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    低渗砂砾岩储层三元孔隙结构特征及其渗流机理与改善水驱对策

    彭小东 张辉 汪新光 赵楠 王磊 张恒荣 杨朝强 储莎莎 孙雷 杨宇

    彭小东, 张辉, 汪新光, 赵楠, 王磊, 张恒荣, 杨朝强, 储莎莎, 孙雷, 杨宇, 2023. 低渗砂砾岩储层三元孔隙结构特征及其渗流机理与改善水驱对策. 地球科学, 48(8): 2960-2978. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.032
    引用本文: 彭小东, 张辉, 汪新光, 赵楠, 王磊, 张恒荣, 杨朝强, 储莎莎, 孙雷, 杨宇, 2023. 低渗砂砾岩储层三元孔隙结构特征及其渗流机理与改善水驱对策. 地球科学, 48(8): 2960-2978. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.032
    Peng Xiaodong, Zhang Hui, Wang Xinguang, Zhao Nan, Wang Lei, Zhang Hengrong, Yang Chaoqiang, Chu Shasha, Sun Lei, Yang Yu, 2023. Enhanced Water⁃Drive Recovery Based on Microscopic Seepage Mechanism for Low Permeability Glutenite Reservoir with Ternary Pore⁃Throat Structure Characteristics of WS Field. Earth Science, 48(8): 2960-2978. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.032
    Citation: Peng Xiaodong, Zhang Hui, Wang Xinguang, Zhao Nan, Wang Lei, Zhang Hengrong, Yang Chaoqiang, Chu Shasha, Sun Lei, Yang Yu, 2023. Enhanced Water⁃Drive Recovery Based on Microscopic Seepage Mechanism for Low Permeability Glutenite Reservoir with Ternary Pore⁃Throat Structure Characteristics of WS Field. Earth Science, 48(8): 2960-2978. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.032

    低渗砂砾岩储层三元孔隙结构特征及其渗流机理与改善水驱对策

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.032
    基金项目: 

    国家科技重大专项“大型油气田及煤层气开发”课题“南海西部海域低渗油藏勘探开发关键技术” 2016ZX05024⁃006

    中国海洋石油有限公司重大科技专项“南海西部油田上产2 000万方关键技术研究” CNOOC⁃KJ135ZDXM38ZJ

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      彭小东(1987-),男,高级工程师,主要从事油气藏工程和油气田开发研究工作. E-mail:41294776@qq.com

    • 中图分类号: P618.13

    Enhanced Water⁃Drive Recovery Based on Microscopic Seepage Mechanism for Low Permeability Glutenite Reservoir with Ternary Pore⁃Throat Structure Characteristics of WS Field

    • 摘要: 针对低渗砂砾岩与砂岩储层产能测试结果差异大的问题,以北部湾盆地乌石凹陷流沙港组低渗砂砾岩储层为主要研究对象,通过设计室内岩心实验开展了微观孔隙结构、微观渗流能力、微观渗流特征和改善水驱提高采收率策略研究. 研究发现,乌石凹陷流沙港组低渗砂砾岩储层具有三元孔隙结构特征,大孔喉和微小孔喉更加发育,导致“高气测渗透率、低液测渗透率、低驱油效率”的渗流特征和“大孔喉富含注入水、中吼喉富含剩余油、微小孔喉富含原始束缚水”的剩余油微观分布特征,提高微观波及系数、增加中孔喉动用率是提高采收率的关键,建议采用注低价高矿化水转变润湿性和不稳定注水发挥渗吸作用的策略改善水驱效果、提高最终采收率.

       

    • 图  1  北部湾盆地构造位置图

      Fig.  1.  Location of Beibuwan Basin

      图  2  研究区典型岩心对比

      a. 乌石17油田流三段;b.乌石16油田流二段;c.涠洲7油田流三段

      Fig.  2.  Comparison of typical cores

      图  3  粒度概率曲线

      a.乌石17油田流三段;b.乌石16油田流二段;c.涠洲7油田流三段

      Fig.  3.  Grain size probability curve

      图  4  砂砾岩岩心粘土矿物扫描电镜图

      a.粒间孔隙充填钾长石、丝片状伊利石,WS17⁃9井2 778.41 m;b.颗粒间被蜂窝状伊/蒙混层充填,WS17⁃9井2 777.70 m

      Fig.  4.  SEM of clay minerals in glutenitecore

      图  5  不同岩性孔隙类型直方图对比

      Fig.  5.  Histogram comparison of pore types in different lithology

      图  6  砂砾岩铸体薄片次生孔隙照片

      a.铸模孔、长石粒内溶孔,WS17⁃9井,2 774.6 m;b.岩屑粒内溶孔,WS17⁃9井,2 779.8 m

      Fig.  6.  Photos of secondary pores in thin section of glutenitecore

      图  7  砂砾岩岩心CT扫描和Qemscan矿物扫描图像

      a. 2.5 cm直径柱塞岩心CT扫描切片,WS17⁃9井2 774.35 m;据张恒荣等(2020);b. Qemscan矿物扫描图,WS17⁃9井,2 779.35 m

      Fig.  7.  CT and Qemscan images of glutenite core

      图  8  岩心高压压汞实验结果对比

      a. 进汞曲线;b.孔喉半径分布曲线;c. 进汞分形维特征曲线

      Fig.  8.  Comparison of experimental results of core high pressure mercury injection

      图  9  砂砾岩岩心3种孔隙类型示意图

      Fig.  9.  Three pore types of glutenite core

      图  10  岩心气测渗透率对比

      Fig.  10.  Comparison of core gas permeability

      图  11  岩心恒速压汞实验结果对比

      a. 岩心孔道半径分布频率对比;b. 岩心喉道半径分布频率对比;c. 岩心孔喉半径比平均值对比;d.岩心主流喉道半径对比;e.岩心单位体积孔隙有效喉道个数对比;f.岩心迂曲度对比

      Fig.  11.  Comparison of experimental results of core constant rate mercury injection

      图  12  岩心水测渗透率对比

      Fig.  12.  Comparison of water permeability

      图  13  岩心离心前后核磁共振曲线对比

      a. 砂砾岩岩心(φ=12.94%,k=7.2×10-3 μm2);b.砂岩岩心(φ=19.29%,k=3.69×10-3 μm2

      Fig.  13.  Comparison of NMR curves before and after centrifugation

      图  14  岩心离心可动水饱和度对比

      Fig.  14.  Comparison of core centrifugal movable water saturation

      图  15  岩心两相渗流能力对比

      a. 束缚水时油相渗透率;b.残余油时水相渗透率

      Fig.  15.  Comparison of core two⁃phase seepage capacity

      图  16  低渗区块探井产能测试结果对比

      a. 比采油指数;b. 试井渗透率与测井渗透率比值

      Fig.  16.  Comparison of productivity test results of exploration wells

      图  17  岩心润湿性评价结果对比

      a. 相渗束缚水饱和度;b. 相渗等渗点含水饱和度;c. 核磁共振法润湿性定量评价;d. USBM法润湿性定量评价

      Fig.  17.  Comparison of core wettability evaluation results

      图  18  岩心相渗实验结果对比

      a. 含水率与采出程度曲线;b.驱油效率与注入体积倍数曲线;c. 驱油效率与渗透率;d.驱油效率与束缚水饱和度

      Fig.  18.  Comparison of core relative permeability test results

      图  19  真实岩心的微观渗流可视化实验电子显微镜照片数字图像识别图

      a.砂岩岩心饱和模拟油完成时,模拟油在砂岩岩心薄片均匀蔓延,基本填充了整个岩心孔隙;b. 砂岩岩心地层水驱完成时,砂岩岩心基本被水饱和,剩余油主要为滞留在孔喉中非连续相的油滴残余油;c.砂砾岩岩心饱和模拟油完成时,由于非均质性影响,模拟油只填充了整个砂砾岩岩心的连通孔隙;d.砂砾岩岩心地层水驱完成时,砾岩岩心被水部分饱和,剩余油由主要为滞留在孔喉中的呈连续相的柱状残余油

      Fig.  19.  Digital recognition image of electron microscope photos in microscopic seepage visualization experiment of real core

      图  20  真实岩心的微观渗流可视化实验结果对比

      a. 残余油饱和度与渗透率关系;b.驱油效率与渗透率关系

      Fig.  20.  Comparison of visualization experimental results of microscopic seepage in real cores

      图  21  岩心不同驱替阶段核磁共振T2

      a. 砂砾岩岩心;b.砂岩岩心

      Fig.  21.  NMRt_2 relaxation spectra at different displacement stages of cores

      图  22  地层水高倍驱替前后核磁共振曲线对比

      a. 砂砾岩岩心k=7.29×10-3 μm2;b. 砂岩岩心k=6.88×10-3 μm2

      Fig.  22.  Comparison of NMR t_2 relaxation curves before and after high power water flooding

      图  23  地层水高倍驱替前后扫描电镜对比

      a.砂砾岩高倍水驱前(×80);b. 砂砾岩高倍水驱后(×100);c. 砂砾岩高倍水驱前(×600);d.砂砾岩高倍水驱后(×800)e.砂岩高倍水驱前(×100);f.砂岩高倍水驱后(×100);g.砂岩高倍水驱前(×4 000);h.砂岩高倍水驱后(×1 600)

      Fig.  23.  Comparison of SEM before and after high power water flooding

      图  24  不同注入水矿化度下的岩心水驱油实验结果

      a.矿化度减小时的相渗曲线(王磊等,2019);b. 矿化度减小时的含水上升曲线;c.矿化度增加时的相渗曲线(王磊等,2019);d.矿化度增加时的含水上升曲线

      Fig.  24.  Experimental results of water flooding with different salinity water

      图  25  岩心地层水渗吸实验结果

      a. 岩心渗吸效率随时间变化曲线;b. 岩心渗吸效率对比

      Fig.  25.  Experimental results of core imbibition

      图  26  水驱油和闷井后水驱油实验结果对比

      a.含水率对比曲线;b.驱油效率对比曲线

      Fig.  26.  Comparison between water flooding experiment and water flooding experiment after well plugging

      表  1  研究区储层特征对比

      Table  1.   Comparison of formation characteristics

      研究区 沉积环境 岩石类型 成岩相 物性
      乌石17油田流三段 扇三角洲沉积 岩屑砂砾岩、含砾中粗砂岩 强压实、极弱胶结、强溶蚀 中孔中低渗
      乌石16油田流二段 滨浅湖沉积 长石石英中、细砂岩 中等压实、中等胶结、中等溶蚀 中孔中低渗和低孔特低渗
      涠洲7油田流三段 浅水扇三角洲沉积 长石石英含砾中粗砂岩、细砂岩 强压实、弱胶结、中等溶蚀 特低孔特低渗
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  非粘土矿物含量对比表

      Table  2.   Comparison table of non clay mineral content

      井区 岩性 非粘土矿物含量(%)
      石英 钾长石 斜长石 方解石 白云石 铁白云石 黄铁矿 菱铁矿 重晶石
      乌石17油田流三段 砂砾岩 88.3 3.3 0.2 0.6 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.0
      乌石16油田流二段 砂岩 78.2 1.3 4.4 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
      涠洲7油田流三段 砂岩 73.3 7.4 0.0 3.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.2
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  粘土矿物含量和类型对比表

      Table  3.   Comparison of clay mineral contents and types

      井区 岩性 粘土矿物含量(%) 伊/蒙混层比(%) 粘土矿物总含量(%)
      伊利石 高岭石 绿泥石 伊/蒙混层 蒙皂石层 伊利石层
      乌石17油田流三段 砂砾岩 45.4 10.7 6.5 37.5 20.9 79.1 7.1
      乌石16油田流二段 砂岩 27.6 46.2 8.9 17.3 - - 14.6
      涠洲7油田流三段 砂岩 69.7 8.4 9.8 12.1 9.7 90.3 15.2
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  不同水驱倍数下岩心水驱油核磁驱替结果对比

      Table  4.   Comparison of NMR displacement results of water flooding in different PV

      岩性 渗透率(10-3 μm2 孔隙度(%) 核磁驱油效率(%)
      10PV 15PV 20PV 25PV
      砂岩 5.19 18.62 50.01 50.21 50.31 50.36
      砂砾岩 23.97 17.89 30.51 30.86 30.93 31.07
      砂砾岩 13.30 18.58 39.74 40.04 40.10 40.16
      下载: 导出CSV
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