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    内蒙古巴音戈壁盆地塔木素碱矿Na-碳酸盐成因模式

    戴朝成 钟炽涛 刘晓东 向龙 许亚鑫

    戴朝成, 钟炽涛, 刘晓东, 向龙, 许亚鑫, 2024. 内蒙古巴音戈壁盆地塔木素碱矿Na-碳酸盐成因模式. 地球科学, 49(4): 1207-1223. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.447
    引用本文: 戴朝成, 钟炽涛, 刘晓东, 向龙, 许亚鑫, 2024. 内蒙古巴音戈壁盆地塔木素碱矿Na-碳酸盐成因模式. 地球科学, 49(4): 1207-1223. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.447
    Dai Chaocheng, Zhong Chitao, Liu Xiaodong, Xiang Long, Xu Yaxin, 2024. Genetic Model of Na-Cabonate in Tamusu Trona Deposit, Bayingobi Basin, Inner Mongolia. Earth Science, 49(4): 1207-1223. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.447
    Citation: Dai Chaocheng, Zhong Chitao, Liu Xiaodong, Xiang Long, Xu Yaxin, 2024. Genetic Model of Na-Cabonate in Tamusu Trona Deposit, Bayingobi Basin, Inner Mongolia. Earth Science, 49(4): 1207-1223. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.447

    内蒙古巴音戈壁盆地塔木素碱矿Na-碳酸盐成因模式

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2022.447
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金 42302044

    国防科技工业局项目 科工二司[2014]1587号

    中国铀业有限公司-东华理工大学核资源与环境国家重点实验室联合创新基金 2022NRE-LH-01

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      戴朝成(1980-),男,副教授,博士,从事地层学研究.ORCID:0000-0003-2139-9914. E-mail:daichaocheng@qq.com

    • 中图分类号: P611

    Genetic Model of Na-Cabonate in Tamusu Trona Deposit, Bayingobi Basin, Inner Mongolia

    • 摘要: 内蒙古巴音戈壁盆地哈日凹陷下白垩统巴音戈壁组沉积时期为典型的碳酸盐型碱湖,盆地咸化过程中发育大量的Na-碳酸盐类矿物.通过对巴音戈壁组碱矿层中似层状、斑点状和脉状Na-碳酸盐矿物开展了电子探针、X衍射、碳氧同位素和激光拉曼光谱等分析,结果表明碱矿层中Na-碳酸盐矿物主要为天然碱、苏打石、碳钠钙石、碳钠镁石和磷碳镁钠石.除Na-碳酸盐外,岩石中含少量黄铁矿、钠型菱沸石、硅硼钠石和钠长石等热液矿物.碳、氧同位素研究结果表明巴音戈壁盆地下白垩统碱矿层形成于封闭的碱湖环境,碳酸盐矿物形成温度为34~80 ℃(平均值57 ℃),受热水喷流沉积作用和蒸发作用双重控制,碱矿层中硅酸盐矿物首先形成,然后形成白云石和方解石,在Ca2+、Mg2+消耗殆尽后,天然碱和苏打石发生沉淀,由于热水带来充足的Na+,前期形成白云石和方解石发生交代作用形成碳钠钙石和碳钠镁石.在矿物学和地球化学综合分析基础上,建立了热水喷流和蒸发沉积双重控制下的碱湖Na-碳酸盐岩沉积模式,以期为碱矿勘查提供新的思路.

       

    • 图  1  哈日凹陷区位及构造单元划分(a)、构造剖面(b)及地层柱状图(据陈志鹏和任战利, 2018)(c)

      Fig.  1.  Location and structural unit division of Hari sag (a), structural section (b) and stratigraphic histogram(after Chen and Ren, 2018) (c)

      图  2  巴音戈壁组碱矿层柱状图

      a. zky001井巴音戈壁组二段柱状图;b. 图a局部放大岩性柱;c.图b钻井岩心照片

      Fig.  2.  Histogram of alkali ore bed in Bayingobi Formation

      图  3  巴音戈壁盆地塔木素碱矿中Na-碳酸盐矿物特征

      Fig.  3.  Characteristics of Na-carbonate minerals in the Tamusu Trona deposit in the Bayingobi basin

      图  4  巴音戈壁盆地塔木素碱矿中常见矿物

      a. 硅硼钠石,zky03井,572 m,正交偏光;b. 硼砂,zky203井,433.71 m,单偏光;c. 针状黄铁矿,zky03井,574 m,BSE图像;d. 碳钠钙石和天然碱,zk203井,447 m,岩心照片;e. 碳钠钙石生长过程中造成纹层软沉积变形,碳钠镁石交代碳钠钙石,zky001井,433 m,正交偏光;f. 碳钠镁石沿矿物边部和解理交代碳钠钙石,zky001井,433 m,正交偏光

      Fig.  4.  Common minerals in the Tamusu Trona deposit in the Bayingobi Basin

      图  5  巴音戈壁组全岩岩心样品X衍射分析

      a. 样品zk40-W(471m);b. 样品zky203-W(433m);c. 样品zky001-W(433m);d. 样品zk40-B、zky203-B和zky001-B,其中样编号-W是指岩心中白色部位矿物,样品编号-B是指岩心中暗色部位矿物

      Fig.  5.  X-ray diffraction analysis of the whole core sample of the Bayingobi Formation

      图  6  碳酸盐碳、氧同位素与不同湖泊开放程度对比分析

      刘传联等(2001)王春连等(2013)伊海生等(2007)

      Fig.  6.  Carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate and openness comparative analysis in different lakes

      图  7  巴音戈壁组火山岩平面分布

      Fig.  7.  Plane distribution of volcanic rocks of the Bayingobi Formation

      图  8  Na-碳酸盐成因模式示意图

      Fig.  8.  Schematic diagram of the genetic model of Na-carbonate

      表  1  巴音戈壁盆地碱矿层矿物电子探针定量分析数据(%)

      Table  1.   EPMA quantitative analysis data of trona deposit minerals in Bayingobi basin

      序号 样品编号 Cl CaO FeO F SiO2 MgO SO3 P2O5 Na2O B2O3 合计(%) 矿物名称
      1 zk40-1-1 0.499 3.799 0.185 / 0.147 0.006 0.067 1.074 1.362 / 7.026 碳钠钙石
      3 zk40-2-1 0.018 / / 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.013 / 21.517 2.341 23.901 苏打石
      4 zk40-2-2 0.016 / 0.005 0.042 0.007 0.014 0.010 0.012 14.637 / 14.721 苏打石
      6 zk40-3-2 0.015 0.015 0.027 0.029 0.014 0.011 0.025 0.002 9.576 / 9.699 苏打石
      7 zk40-4-1 0.002 0.065 0.083 0.022 0.101 0.025 0.020 0.020 29.750 2.948 33.027 苏打石
      8 zk40-4-2 0.007 0.036 0.022 0.097 0.025 / 0.021 / 7.791 2.839 10.795 苏打石
      9 zk40-5-1 / / 0.039 0.013 0.012 0.017 / / 10.249 / 10.325 苏打石
      10 zk40-5-2 0.008 0.015 / 0.064 0.008 0.011 0.020 0.010 15.387 2.965 18.459 苏打石
      11 zk40-6-1 0.040 0.053 0.011 0.028 0.012 / 0.033 0.034 8.919 2.761 11.870 苏打石
      12 zk40-6-2 0.005 / 0.028 0.049 0.002 / 0.015 / 29.754 1.433 31.264 苏打石
      13 zk40-7-1 0.006 0.021 0.044 0.017 0.009 / 0.015 0.005 27.257 / 27.366 苏打石
      14 zk40-7-2 0.008 / / 0.096 0.014 0.002 0.004 0.021 16.968 8.735 25.806 苏打石
      15 zky001-1-1 0.002 42.108 0.028 / / / / 0.035 21.228 / 63.401 碳钠钙石
      16 zky001-1-2 0.016 49.370 / / / / / 0.019 10.847 4.186 64.434 碳钠钙石
      18 zky001-1-4 0.009 45.686 0.017 / / / / 0.054 10.738 / 56.502 碳钠钙石
      19 zky001-2-1 0.014 49.429 / / / / / 0.004 8.203 1.150 58.797 碳钠钙石
      20 zky001-2-2 0.083 30.861 0.686 / 5.510 0.006 0.040 0.021 14.797 / 51.985 碳钠钙石
      21 zky001-2-3 / 49.723 0.034 / / 0.010 0.004 / 9.137 / 58.908 碳钠钙石
      22 zky001-2-4 0.008 49.086 / / / / 0.009 0.007 10.734 / 59.842 碳钠钙石
      23 zky001-3-1 / 38.699 / / / / 0.013 / 14.226 / 52.938 碳钠钙石
      24 zky001-3-2 / 43.068 / / / / 0.014 0.002 12.825 / 55.909 碳钠钙石
      25 zky001-4-1 / 48.122 / / / 0.010 0.018 0.054 9.015 / 57.219 碳钠钙石
      26 zky001-4-2 0.004 44.877 0.017 / / / / 0.013 12.111 / 57.021 碳钠钙石
      27 zky001-5-1 0.004 40.985 0.011 / / / / 0.298 11.504 1.939 54.740 碳钠钙石
      28 zky001-5-2 / 45.006 0.028 / / / / 0.028 11.895 1.289 58.246 碳钠钙石
      29 zky001-5-3 0.017 46.880 0.045 / / / / 0.024 11.445 2.374 60.781 碳钠钙石
      30 zky001-5-4 0.010 45.249 0.051 / / 0.028 / 0.013 11.414 / 56.763 碳钠钙石
      31 zky001-6-1 0.128 33.311 0.119 / 0.141 0.024 0.063 0.046 9.207 / 43.010 碳钠钙石
      32 zky001-6-2 0.021 43.974 0.011 / / / / 0.042 14.206 0.642 58.891 碳钠钙石
      33 zky001-6-3 0.008 46.507 / / / / 0.002 0.002 13.688 3.495 63.700 碳钠钙石
      34 zky001-6-4 0.026 47.114 0.080 / / 0.012 0.009 0.009 13.368 3.233 63.845 碳钠钙石
      35 zky001-6-5 / 46.193 0.131 / / / 0.002 / 13.667 0.313 60.306 碳钠钙石
      36 zky001-7-1 0.010 0.045 / / 59.460 / 0.034 0.017 1.239 / 60.803 钠长石
      37 zky001-7-2 0.110 0.026 / / 58.950 0.022 0.019 0.037 1.098 / 60.237 钠长石
      38 zky001-7-3 0.033 0.083 0.057 / 55.161 / 0.003 0.085 1.178 / 56.593 钠长石
      39 zky001-8-1 0.022 46.325 / / / 0.002 / 0.044 12.040 1.208 59.636 碳钠钙石
      40 zky001-8-2 / 45.292 0.057 / / 0.018 0.002 / 12.062 / 57.431 碳钠钙石
      41 zky001-9-1 0.036 45.919 0.011 / / / 0.011 0.022 10.690 1.835 58.516 碳钠钙石
      42 zky001-9-2 0.003 39.520 / / / 0.036 / / 12.449 / 52.007 碳钠钙石
      43 zky001-9-3 / 40.567 / / / 0.002 0.006 0.031 11.306 / 51.912 碳钠钙石
      44 zky001-9-4 / 45.076 / / / / / 0.035 10.249 1.607 56.967 碳钠钙石
      45 zky03(574)-1 0.002 3.718 0.091 / 58.814 0.010 0.011 0.030 10.414 / 73.090 钠菱沸石
      46 zky03(574)-2 / 0.070 0.119 / 64.745 0.010 0.014 / 12.729 / 77.687 钠菱沸石
      47 zky03(574)-3 0.006 2.888 0.102 / 60.940 0.020 0.004 / 10.875 / 74.834 钠菱沸石
      48 zky03(574)-4 / 11.115 20.778 / 38.533 6.959 0.036 / 1.553 4.874 83.848 黄铁矿
      49 zky03(574)-5 0.010 0.064 0.193 / 60.852 / / / 1.322 / 62.439 钠长石
      50 zky03(572)-1-1 0.081 36.923 0.161 / 0.567 0.036 / 0.011 12.647 / 50.408 碳钠钙石
      51 zky03(572)-2-1 0.010 38.526 0.028 0.276 / / 0.028 / 16.523 3.226 58.499 碳钠钙石
      52 zky03(572)-2-2 0.011 49.438 0.006 / / / / / 5.836 / 55.289 方解石
      53 zky03(572)-3-1 0.022 0.918 0.067 / 62.659 0.005 0.096 0.014 11.937 5.495 81.208 硅硼钠石
      54 zky03(572)-4-1 0.001 37.614 0.011 0.107 / 0.014 0.010 / 17.933 / 55.645 碳钠钙石
      55 zky03(572)-4-2 0.028 49.992 0.084 / / 0.015 / 0.042 6.728 / 56.883 碳钠钙石
      56 zky03(572)-5-1 0.013 61.140 0.237 0.001 / 0.141 0.023 0.048 0.082 3.267 64.949 方解石
      57 zky03(572)-5-2 0.001 46.290 0.022 0.238 / 0.004 0.014 0.019 11.566 / 58.054 碳钠钙石
      58 zky03(572)-5-3 0.005 44.361 0.028 0.137 / / / / 18.290 / 62.762 碳钠钙石
      59 zky03(572)-6-1 / 46.007 0.039 0.045 / 8.728 / 7.521 15.235 / 77.556 磷碳镁钠石
      60 zky03(572)-6-2 0.015 49.681 / / 0.013 / / 0.026 7.971 / 57.703 碳钠钙石
      61 zky03(572)-7-1 0.012 50.520 / 0.286 / / / 0.332 9.973 / 61.000 碳钠钙石
      62 zky03(572)-7-2 0.001 51.302 / 0.175 / / 0.016 / 17.74 4.512 73.672 碳钠钙石
      63 zky03(572)-7-3 0.007 46.875 / 0.113 / 0.011 / 8.156 2.527 57.639 碳钠钙石
      64 zky03(572)-8-1 / 49.038 0.113 / 0.093 0.184 0.010 / 7.834 / 57.272 碳钠钙石
      65 zky03(572)-8-2 0.001 50.770 0.124 / / 0.021 0.070 0.006 6.360 / 57.352 碳钠钙石
      66 zky03(572)-8-3 / 49.560 0.084 0.182 / / / / 17.029 / 66.778 碳钠钙石
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  巴音戈壁盆地碱矿层碳氧同位素分析测试结果

      Table  2.   Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis and test results of trona deposit in Bayingobi basin

      样品号 层位 岩性/矿物 深度(m) δ13CVPDB(‰) δ18OVPDB(‰) Z
      Z-8 巴音戈壁组 白云质泥岩 341.0 3.08 -9.56 128.84
      Z-2 白云质泥岩 387.0 7.22 -5.83 139.19
      Z-3 白云质泥岩 403.0 -2.63 -2.47 120.67
      Z-9 白云质泥岩 407.0 1.83 -9.68 126.22
      Z-4 白云质泥岩 433.0 0.28 -9.27 123.25
      Z-5 白云质泥岩 433.7 5.09 -4.62 135.42
      Z-6 白云质泥岩 471.8 3.72 -8.04 130.90
      Z-7 白云质泥岩 574.0 3.35 -8.75 129.79
      Z-11 苏打石 387.0 1.72 -10.25 125.72
      Z-18 苏打石 407.0 2.78 -3.73 131.13
      Z-17 苏打石、天然碱 341.0 2.22 -2.86 130.43
      Z-1 天然碱 337.0 8.88 -5.38 142.80
      Z-12 天然碱 403.0 1.20 -9.93 124.81
      Z-13 天然碱 433.0 4.44 -0.91 135.94
      Z-14 天然碱 433.7 4.31 -0.78 135.73
      Z-15 碳钠钙石 471.8 3.77 -1.80 134.11
      Z-16 碳钠钙石 574.0 2.66 -3.34 131.08
      min -2.63 -10.25 120.67
      max 8.88 -0.78 142.81
      average 3.17 -5.72 130.95
      注:Z=2.048(δ13CVPDB+50)+0.498(δ18OVPDB+50) (Keith and Weber, 1964); t=16.9-4.38(δ18OVPDB, C18OVPDB, P)+0.10(δ18OVPDB, C18OVPDB, P)2, 其中,δ13CVPDB为样品的δ13C值, 单位为‰;δ18OVPDB, C为样品的δ18O值, 单位为‰;δ18OV-PDB, P为古水体的δ18O值, 单位为‰,温度t的单位为℃.
      下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2022-07-18
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