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    非常规油气地质学理论技术及实践

    邹才能 杨智 张国生 朱如凯 陶士振 袁选俊 侯连华 董大忠 郭秋麟 宋岩 冉启全 邱振 吴松涛 马锋 白斌 王岚 熊波 潘松圻 刘翰林 王小妮

    邹才能, 杨智, 张国生, 朱如凯, 陶士振, 袁选俊, 侯连华, 董大忠, 郭秋麟, 宋岩, 冉启全, 邱振, 吴松涛, 马锋, 白斌, 王岚, 熊波, 潘松圻, 刘翰林, 王小妮, 2023. 非常规油气地质学理论技术及实践. 地球科学, 48(6): 2376-2397. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.091
    引用本文: 邹才能, 杨智, 张国生, 朱如凯, 陶士振, 袁选俊, 侯连华, 董大忠, 郭秋麟, 宋岩, 冉启全, 邱振, 吴松涛, 马锋, 白斌, 王岚, 熊波, 潘松圻, 刘翰林, 王小妮, 2023. 非常规油气地质学理论技术及实践. 地球科学, 48(6): 2376-2397. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.091
    Zou Caineng, Yang Zhi, Zhang Guosheng, Zhu Rukai, Tao Shizhen, Yuan Xuanjun, Hou Lianhua, Dong Dazhong, Guo Qiulin, Song Yan, Ran Qiquan, Qiu Zhen, Wu Songtao, Ma Feng, Bai Bin, Wang Lan, Xiong Bo, Pan Songqi, Liu Hanlin, Wang Xiaoni, 2023. Theory, Technology and Practice of Unconventional Petroleum Geology. Earth Science, 48(6): 2376-2397. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.091
    Citation: Zou Caineng, Yang Zhi, Zhang Guosheng, Zhu Rukai, Tao Shizhen, Yuan Xuanjun, Hou Lianhua, Dong Dazhong, Guo Qiulin, Song Yan, Ran Qiquan, Qiu Zhen, Wu Songtao, Ma Feng, Bai Bin, Wang Lan, Xiong Bo, Pan Songqi, Liu Hanlin, Wang Xiaoni, 2023. Theory, Technology and Practice of Unconventional Petroleum Geology. Earth Science, 48(6): 2376-2397. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.091

    非常规油气地质学理论技术及实践

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.091
    基金项目: 

    中石油科技项目 2021DJ18

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      邹才能(1963-),男,博士,中国科学院院士,中国石油勘探开发研究院教授级高级工程师、博士生导师,主要从事常规-非常规油气地质学理论研究与实践、新能源与能源战略等研究. E-mail:zcn@petrochina.com.cn

      通讯作者:

      杨智,男,博士,中国石油勘探开发研究院教授级高级工程师、博士生导师,主要从事非常规源岩层系油气地质、常规油气地质勘探等研究工作. E-mail: yangzhi2009@petrochina.com.cn

    • 中图分类号: P618

    Theory, Technology and Practice of Unconventional Petroleum Geology

    • 摘要: 形成非常规油气地质学理论技术,引领油气工业从常规到非常规,进源找油,是世界油气勘探开发形势发展和科学研究持续推进的必然趋势.研究团队紧密结合中国特殊地质背景和油气工业条件,经过10余年不懈攻关,构建了非常规细粒沉积学、非常规油气储层地质学、非常规油气成藏地质学、非常规油气开发地质学和常规-非常规油气有序“共生富集”发展战略等学科内容,集成了非常规油气关键实验技术、勘探评价技术、开发工程技术和常规-非常规油气勘探开发关键技术,基本形成了非常规油气地质学理论技术体系框架.从常规油气的“源控论”到非常规油气的“源储共生系统”,深刻认识到源岩层系及与其大面积紧密接触的致密储集层系中可以聚集巨量工业油气资源.非常规油气地质学理论技术,引领推动了非常规油气地质学科发展、关键技术研发、国家标准制定、国家实验室建设和专业人才培养,有效推进了我国致密油和气、页岩油和气等非常规油气资源的工业勘探开发,截至2022年底,中国非常规油气产量超过1×108 t油当量,约占油气总产量28%,其中非常规气约占天然气总量的41%,非常规油约占石油总量的17%.油气不可再生,但非常规油气革命可延长油气工业的生命,持续强化理论、技术和管理“三个创新”的深度融合,努力实现地下原位加热低熟页岩转化油气、地下原位加热富油煤岩转化油气和地下原位压裂脆性页岩层系产出油气“三个地下革命”的颠覆创新,不断推动以鄂尔多斯盆地为代表的超级能源盆地化石能源与新能源的协同发展,塑造碳中和下中国式超级能源盆地“油气与新能源”融合发展模式,非常规油气革命支撑油气工业可持续发展,力推实现中国“能源独立”.

       

    • 图  1  世界油气工业主要地质理论和关键技术创新发展历程(据杨智等,2021a,修改)

      Fig.  1.  Innovative development history of major geologic theories and key technologies in world petroleum history (modified from Yang et al., 2021a)

      图  2  常规-非常规油气资源形成分布与关键技术(邹才能等,2014a杨智和邹才能,2019修改)

      Fig.  2.  Conventional-unconventional petroleum resources and key technologies (after Zou et al., 2014a; Yang and Zou, 2019)

      图  3  常规与非常规油气资源有序聚集(据杨智等,2021a,有修改)

      Fig.  3.  Orderly accumulation of conventional-unconventional petroleum resources (modified from Yang et al., 2021a)

      图  4  全球/区域性重大地质事件与非常规油气“甜点区、甜点段”形成过程示意图(据邹才能等, 2022c)

      Fig.  4.  Major global/regional geologic events and schematic forming process of unconventional sweet spots (after Zou et al., 2022c)

      图  5  坳陷湖盆和断陷湖盆细粒沉积模式(据邹才能等,2023a)

      Fig.  5.  Depositional models of fine-grained sediments in depressed lake basin and faulted lake basin (after Zou et al., 2023a)

      图  6  常规-非常规油气储层孔喉结构与油气聚集类型(据邹才能等,2012b2023d杨智和邹才能,2019)

      Fig.  6.  Pore-throat structures and hydrocarbon accumulation types of conventional-unconventional reservoirs (after Zou et al., 2012b, 2023d; Yang and Zou, 2019)

      图  7  非常规油气“人工油气藏”开发模式(邹才能等,2017aYang et al., 2019b)

      Fig.  7.  Development model for artificial unconventional reservoirs (after Zou et al., 2017a; Yang et al., 2019b)

      图  8  中国不同类型非常规油气资源有利区分布示意图(据杨智等,2019)

      Fig.  8.  Schematic distribution of unconventional resources in China (after Yang et al., 2019)

      图  9  中国非常规源岩油气和致密油气理论认识、关键技术和战略定位(据杨智等,2021a,修改)

      Fig.  9.  Theoretical knowledge, key technologies, and strategic positioning of unconventional source rock oil and gas and tight oil and gas in China (after Yang et al., 2021a)

      图  10  超级盆地能源利用示意图(据邹才能等,2023b)

      Fig.  10.  Schematic energy utilization in a super basin (after Zou et al., 2023b)

      表  1  非常规源岩层系油气的主要地质特征(据邹才能等,2017b修改)

      Table  1.   Main geologic features of unconventional source rock strata oil and gas (modified from Zou et al., 2017b)

      特征 页岩气 致密砂岩气 煤岩油 煤岩气 页岩油 致密油
      分布特征 靠近盆地沉降-沉积中心 盆地中心或斜坡部位 盆地或坳陷向斜区 盆地或坳陷向斜区 深凹或斜坡页岩发育地区 盆地中心或斜坡部位
      源储关系 生储盖三位一体 源储直接接触或邻近 生储盖三位一体 生储盖三位一体 生储盖三位一体 源储直接接触或邻近
      运移方式 无运移或烃源层内短距离初次运移 初次运移或短距离二次运移 无运移或烃源层内短距离初次运移 无运移或烃源层内短距离初次运移 无运移或烃源层内短距离初次运移 初次运移或短距离二次运移
      聚集作用 页岩内弥散式分布,裂缝区富集 构造区或裂缝区富集高产 / 裂隙或割理为富集区 存在纳米孔喉系统,裂缝发育区富集 构造区或裂缝区富集高产
      流体特征 以干气为主,吸附在干酪根、孔隙中,游离于裂缝中,一般游离气比例为40%~70% 含气饱和度差异大,多数小于60%,一般游离气比例为90%~100% 游离烃比例较低 吸附气、游离气,一般游离气比例为5%~30% 以中高成熟度石油为主,一般游离烃比例为10%~30% 以中高成熟度石油为主,一般游离烃比例为20%~50%
      产烃组成特征 初期产气游离气占比80%~100%,累计产气游离气占比30%~60% 初期产气游离气占比90%~100%,累计产气游离气占比95%~100% / 初期产气游离气占比5%~25%,累计产气游离气占比0%~15% 初期产油游离烃占比95%~100%,累计产烃游离烃占比90%~100% 初期产油游离烃占比90%~100%,累计产烃游离烃占比80%~100%
      开采工艺 产量低、采收率低、生产周期长,需水平井、分段压裂等技术 储层致密,自然产能低,常需水平井压裂改造等 无或低自然产能,需水平井原位加热等转化技术 低产,无自然产能,生产周期长,需水平井、压裂、原位燃烧等技术 产量低,无或低自然产能,需水平井压裂、原位加热等改造转化技术 储层致密,自然产能低,需水平井增能驱油压裂等针对性技术
      可采资源 世界 210×1012 m3 456×1012 m3 / 256×1012 m3 15 000×108 t (400~600)×108 t
      中国 (9~13)×1012 m3 (10~25)×1012 m3 约500×108 t 11×1012 m3 (200~300)×108 t (20~25)×108 t
      2022年产量 美国 8 069×108 m3 850×108 m3 / 214×108 m3 3.99×108 t
      中国 240×108 m3 579×108 m3 / 96×108 m3 320×104 t 约1 300×104 t
      典型实例 四川盆地南部奥陶系—志留系连续型和构造型页岩气、寒武系筇竹寺组及二叠系大隆组等页岩气 鄂尔多斯盆地石炭—二叠系、四川盆地三叠系等致密砂岩气 鄂尔多斯盆地三叠—侏罗系、准噶尔盆地东部及三塘湖盆地等煤岩油 鄂尔多斯盆地中东部、沁水石炭-二叠系等煤岩气 鄂尔多斯盆地三叠系、松辽盆地白垩系、准噶尔盆地二叠系、渤海湾盆地古近系等致密油、页岩油
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  非常规油气地质学与常规油气地质学、常规-非常规油气地质学的学科理论体系区别(杨智和邹才能,2022)

      Table  2.   Theoretical systems of unconventional, conventional, and conventional-unconventional petroleum geologies (after Yang and Zou, 2022)

      学科 常规油气地质学 非常规油气地质学 常规—非常规油气地质学
      研究对象 圈闭和油气藏 核心区和甜点区 圈闭群和甜点体
      研究方法 石油地质条件、成藏要素与动态过程分析等常规石油地质方法 场发射、环境扫描、激光共聚焦、微纳米CT、矿物组分等微观技术手段 常规-非常规油气共生盆地物理及数值模拟、源控论及源储共生系统、地质工程一体化等研究手段
      学科体系 学科基础 浮力圈闭成藏理论 连续型油气聚集理论 常规—非常规油气“共生聚集”理论
      沉积学科 中粗粒沉积学等 细粒沉积学等 源—汇系统沉积学
      储层学科 毫微米储层地质学 微纳米非常规储层地质学 多尺度常规-非常规储层地质学
      聚集成藏 浮力驱动成藏 油气(准)连续聚集 常规—非常规油气“共生聚集”
      理论核心 圈闭是否成藏 储集层油气是否连续聚集 剩余油气是否全部勘探开发
      评价重点 生、储、盖、圈、运、保“6要素”及最佳匹配关系 烃源性、储集性、含油性、流动性、成缝性和经济性“6特性”及匹配关系 烃源性、储集性、含油性、流动性、可采性与经济性“6特性”及其匹配关系
      评价目的 预测油气藏分布与潜力 预测“甜点区/段”分布及潜力 实现常规油气和非常规油气剩余资源的整体发现、极限开采和协同发展
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  非常规与常规、常规—非常规油气勘探开发工作的主要区别(杨智和邹才能,2022)

      Table  3.   Exploration and development of unconventional, conventional, and conventional–unconventional petroleum (after Yang and Zou, 2022)

      序号 工作重点 常规油气 非常规油气 常规—非常规油气
      1 地质研究 优选圈闭 优选核心区 优选剩余资源
      确定有效聚油气圈闭 确定富集“甜点区/段” 确定富油气“圈闭群”和“甜点体”
      2 技术攻关 地球物理区带目标预测 地球物理“储层甜点”预测 地球物理高分辨率空间预测
      直井、定向井 水平井体积压裂 地质工程一体化集成适用技术
      3 勘探方法 发现油气藏 突破“甜点区” 评价剩余资源
      确定圈闭边界 确定连续型油气区边界 确定常规、非常规油气资源边界
      4 开发方式 产能目标建设 平台式“工厂化”生产试验区建设 常规—非常规油气资源立体开发
      探索开发方式 探索降低成本工艺 探索一体化、低成本工艺
      5 开采模式 单井高产稳产 单井初期高产和长期累产 区块初期高产和长期累产
      注气液提高采收率 井间接替与注气等提高采收率 区块接替、注气等提高采收率
      6 关键地质图表 两图一表 圈闭平面构造分布图
      油气藏剖面图
      圈闭要素表
      三图一表 成熟烃源岩厚度平面分布图
      储层厚度平面分布图
      储层顶面构造图
      甜点区评价表
      三图一表 烃源岩供烃范围平面与剖面分布图
      有利储盖组合平面与剖面分布图
      剩余油气资源空间分布图
      圈闭群和甜点体评价表
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  中国源岩层系油气“甜点区/段”主要参数和评价标准(据杨智等,2021b,修改)

      Table  4.   Major parameters and evaluation criteria of source rock strata oil and gas sweet spots in China (modified from Yang et al., 2021b)

      资源类型 主要参数和标准
      致密油及中高成熟页岩油 烃源性:一般厚度大于50 m、TOC大于2%、Ro大于0.9%、面积大于200 km2
      储集性:一般厚度大于20 m、孔隙度大于6%、主流喉道半径大于100 nm、面积大于200 km2
      含油性:一般含油饱和度大于50%、游离烃占比大于30%
      流动性:一般相对高压系统、气油比大于50 m3/m3、原油黏度小于10 mPa·s,储层基质渗透率相对较高
      成缝性:一般纹层及天然裂缝较发育、岩石脆性矿物含量大于50%、水平应力差小于10 MPa
      经济性:一般埋深小于4 000 m、单井初产-累产-成本组合效益较好
      致密砂岩气 烃源性:一般厚度大于30 m、生气强度大于20×108 m3/km2、面积大于5 000 km2
      储集性:一般厚度大于30 m、孔隙度大于5%、主流喉道半径大于50 nm、面积大于5 000 km2
      含气性:一般含气饱和度大于50%、游离气占比大于90%、基本不含水
      流动性:一般为相对高压系统、甲烷含量大于90%,储层基质渗透率相对较高
      成缝性:一般天然裂缝较发育、岩石脆性矿物含量大于50%、水平应力差小于10 MPa
      经济性:单井初产-累产-成本组合效益较好
      油页岩油 一般厚度大于5 m,连续分布面积大于20 km2;有机质类型为Ⅰ型、Ⅱ1型;含油率大于8%;灰分产率低于75%
      中低成熟页岩油 一般TOC大于6%,有机质类型为Ⅰ型、Ⅱ1型;富有机质页岩集中段厚度大于15 m、净地比大于0.8,连续分布面积大于50 km2Ro一般为0.5%~1.0%;埋深小于3 000 m;顶底板封闭性好,断层不发育,且地层含水率小于5%
      页岩气 烃源性:一般厚度大于100 m、TOC大于2%、Ro大于1.5%、面积大于5 000 km2
      储集性:一般厚度大于20 m、孔隙度大于3%、主流喉道半径大于20 nm、面积大于5 000 km2
      含气性:一般含气量大于2 m3/t、游离气占比大于50%
      流动性:一般为超压系统、甲烷含量超过96%,储层基质渗透率相对较高
      成缝性:一般纹层及层理、天然裂缝较发育、岩石脆性矿物含量大于50%、泊松比0.1~0.3
      经济性:一般埋深小于4 200 m、单井初产-累产-成本组合效益较好
      煤岩气 一般煤层单层厚度大于5 m、面积大于50 km2;一般含气量大于5 m3/t、含气丰度大于2×108 m3/km2,吸附饱和度大于80%;一般为相对高压系统、甲烷含量大于95%,煤层原始渗透率相对较高;有效应力小于15 MPa,一般割理、天然裂缝较发育;一般埋深小于1 300 m、单井初产-累产-成本组合效益较好
      下载: 导出CSV
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