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    “V”型共轭走滑断裂:特征、形成机制及其对青藏高原东南缘晚新生代变形的启示

    王锦涵 石许华 陈汉林 杨蓉 章凤奇 程晓敢 饶刚 邓洪旦 龚俊峰 舒远海 白卓娜

    王锦涵, 石许华, 陈汉林, 杨蓉, 章凤奇, 程晓敢, 饶刚, 邓洪旦, 龚俊峰, 舒远海, 白卓娜, 2023. “V”型共轭走滑断裂:特征、形成机制及其对青藏高原东南缘晚新生代变形的启示. 地球科学, 48(4): 1421-1440. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.019
    引用本文: 王锦涵, 石许华, 陈汉林, 杨蓉, 章凤奇, 程晓敢, 饶刚, 邓洪旦, 龚俊峰, 舒远海, 白卓娜, 2023. “V”型共轭走滑断裂:特征、形成机制及其对青藏高原东南缘晚新生代变形的启示. 地球科学, 48(4): 1421-1440. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.019
    Wang Jinhan, Shi Xuhua, Chen Hanlin, Yang Rong, Zhang Fengqi, Cheng Xiaogan, Rao Gang, Deng Hongdan, Gong Junfeng, Shu Yuanhai, Bai Zhuona, 2023. V-Shaped Conjugate Strike-Slip Faults: Characteristics, Formation Mechanisms and Implications for the Late Cenozoic Deformation in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Earth Science, 48(4): 1421-1440. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.019
    Citation: Wang Jinhan, Shi Xuhua, Chen Hanlin, Yang Rong, Zhang Fengqi, Cheng Xiaogan, Rao Gang, Deng Hongdan, Gong Junfeng, Shu Yuanhai, Bai Zhuona, 2023. V-Shaped Conjugate Strike-Slip Faults: Characteristics, Formation Mechanisms and Implications for the Late Cenozoic Deformation in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Earth Science, 48(4): 1421-1440. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.019

    “V”型共轭走滑断裂:特征、形成机制及其对青藏高原东南缘晚新生代变形的启示

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.019
    基金项目: 

    国家自然科学基金项目 41941016

    国家自然科学基金项目 51988101

    国家自然科学基金项目 41972227

    浙江省钱江人才计划项目 QJD190202

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      王锦涵(1998-), 女, 博士研究生, 从事构造地质学研究.ORCID: 0000-0003-2620-2519.E-mail: wangjinhan@zju.edu.cn

      通讯作者:

      石许华, ORCID: 0000-0003-0636-5708.E-mail: shixuhua@zju.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P546

    V-Shaped Conjugate Strike-Slip Faults: Characteristics, Formation Mechanisms and Implications for the Late Cenozoic Deformation in the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    • 摘要: “V”型共轭走滑断裂是指共轭角为钝角的共轭走滑断裂,其“V”型开口方向为锐角且指示最大拉伸方向.前人开展了大量关于“V”型共轭走滑断裂发育背景及动力学机制的研究,但是目前未有针对“V”型共轭断裂几何学、运动学有关的综述.归纳已有“V”型共轭走滑断裂的几何学、运动学特征,总结现存的“V”型共轭走滑断裂的动力学机制,并选取青藏高原东南缘“V”型共轭走滑断裂,进行实例分析.分布于美国西部、欧亚板块中西部和西藏中部的“V”型共轭走滑断裂特征揭示共轭角大小与断裂滑动速率及断裂长度均呈负相关关系.“V”型共轭走滑断裂的成因主要有:(1)断裂剪切面的后期旋转,(2)断裂形成于先存构造薄弱带,(3)断裂遵循对偶一般剪切模型,(4)断裂遵守最大有效力矩法则.基于地球物理数据、地形高差对比以及几何特征的分析,认为青藏高原东南缘川滇块体内部的巴塘-理塘共轭走滑断裂和得荣-乡城共轭走滑断裂的成因机制符合对偶一般剪切模型中的重力扩展,这为理解青藏高原东南缘下地壳连续变形的动力学机制提供了重要启示.

       

    • 图  1  纯剪切共轭走滑断裂模型(据Fossen,2016修改)

      黑色实线表示断裂面;黑虚线表示主应力方向;σ1为最大主应力方向;σ2为中间主应力方向;σ3为最小主应力方向;θ0为剪切角

      Fig.  1.  Pure shear conjugate model for the formation of strike-slip faults (modified form Fossen, 2016)

      图  2  “V”型共轭走滑断裂的几何形态

      a.两条共轭断裂合并,滑动在合并断裂上继续发生;b.两条共轭断裂运动终止于“V”字型尖端.黑色实线为走滑断裂,σ1为最大主应力,箭头指示应力方向;θ0为剪切角

      Fig.  2.  Geometry of the V-shaped conjugate strike-slip faults

      图  3  圣安德烈斯-加洛克共轭走滑断裂示意图(a)及共轭角示意图(b)(改自Hatem and Dolan, 2018

      BB. “大弯曲”;GLF. 加洛克断裂;KL. Koehn湖;PKV. Pilot Knob山谷;SAF. 圣安德烈斯断裂;SGP. 圣戈尔戈尼奥山口;白色方框为前人晚第四纪滑动速率(mm/a)位置:(1)Cooke and Dair(2011)McGill et al.(2013).(2)McGill et al.(2009).(3)McGill and Sieh(1993)Ganev et al.(2012)Crane(2014)Dolan et al.(2016).(4)Crane(2014)

      Fig.  3.  Sketch map of the San Andreas-Garlock conjugate strike-slip fault system (a) and the conjugate angle (b) (modified from Hatem and Dolan, 2018)

      图  4  安纳托利亚块体及邻区主要构造单元(改自Barka and Kadinsky-Cade, 1988

      a.北安纳托利亚断裂和东安纳托利亚断裂交汇在卡尔勒奥瓦三联点(K),西侧为卡尔勒奥瓦盆地(KB.Karliova Basin).白色方框为前人晚第四纪滑动速率(mm/a)位置:(1)Kozacı et al.(2009);(2)Cetin et al.(2003);b.北-东安纳托利亚共轭走滑断裂共轭角为135°.EAF.东安纳托利亚断裂;NAF.北安纳托利亚断裂;T.塔绍瓦地区

      Fig.  4.  Major tectonic elements of Anatolian block and adjacent area(modified form Barka and Kadinsky-Cade, 1988)

      图  5  欧亚板块中部区域构造图(改自Shnizai et al., 2020

      a.赫拉特-查曼共轭走滑断裂图;白色方框为前人晚第四纪滑动速率(mm/a)位置:(1)Mohadjer et al.(2016);(2)Shnizai et al.(2020). b.赫拉特-查曼共轭断裂共轭角大小

      Fig.  5.  Regional tectonic map of the central Eurasian plate (modified from Shnizai et al., 2020)

      图  6  西藏中部区域构造图(改自Taylor et al., 2003

      a.西藏中部共轭走滑断裂系;b.共轭断裂系共轭角大小. ①布木错断裂;②拉木错-纳屋错断裂;③日干配错断裂;④格仁错断裂;⑤懂错断裂;⑥崩错断裂.(1)刘富财等(2022);(2)Shi et al.(2014)Wang et al.(2021);(3)Hollingsworth et al.(2010)Li et al.(2022).白色方框为前人晚第四纪滑动速率(mm/a)位置

      Fig.  6.  Regional tectonic map of the central Tibet (modified from Taylor et al., 2003)

      图  7  共轭角大小与断裂滑动速率和断裂长度的关系

      a.共轭角大小与滑动速率关系图;b.共轭角大小与断裂长度关系图.BF.崩错断裂;CF.查曼断裂;DF.懂错断裂;EAF.东安纳托利亚断裂;GF.格仁错断裂;GLF.加洛克断裂;HF.赫拉特断裂;LMF.拉木错-纳屋错断裂;NAF.北安纳托利亚断裂;RGPF.日干配错断裂;SAF.圣安德烈斯断裂

      Fig.  7.  Relationships between the conjugate angle and the fault slip rate (a) or fault length (b)

      图  8  断层面的旋转(改自Freund, 1970).

      Fig.  8.  The rotation of fault planes (modified form Freund, 1970)

      图  9  断裂面旋转之后的几何模型(改自Freund,1970

      r.旋转角;d.位移;w.相邻断裂之间的宽度;s.剪切角

      Fig.  9.  A geometrical model of the restoration of the strike-slip faults (modified from Freund, 1970)

      图  10  对偶一般剪切模型(改自Yin and Taylor, 2011

      Fig.  10.  Paired General Shear deformation model (modified from Yin and Taylor, 2011)

      图  11  库伦准则和最大有效力矩准则(改自Zheng et al., 2011

      σ13. 材料的屈服强度;$ \alpha $. σ1和剪切面之间的角度;L. 单位长度;灰色的区域显示了从实验到野外观测测得的数据;深灰色的区域涵盖了Gómez-Rivas and Carreras(2008)实验中提供的数据;4个垂直线代表Kurz and Northrup(2008)在自然界中测量的4个共轭角

      Fig.  11.  Coulomb criterion and the maximum effective moment criterion (modified from Zheng et al., 2011)

      图  12  巴塘-理塘共轭走滑断裂示意图(改自Su et al., 2012

      巴塘-理塘断裂面最大拉伸方向角度为80°,共轭角大小为100°

      Fig.  12.  Sketch map of the Batang-Litang conjugate strike-slip fault system (modified from Su et al., 2012)

      图  13  得荣-乡城断裂的地貌位错图(改自Su et al., 2012

      得荣-乡城断裂面最大拉伸方向角度为70°,共轭角大小为110°

      Fig.  13.  Geomorphic displacement along the Derong-Xiangcheng conjugate strike-slip faults (modified from Su et al., 2012)

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