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    塔中隆起碳酸盐岩叠合复合岩溶模式与油气勘探

    韩剑发 孙崇浩 王振宇 吉云刚 李浩 陈军

    韩剑发, 孙崇浩, 王振宇, 吉云刚, 李浩, 陈军, 2017. 塔中隆起碳酸盐岩叠合复合岩溶模式与油气勘探. 地球科学, 42(3): 410-420. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.031
    引用本文: 韩剑发, 孙崇浩, 王振宇, 吉云刚, 李浩, 陈军, 2017. 塔中隆起碳酸盐岩叠合复合岩溶模式与油气勘探. 地球科学, 42(3): 410-420. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.031
    Han Jianfa, Sun Chonghao, Wang Zhenyu, Ji Yungang, Li Hao, Chen Jun, 2017. Superimposed Compound Karst Model and Oil and Gas Exploration of Carbonate in Tazhong Uplift. Earth Science, 42(3): 410-420. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.031
    Citation: Han Jianfa, Sun Chonghao, Wang Zhenyu, Ji Yungang, Li Hao, Chen Jun, 2017. Superimposed Compound Karst Model and Oil and Gas Exploration of Carbonate in Tazhong Uplift. Earth Science, 42(3): 410-420. doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.031

    塔中隆起碳酸盐岩叠合复合岩溶模式与油气勘探

    doi: 10.3799/dqkx.2017.031
    基金项目: 

    国家科技重大专项 2016ZX05053

    国家科技重大专项 2011ZX05049

    详细信息
      作者简介:

      韩剑发 (1965-),男,博士,高级工程师,主要从事碳酸盐岩油气地质研究与勘探开发部署.ORCID:0000-0002-9792-7755. E-mail:hanjf-tlm@petrochina.com.cn

    • 中图分类号: P618.13

    Superimposed Compound Karst Model and Oil and Gas Exploration of Carbonate in Tazhong Uplift

    • 摘要: 塔里木盆地大型碳酸盐岩台地形成与构造演化过程中,发育了台缘礁、台内滩与深层白云岩等巨厚的碳酸盐岩建造,经过多期构造运动形成了种类繁多、规模巨大的岩溶缝洞系统,是台盆区海相碳酸盐岩油气勘探开发的重要领域.基于野外露头与井下地质、岩样分析、地球物理预测及岩溶地质刻画,静态特征与生产动态等多学科动静态一体化研究,阐明了洞穴、溶蚀孔洞、裂缝等储集空间发育特征及大型岩溶缝洞系统的形成机理;创建了与不整合暴露、断裂破碎相关的岩溶叠合复合发育模式;揭示了不整合面相关岩溶横向广泛分布、断层相关岩溶纵向局部拓展及其三维展布规律;提出叠合复合岩溶缝洞系统是油气复式成藏的关键,亦是复式油气聚集区立体勘探开发的基础,叠合复合岩溶模式的建立有效指导了塔中隆起碳酸盐岩凝析气田的重大发现与高效开发.

       

    • 图  1  塔中地区碳酸盐岩建造纲要图

      Fig.  1.  Sketch of carbonatite in Tazhong area

      图  2  台地边缘礁滩复合体同生期岩溶发育模式

      a.礁滩体生长;b.海平面相对下降,生物破碎在礁体边缘形成生屑砂屑滩;c.礁滩体暴露,接受大气淡水淋滤,形成大气成岩透镜体

      Fig.  2.  Model of syn-sedimentary karst development of platform edge reef flat composite

      图  3  塔中礁滩复合体高频旋回建造与储集体对比

      Fig.  3.  Comparison chart of Tazhong reef flat composite high-frequency cycle construction and reservoir body

      图  4  塔中鹰山组不整合相关岩溶及储集体发育剖面

      Fig.  4.  Profile of karst related with unconformity of Yingshan Formation in Tazhong area and reservoir body development

      图  5  断层相关岩溶发育模式

      a.野外露头;b.地震剖面;c.缝洞系统发育

      Fig.  5.  Model of karst development related with fault

      图  6  塔中地区储层地震反射类型特征剖面

      Fig.  6.  Profile of reservoir seismic reflection characteristic in Tazhong area

      图  7  碳酸盐岩叠合复合岩溶缝洞系统发育模式

      Fig.  7.  Carbonatite multiphase karst fracture and cave system superposition development mode

      表  1  塔里木盆地构造运动与岩溶发育关系

      Table  1.   The relationship between karst development and Tarim basin tectonic movement

      三期不整合 缺失的地层 断代时间
      名称 地层接触关系
      早海西期 石炭系 (C) 泥盆系-志留系和上奥陶统桑塔木组 (O3s);甚至泥盆系-志留系和整个上奥陶统 (O3) 仅按泥盆系计算就达38 Ma
      上奥陶统良里塔格组 (O3l) 下奥陶统鹰山组 (O1y)
      晚加里东期 柯坪塔格组上段 (S1k3) 下志留统柯坪塔格组中段 (S1k2)、上奥陶统柯坪塔格组下段 (O3k1) 和桑塔木组 (O3s);甚至下志留统柯坪塔格组中段 (S1k2) 至整个上奥陶统 (O3) 约10 Ma左右;若考虑O1y上部的缺失,则达18 Ma
      上奥陶统良里塔格组 (O3l) 下奥陶统鹰山组 (O1y)
      中加里东期 上奥陶统良里塔格组 (O3l) 上奥陶统底部的吐木休克组 (O3t) 中奥陶统一间房组 (O2y) 约15 Ma;若考虑O1y上部的缺失,则达23 Ma
      下奥陶统鹰山组 (O1y)
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  塔中地区大气淡水胶结物的电子探针分析结果

      Table  2.   Electron probe analysis result of atmospheric fresh water cement in Tazhong area

      井号 深度 (m) 孔隙及胶结物 发光特征 常 (微) 量元素 (10-6)
      MgO SrO Na2O K2O BaO MnO FeO
      TZ24 4 690.8 砾间溶孔, 刃状 不发光 1 170 0 0 0 0 0 0
      TZ24 4 690.8 砾间溶孔,叶片状 不发光 1 720 0 770 60 0 0 280
      TZ26 4 281.6 超大溶孔,叶片状 不发光 680 470 0 0 0 0 10
      TZ44 5 017.1 窗格孔,细粒状,二期 不发光 770 0 10 0 0 660 0
      TZ451 6 112.7 粒间孔,叶片状 不发光 560 450 610 0 0 0 220
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  塔中地区奥陶系储层包裹体温度及成藏时期

      Table  3.   Reservoir enclosure temperature of Ordovician in Tazhong area and petroleum entrapment stage

      地区 层位 晚加里东期 晚海西期 喜山期
      TZ45井区 O3 70~100 ℃ 90~125 ℃ 120~155 ℃
      TZ82井区 O3 70~90 ℃ 110~130 ℃ 140~150 ℃
      TZ62井区 O3 70~90 ℃ 90~120 ℃ 115~140 ℃
      TZ83井区 O1 86~90 ℃ 100~120 ℃ 125~150 ℃
      下载: 导出CSV
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