型示意图

      a.推移质与悬移质转化;b.溃口物质运动模式转化分析(局部放大图)

      Fig.  5.  Schematic representation of dam material erosion model

      图  6  典型推移质公式比较

      Fig.  6.  Comparison of typical bed load formulas

      图  7  白格堰塞体地理位置

      Fig.  7.  Geographical location of Baige landslide dam

      图  8  “11·03”白格堰塞体区域图像

      a.现场滑坡区域;b.堰塞体形态;c.滑坡区域三维示意图

      Fig.  8.  Regional images of "11·03" Baige landslide dam

      图  9  “11·03”白格堰塞体断面示意图

      a.横河向断面; b.顺河向断面

      Fig.  9.  Section diagrams of profiles of "11·03" Baige landslide dam

      图  10  数值模型示意图

      a.堰塞体模型; b.堰塞体监测

      Fig.  10.  Schematic diagrams of numerical model

      图  11  “11·03”白格堰塞体溃口流量过程计算值与实测值对比

      Fig.  11.  Comparison of calculated and measured breach hydrographs of "11·03" Baige landslide dam

      图  12  现场实测与数值模拟的“11·03”白格堰塞体溃口形态对比

      a.泄流槽过流; b.溯源冲蚀; c.沿程侵蚀; d.溃口稳定

      Fig.  12.  Comparison of calculated and measured breach morphologies of "11·03" Baige landslide dam

      图  13  不同监测点自由液面变化(a)、水深变化(b)和平均流速变化(c)

      Fig.  13.  Variations of free surface elevation (a), flow depth (b) and flow velocity (c) at different monitoring points

      图  14  “11·03”白格堰塞体溃决后实测断面位置

      Fig.  14.  The locations of measured cross sections after the breach of "11·03" Baige landslide dam

      图  15  四处典型断面最终溃口形态计算值与实测值比较

      a.断面1-1';b.断面2-2';c.断面3-3';d.断面4-4'

      Fig.  15.  Comparison of calculated and measured final breach topographies at four typical cross sections

      图  16  堰塞体溃决后纵断面计算与实测形态对比

      Fig.  16.  Comparison of calculated and measured topographies in the longitudinal section after landslide dam breaching

      表  1  数学模型输入参数

      Table  1.   Input parameters of numerical model

      参数 d50 (mm) ρs (kg/m3) α K φ (°)
      输入值 8 2 650 0.018 8 38
      下载: 导出CSV
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