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    青藏高原构造变形圈-岩体松动圈-地表冻融圈-工程扰动圈互馈灾害效应

    彭建兵 张永双 黄达 王飞永 王祚鹏

    彭建兵, 张永双, 黄达, 王飞永, 王祚鹏, 2023. 青藏高原构造变形圈-岩体松动圈-地表冻融圈-工程扰动圈互馈灾害效应. 地球科学, 48(8): 3099-3114. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.137
    引用本文: 彭建兵, 张永双, 黄达, 王飞永, 王祚鹏, 2023. 青藏高原构造变形圈-岩体松动圈-地表冻融圈-工程扰动圈互馈灾害效应. 地球科学, 48(8): 3099-3114. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.137
    Peng Jianbing, Zhang Yongshuang, Huang Da, Wang Feiyong, Wang Zuopeng, 2023. Interaction Disaster Effects of the Tectonic Deformation Sphere, Rock Mass Loosening Sphere, Surface Freeze-Thaw Sphere and Engineering Disturbance Sphere on the Tibetan Plateau. Earth Science, 48(8): 3099-3114. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.137
    Citation: Peng Jianbing, Zhang Yongshuang, Huang Da, Wang Feiyong, Wang Zuopeng, 2023. Interaction Disaster Effects of the Tectonic Deformation Sphere, Rock Mass Loosening Sphere, Surface Freeze-Thaw Sphere and Engineering Disturbance Sphere on the Tibetan Plateau. Earth Science, 48(8): 3099-3114. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.137

    青藏高原构造变形圈-岩体松动圈-地表冻融圈-工程扰动圈互馈灾害效应

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2023.137
    详细信息
      作者简介:

      彭建兵(1953-),男,教授,中国科学院院士,主要从事工程地质与灾害地质方面的科研与教学工作. E-mail:dicexy_1@chd.edu.cn

    • 中图分类号: P684

    Interaction Disaster Effects of the Tectonic Deformation Sphere, Rock Mass Loosening Sphere, Surface Freeze-Thaw Sphere and Engineering Disturbance Sphere on the Tibetan Plateau

    • 摘要: 青藏高原板块强烈碰撞和持续变形的本质是地球圈层作用,地壳浅表关键带圈层作用研究是探索持续构造变形与浅表响应、巨灾孕育机制的关键.在简要分析青藏高原圈层作用动力背景的基础上,从工程地质视角,将地壳浅表关键带划分为四类圈层:构造变形圈、岩体松动圈、地表冻融圈和工程扰动圈,并分析研究了圈层岩土体变形破坏形式、圈层岩体稳定状态与工程安全性、圈层灾害行为与机制. 研究表明,四类圈层的互馈作用深刻影响着不同尺度地质体的稳定性和灾害动力学机制. 即:板块构造动力作用形成构造变形圈,制约区域地质体稳定性,控制灾害的孕育;高原隆升动力形成岩体松动圈,制约工程地质体稳定性,控制灾害的形成;气候变化动力形成地表冻融圈,制约工程岩土体稳定性,控制灾害链的演化;人类工程营力形成工程扰动圈,制约工程结构体稳定性,控制工程灾变发生. 下级圈层对上级圈层具有包容性,且自下而上存在递进演化规律,使得岩体结构更加复杂,工程地质问题及灾害效应更加显著. 上述认识为重大工程建设的地质安全风险防范提供了新思路.

       

    • 图  1  青藏高原深部与地壳浅表关键带互馈效应示意图

      Cui et al.(2022)修改

      Fig.  1.  Schematic illustration of the interaction effect between the deep interior and shallow crustal key spheres of the Tibetan Plateau

      图  2  构造变形圈-岩体松动圈-地表冻融圈-工程扰动圈之间的关系示意图

      Fig.  2.  Schematic illustration of the relationships between the spheres of tectonic deformation, rock mass loosening, surface freeze-thaw, and engineering disturbance

      图  3  青藏高原动力驱动-圈层控制-稳定性制约的灾害动力学研究框架

      Fig.  3.  Research framework on the disaster dynamics driven by the dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau, layer control, and stability constraints

      图  4  构造变形圈复式褶皱典型特征

      a. 昌都盆地煤系地层的强烈复式褶皱变形;b. 雅鲁藏布江下游花岗片麻岩强烈褶皱断裂组合变形

      Fig.  4.  Features of compound folds in tectonic deformation sphere.

      图  5  岩体松动圈主要变形破坏特征

      a. 深切河谷岸坡卸荷带与应力分布特征;b. 金沙江中游河谷岸坡卸荷带;c. 南祁连山石灰岩浅表岩体沿节理的松动变形;d. 怒江上游花岗岩边坡岩体松动变形

      Fig.  5.  Main deformation and failure characteristics of rock mass loosening sphere

      图  6  冻融圈岩土体冻融破坏现象及演进示意图

      a. 高原山前带冻融圈浅表坡体滑移破坏;b. 冻融圈岩体破坏演进的力学模式

      Fig.  6.  Freeze-thaw induced failure phenomena and evolution schematic diagram of frozen rock-soil mass

      图  7  冻融作用下花岗岩的破坏模式

      戚利荣等(2021)

      Fig.  7.  Failure mode of granite under freeze-thaw action

      图  8  川藏交通廊道活动断裂分布图

      张永双等(2016)

      Fig.  8.  Distribution map of active faults in the Sichuan-Tibet transportation corridor

      图  9  深切河谷斜坡地应力分布特征

      a. 河谷地应力一般特征(据黄润秋, 2007, 修改);b.大渡河中游河谷地应力分布模拟结果

      Fig.  9.  Characteristics of stress distribution in a deep-cut valley slopes

      图  10  水电工程施工诱发的坝基开裂破坏

      伍法权(2009);a.某水电工程坝基岩体开挖卸荷回弹破坏;b.某水电工程坝基右岸累计张开量位移曲线及卸荷带分区

      Fig.  10.  Cracking damage induced by hydropower construction

      图  11  青藏高原构造变形控制下的重大地质灾害孕育过程

      a. 深部构造作用的地表地质过程响应;b. 西藏扎木弄沟上游易滑地质结构(镜向NW)

      Fig.  11.  Incubation process of major geohazards under the control of tectonic deformation on the Tibetan Plateau

      图  12  金沙江上游岸坡松动圈与高位滑坡发育特征图

      a.高位滑坡分布图;b.肖莫久滑坡;c.白格滑坡;d.雄巴滑坡;e.色拉滑坡;f. 熊果滑坡;g. 特米滑坡

      Fig.  12.  Development characteristics of loosening sphere and high-level landslide on the upstream slope of the Jinsha River

      图  13  冻融圈浅表地质灾害链演化过程

      Fig.  13.  The evolution process of shallow geohazard chains induced by freeze-thaw action

      图  14  工程扰动与边坡防护破坏特征

      a. 公路切坡导致滑坡失稳破坏;b.滑坡变形导致挡墙开裂;c.滑坡变形导致抗滑桩错位

      Fig.  14.  Characteristics of engineering disturbance and slope protection damage

      图  15  青藏高原地壳浅表关键带“四圈”与“三性”的关联机制

      Fig.  15.  Correlation mechanism between the "four spheres" and "three properties" of the shallow crustal key zones on the Tibetan Plateau

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